Etymologie, Etimologa, tymologie, Etimologia, Etymology, (griech.) etymologa, (lat.) etymologia, (esper.) etimologio
US Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika, Estados Unidos de Amrica, tats-Unis d'Amrique, Stati Uniti d'America, United States of America, (esper.) Unuigintaj Statoj de Ameriko
eXterne Wortlisten, (esper.) eksteruloj vortlistoj
(XETY_0) - http://www.etymonline.com/

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XETY_0
etymonline.com
Online Etymology Dictionary
* - Proto-Indo-European Roots

(E1)(L1) http://www.etymonline.com/


(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/search?q=*&type=5

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*(s)keu- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*(s)keu-

"*(s)keu-", "*keu-, *skeu-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to cover, conceal". - It forms all or part of: "chiaroscuro"; "cunnilingus"; "custody"; "cutaneous"; "cuticle"; "-cyte"; "cyto-"; "hide" (v.1) "to conceal"; "hide" (n.1) "skin of a large animal"; "hoard"; "hose"; "huddle"; "hut"; "kishke"; "lederhosen"; "meerschaum"; "obscure"; "scum"; "skewbald"; "skim"; "sky". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "kostha" "enclosing wall", "skunati" "covers"; Greek "kytos" "a hollow, vessel", "keutho" "to cover, to hide", "skynia" "eyebrows"; Latin "cutis" "skin", "ob-scurus" "dark"; Lithuanian "kiautas" "husk", "kutis" "stall"; Armenian "ciw" "roof"; Russian "kishka" "gut", literally "sheath"; Old English "hyd" "a hide, a skin", - "hydan" "to hide, conceal; Old Norse "sky" "cloud"; Old English "sceo" "cloud"; Middle High German "hode" "scrotum"; Old High German "scura", German "Scheuer" "barn"; Welsh "cuddio" "to hide".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*(s)mer- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*(s)mer-

"*(s)mer-", "*mer-, *smer-" (2) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to get a share of something". - It forms all or part of: "demerit"; "emeritus"; "isomer"; "isomeric"; "meretricious"; "merism"; "meristem"; "merit"; "meritorious"; "mero-"; "monomer"; "Moira"; "polymer"; "turmeric". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "meros" "part, lot", "moira" "share, fate", "moros" "fate, destiny, doom"; Hittite "mark" "to divide" a sacrifice; Latin "merere, meriri" "to earn, deserve, acquire, gain".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*(s)mer- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*(s)mer-

"*(s)mer-", "*mer-, *smer-" (1) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to remember". - It forms all or part of: "commemorate"; "commemoration"; "mourn"; "memo"; "memoir"; "memorable"; "memorandum"; "memorial"; "memorious"; "memorize"; "memory"; "remember". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "smarati" "remembers"; Avestan "mimar"a "mindful"; Greek "merimna" "care, thought", "mermeros" "causing anxiety, mischievous, baneful"; Latin "memoria" "memory, remembrance, faculty of remembering", "memor" "mindful, remembering"; Serbo-Croatian "mariti" "to care for"; Welsh "marth" "sadness, anxiety"; Old Norse "Mimir", name of the giant who guards the Well of Wisdom; Old English "gemimor" "known", "murnan" "to mourn, remember sorrowfully"; Dutch "mijmeren" "to ponder".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*(s)pen- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*(s)pen-

"*(s)pen-", "*pen-, *spen-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to draw, stretch, spin". - It forms all or part of: "append"; "appendix"; "avoirdupois"; "compendium"; "compensate"; "compensation"; "counterpoise"; "depend"; "dispense"; "equipoise"; "expend"; "expense"; "expensive"; "hydroponics"; "impend"; "painter" (n.2) "rope or chain that holds an anchor to a ship's side"; "pansy"; "penchant"; "pend"; "pendant"; "pendentive"; "pending"; "pendular"; "pendulous"; "pendulum"; "pension"; "pensive"; "penthouse"; "perpendicular"; "peso"; "poise"; "ponder"; "ponderous"; "pound" (n.1) "measure of weight"; "prepend"; "prepense"; "preponderate"; "propensity"; "recompense"; "span" (n.1) "distance between two objects"; "span" (n.2) "two animals driven together"; "spangle"; "spanner"; "spider"; "spin"; "spindle"; "spinner"; "spinster"; "stipend"; "suspend"; "suspension". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin "pendere" "to hang, to cause to hang", "pondus" "weight" (perhaps the notion is the weight of a thing measured by how much it stretches a cord), "pensare" "to weigh, consider"; Greek "ponos" "toil", "ponein" "to toil"; Lithuanian "spendiu, spesti" "lay a snare"; Old Church Slavonic "peti" "stretch, strain", "pato" "fetter", "pina" "I span"; Old English "spinnan" "to spin", "spannan" "to join, fasten; stretch, span"; Armenian "henum" "I weave"; Greek "patos" "garment", literally "that which is spun"; Lithuanian "pinu" "I plait, braid", "spandau" "I spin"; Middle Welsh "cy-ffiniden" "spider"; Old English "spinnan" "draw out and twist fibers into thread", "spira" "spider", literally "spinner".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*(s)teg- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*(s)teg-

"*(s)teg-", "*teg-, *steg-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to cover", especially with a roof. It forms all or part of: "deck" (n.) "covering over part of a ship"; "deck" (v.) "adorn"; "deckle"; "detect"; "integument"; "protect"; "protection"; "stegosaurus"; "tegular"; "tegument"; "thatch"; "thug"; "tile"; "Tuileries". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "sthag-" "cover, conceal, hide"; Greek "stegein" "to cover", "stegos" "a roof"; Latin "tegere" "to cover", "tegula" "tile"; Lithuanian "stegti" "to roof"; Old Norse "ekja", Old English "eccan" "thatch"; Dutch "dekken", German "decken" "to cover, put under roof"; Irish "tuigiur" "cover", "tech" "house"; Welsh "toi" "thatch, roof", "ty" "house".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*ag- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*ag-

"*ag-", "*ag-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to drive, draw out or forth, move".

It forms all or part of: "act"; "action"; "active"; "actor"; "actual"; "actuary"; "actuate"; "agency"; "agenda"; "agent"; "agile"; "agitation"; "agony"; "allege"; "ambagious"; "ambassador"; "ambiguous"; "anagogical"; "antagonize"; "apagoge"; "assay"; "Auriga"; "auto-da-fe"; "axiom"; "cache"; "castigate"; "coagulate"; "cogent"; "cogitation"; "counteract"; "demagogue"; "embassy"; "epact"; "essay"; "exact"; "exacta"; "examine"; "exigency"; "exiguous"; "fumigation"; "glucagon"; "hypnagogic"; "interact"; "intransigent"; "isagoge"; "litigate"; "litigation"; "mitigate"; "mystagogue"; "navigate"; "objurgate"; "pedagogue"; "plutogogue"; "prodigal"; "protagonist"; "purge"; "react"; "redact"; "retroactive"; "squat"; "strategy"; "synagogue"; "transact"; "transaction"; "variegate".

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "agein" "to lead, guide, drive, carry off", "agon" "assembly, contest in the games", "agogos" "leader", "axios" "worth, worthy, weighing as much"; Sanskrit "ajati" "drives", "ajirah" "moving, active"; Latin "actus" "a doing; a driving, impulse, a setting in motion; a part in a play"; "agere" "to set in motion, drive, drive forward", hence "to do, perform", "agilis" "nimble, quick"; Old Norse "aka" "to drive"; Middle Irish "ag" "battle".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*agh- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*agh-

"*agh-", "*agh-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "a day" (as a unit of time). The initial "d-" in Germanic is of obscure origin. It forms all or part of: "adays"; "Bundestag"; "daily"; "daisy"; "dawn"; "day"; "holiday"; "Reichstag"; "today". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "dah" "to burn", Lithuanian "dagas" "hot season", Old Prussian "dagis" "summer".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*agro- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*agro-

"*agro-", "*agro-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "field"; probably a derivative of root "*ag-" "to drive, draw out or forth, move". It forms all or part of: "acorn"; "acre"; "agrarian"; "agriculture"; "agriology"; "agro-"; "agronomy"; "onager"; "peregrinate"; "peregrination"; "peregrine"; "pilgrim"; "stavesacre". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "ajras" "plain, open country", Greek "agros" "field", Latin "ager" (genitive "agri") "a field", Gothic "akrs", Old English "cer" "field".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*aik- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*aik-

"*aik-", "*aik-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "be master of, possess". - It forms all or part of: "fraught"; "freight"; "ought" (v.); "owe"; "own". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "ise" "he owns", "isah" "owner, lord, ruler"; Avestan "is-" "riches", "isvan-" "well-off, rich"; Old English "agan" "to have, own".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*aim- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*aim-

"*aim-", "*aim-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to copy". - It forms all or part of: "emulate"; "emulation"; "emulous"; "image"; "imaginary"; "imagination"; "imaginative"; "imagine"; "imago""; ""imitable"; "imitate"; "imitative"; "imitator"; "inimitable". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin"imago" "image", "aemulus" "emulous", "imitari" "to copy, portray, imitate"; Hittite "himma-" "imitation, substitute".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*aiw- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*aiw-

"*aiw-", "*aiw-" : also "*ayu-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "vital force, life; long life, eternity". - It forms all or part of: "age"; "aught" (n.1) "something; anything"; "aye" (adv.) "always, ever"; "Ayurvedic"; "coetaneous"; "coeval"; "each"; "eon"; "eternal"; "eternity"; "ever"; "every"; "ewigkeit"; "hygiene"; "longevity"; "medieval"; "nay"; "never"; "no"; "primeval"; "sempiternal"; "tarnation"; "utopia". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "ayu" "life"; Avestan "ayu" "age"; Greek "aion" "age, vital force; a period of existence, a lifetime, a generation; a long space of time", in plural, "eternity"; Latin "aevum" "space of time, eternity"; Gothic "aiws" "age, eternity", Old Norse "vi" "lifetime", German "ewig" "everlasting", Old English "a" "ever, always".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*ak- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*ak-

"*ak-", "*ak-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "be sharp, rise (out) to a point, pierce". It forms all or part of: "acacia"; "acanthus"; "accipiter"; "acer"; "acerbic"; "acerbity"; "acervate"; "acervulus"; "acescent"; "acetic"; "acid"; "acicular"; "acme"; "acne"; "acrid"; "acridity"; "acrimony"; "acro-"; "acrobat"; "acromegaly"; "acronym"; "acrophobia"; "acropolis"; "acrostic"; "acrylic"; "acuity"; "aculeate"; "acumen"; "acupressure"; "acupuncture"; "acute"; "aglet"; "ague"; "Akron"; "anoxic"; "awn"; "coelacanth"; "dioxin"; "deoxy-"; "eager"; "ear" (n.2) "grain part of corn"; "edge" (n.); "egg" (v.) "to goad on, incite"; "eglantine"; "epoxy"; "ester"; "exacerbation"; "hammer"; "hypoxia"; "mediocre"; "oxalic"; "oxide"; "oxy-"; "oxygen"; "oxymoron"; "paragon"; "pyracanth"; "paroxysm"; "selvage"; "vinegar". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "akros" "at the end, at the top, outermost; consummate, excellent", "akis" "sharp point", "akros" "at the farthest point, highest, outermost", "akantha" "thorn", "akme" "summit, edge", "oxys" "sharp, bitter"; Sanskrit "acri-" "corner, edge", "acani-" "point of an arrow", "asrih" "edge"; Oscan "akrid" (ablative singular) "sharply"; Latin "acer" (fem. "acris") "sharp to the senses, pungent, bitter, eager, fierce", "acutus" "sharp, pointed", "acuere" "to sharpen", "acerbus" "harsh, bitter", "acere" "be sharp, be bitter", "acus" "a needle, pin", "ocris" "jagged mountain"; Lithuanian "amuo" "sharpness", "akstis" "sharp stick"; Old Lithuanian "atras", Lithuanian "atrus" "sharp"; Old Church Slavonic "ostru", Russian "stryj" "sharp"; Old Irish "er" "high"; Welsh "ochr" "edge, corner, border"; Old Norse "eggja" "goad"; Old English "ecg" "sword"; German "Eck" "corner".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*akwa- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*akwa-

"*akwa-", "*akwa-" : "*akwa-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "water". - It forms all or part of: "aqua"; "aqua-"; "aqua vitae"; "aqualung"; "aquamarine"; "aquanaut"; "aquarelle"; "aquarium"; "Aquarius"; "aquatic"; "aquatint"; "aqueduct"; "aqueous"; "aquifer"; "Aquitaine"; "eau"; "Evian"; "ewer"; "gouache"; "island"; "sewer" (n.1) "conduit". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "ap" "water"; Hittite "akwanzi" "they drink"; Latin "aqua" "water, the sea, rain"; Lithuanian "upe" "a river"; Old English "ea" "river", Gothic "ahua" "river, waters".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*al- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*al-

"*al-", "*al-" (2) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to grow, nourish". It forms all or part of: "abolish"; "adolescent"; "adult"; "alderman"; "aliment"; "alimony"; "Alma"; "alma mater"; "alt" (2) "high tone"; "alti-"; "altimeter"; "altitude"; "alto"; "alumnus"; "auld"; "coalesce"; "elder" (adj., n.1); "eldest"; "Eldred"; "enhance"; "exalt"; "haught"; "haughty"; "hautboy"; "hawser"; "oboe"; "old"; "proletarian"; "proliferation"; "prolific"; "world". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "aldaino" "make grow, strengthen", "althein", " althainein" "to get well"; Latin "alere" "to feed, nourish, suckle; bring up, increase", "altus" "high", literally "grown tall", "almus" "nurturing, nourishing", "alumnus" "fosterling, step-child"; Gothic "aleis", Dutch "oud", German "alt" "old"; Gothic "alan" "to grow up", Old Norse "ala" "to nourish"; Old Irish "alim" "I nourish".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*al- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*al-

"*al-", "*al-" (1) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "beyond". - It forms all or part of: "adulteration"; "adultery"; "alias"; "alibi"; "alien"; "alienate"; "alienation"; "allegory"; "allele"; "allergy"; "allo-"; "allopathy"; "allotropy"; "Alsace"; "alter"; "altercation"; "alternate"; "alternative"; "altruism"; "eldritch"; "else"; "hidalgo"; "inter alia"; "other"; "outrage"; "outrageous"; "outre"; "parallax"; "parallel"; "subaltern"; "synallagmatic"; "ulterior"; "ultimate"; "ultra-". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "anya" "other, different", "arana-" "foreign"; Avestan "anya-", Armenian "ail" "another"; Greek "allos" "other, different, strange"; Latin "alius" "another, other, different", "alter" "the other (of two)", "ultra" "beyond, on the other side"; Gothic "aljis" "other", Old English "elles" "otherwise, else", German "ander" "other".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*ane- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*ane-

"*ane-", "*ane-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to breathe". It forms all or part of: "anemo-"; "anemometer"; "anemone"; "anima"; "animadversion"; "animadvert"; "animal"; "animalcule"; "animalistic"; "animate"; "animation"; "animatronic"; "anime"; "animism"; "animosity"; "animus"; "Enid"; "equanimity"; "longanimity"; "magnanimous"; "pusillanimous"; "unanimous". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "aniti" "breathes"; Greek "anemos" "wind"; Latin "animus" "rational soul, mind, life, mental powers, consciousness, sensibility; courage, desire", "anima" "living being, soul, mind, disposition, passion, courage, anger, spirit, feeling"; Old Irish "anal", Welsh "anadl" "breath", Old Irish "animm" "soul"; Gothic "uzanan" "to exhale", Old Norse "anda" "to breathe", Old English "eian" "to breathe"; Old Church Slavonic "vonja" "smell, breath"; Armenian "anjn" "soul".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*angh- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*angh-

"*angh-", "*angh-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "tight, painfully constricted, painful". - It forms all or part of: "agnail"; "anger"; "angina"; "angry"; "angst"; "anguish"; "anxious"; "hangnail"; "quinsy". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "amhu-" "narrow", "amhah" "anguish"; Armenian "anjuk" "narrow"; Lithuanian "anktas" "narrow"; Greek "ankhein" "to squeeze", "ankhone" "a strangling"; Latin "angere" "to throttle, torment"; Old Irish "cum-ang" "straitness, want"; Old English "enge" "narrow, painful", Old Norse "angra" "to grieve, vex, distress", Gothic "aggwus" "narrow".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*ant- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*ant-

"*ant-", "*ant-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "front, forehead", with derivatives meaning "in front of, before; end". Also see "*ambhi-". It forms all or part of: "advance"; "advantage"; "along"; "ancestor"; "ancient" (adj.); "answer"; "Antaeus"; "ante"; "ante-"; "ante meridiem"; "antecede"; "antecedent"; "antedate"; "antediluvian"; "ante-partum"; "antepenultimate"; "anterior"; "anti-"; "antic"; "anticipate"; "anticipation"; "antique"; "antler"; "avant-garde"; "elope"; "end"; "rampart"; "un-" (2) prefix of reversal; "until"; "vambrace"; "vamp" (n.1) "upper of a shoe or boot"; "vanguard". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "antah" "end, border, boundary"; Hittite "hanti" "opposite"; Greek "anta", "anten" "opposite", "anti" "over against, opposite, before"; Latin "ante" (prep., adv.) "before (in place or time), in front of, against"; Old Lithuanian "anta" "on to"; Gothic "anda" "along"; Old English "and-" "against"; German "ent-" "along, against".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*apo- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*apo-

"*apo-", "*apo-" : also "*ap-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "off, away". It forms all or part of: "ab-"; "abaft"; "ablaut"; "aft"; "after"; "apanthropy"; "aperitif"; "aperture"; "apo-"; "apocalypse"; "apocryphal"; "Apollyon"; "apology"; "apoplexy"; "apostle"; "apostrophe"; "apothecary"; "apotheosis"; "awk"; "awkward"; "ebb"; "eftsoons"; "of"; "off"; "offal"; "overt". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "apa" "away from", Avestan "apa" "away from", Greek "apo" "from, away from; after; in descent from", Latin "ab" "away from, from", Gothic "af", Old English "of" "away from".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*ar- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*ar-

"*ar-", "*ar-" : also "ar?-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to fit together". It forms all or part of: "adorn"; "alarm"; "aristarchy"; "aristo-"; "aristocracy"; "arm" (n.1) "upper limb of the body"; "arm" (n.2) "weapon"; "armada"; "armadillo"; "armament"; "armature"; "armilla"; "armistice"; "armoire"; "armor"; "armory"; "army"; "art" (n.) "skill as a result of learning or practice"; "arthralgia"; "arthritis"; "arthro-"; "arthropod"; "arthroscopy"; "article"; "articulate"; "artifact"; "artifice"; "artisan"; "artist"; "coordination"; "disarm"; "gendarme"; "harmony"; "inert"; "inertia"; "inordinate"; "ordain"; "order"; "ordinal"; "ordinance"; "ordinary"; "ordinate"; "ordnance"; "ornament"; "ornate"; "primordial"; "subordinate"; "suborn". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "irmah" "arm", "rtih" "manner, mode"; Armenian "arnam" "make", "armukn" "elbow"; Greek "arti" "just", "artios" "complete, suitable", "artizein" "to prepare", "arthron" "a joint"; Latin "ars" (stem "art-") "art, skill, craft", "armus" "shoulder", "artus" "joint", "arma" "weapons"; Old Prussian "irmo" "arm"; German "art" "manner, mode".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*arg- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*arg-

"*arg-", "*arg-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to shine; white", hence "silver" as the shining or white metal. It forms all or part of: "argent"; "Argentina"; "argentine"; "Argo"; "argue"; "Argus"; "hydrargyrum"; "litharge". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "rajata-", Avestan "erezata-", Old Persian "ardata-", Armenian "arcat", Greek "arguron", Latin "argentum", Old Irish "argat", Breton "arc'hant" "silver"; Sanskrit "arjuna-" "white, shining"; Hittite "harki-" "white"; Greek "argos" "white".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*ater- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*ater-

"*ater-", "*ater-" : "*ater-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "fire". It forms all or part of: "atrabiliary"; "atrabilious"; "atrium"; "atrocious". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Old Persian "atar" "fire"; Latin "ater" "black" ("blackened by fire"), "atrox" "frightful" ("of fiery or threatening appearance").


Erstellt: 2018-03

*au- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*au-

"*au-", "*au-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to perceive". It forms all or part of: "aesthete"; "aesthetic"; "anesthesia"; "audible"; "audience"; "audio"; "audio-"; "audit"; "audition"; "auditor"; "auditorium"; "auditory"; "hyperaesthesia"; "kinesthetic"; "oyer"; "oyez"; "obedient"; "obey"; "paraesthesia"; "synaesthesia". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "avih", Avestan "avish" "openly, evidently"; Greek "aisthanesthai" "to feel"; Latin "audire" "to hear"; Old Church Slavonic "javiti" "to reveal".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*aug- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*aug-

"*aug-", "*aug-" (1) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to increase". It forms all or part of: "auction"; "augment"; "augmentative"; "augur"; "August"; "august"; "Augustus"; "author"; "authoritarian"; "authorize"; "auxiliary"; "auxin"; "eke" (v.); "inaugurate"; "nickname"; "waist"; "wax" (v.1) "grow bigger or greater". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "ojas-" "strength", "vaksayati" "cause to grow"; Lithuanian "augu, augti" "to grow", "auktas" "high, of superior rank"; Greek "auxo" "increase", "auxein" "to increase"; Gothic "aukan" "to grow, increase"; Latin "augmentum" "an increase, growth", "augere" "to increase, make big, enlarge, enrich"; Old English "eacien" "to increase", German "wachsen", Gothic "wahsjan" "to grow, increase".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*aus- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*aus-

"*aus-", "*aus-" (1) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to shine", especially of the dawn. It forms all or part of: "austral"; "Australia"; "Austria"; "Austro-"; "Aurora"; "east"; "Easter"; "eastern"; "eo-"; "Ostrogoth". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "usah" "dawn"; Greek "eos" "dawn"; Latin "Aurora" "goddess of dawn", "auster" "south wind"; Lithuanian "aura" "dawn"; Old English "east" "east".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*awi- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*awi-

"*awi-", "*awi-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "bird". It also might be the source of "*owyo-, *oyyo-", Proto-Indo-European words for "egg". - It forms all or part of: "auspex"; "auspices"; "auspicious"; "avian"; "aviary"; "aviation"; "aviator"; "avicide"; "aviculture"; "aviform"; "caviar"; "cockney"; "egg" (n.); "ocarina"; "oo-"; "oocyte"; "oolite"; "oology"; "osprey"; "ostrich"; "oval"; "ovary"; "ovate" (adj.); "oviform"; "oviparous"; "ovoviviparous"; "ovoid"; "ovulate"; "ovulation"; "ovule"; "ovum". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "vih", Avestan "vish", Latin "avis" "bird"; Greek "aietos" "eagle"; Old Church Slavonic "aja", Russian" jajco", Breton "ui", Welsh "wy", Greek "oon", Latin "ovum", Old Norse "egg", Old High German "ei", Gothic "ada" all meaning "egg".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*bha- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*bha-

"*bha-", "*bha-" (1) : "*bha-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to shine". - It forms all or part of: "aphotic"; "bandolier"; "banner"; "banneret"; "beacon"; "beckon"; "buoy"; "diaphanous"; "emphasis"; "epiphany"; "fantasia"; "fantasy"; "hierophant"; "pant" (v.); "-phane"; "phanero-"; "phantasm"; "phantasmagoria"; "phantom"; "phase"; "phene"; "phenetic"; "pheno-"; "phenology"; "phenomenon"; "phenyl"; "photic"; "photo-"; "photocopy"; "photogenic"; "photograph"; "photon"; "photosynthesis"; "phosphorus"; "phaeton"; "sycophant"; "theophany"; "tiffany"; "tryptophan". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "bhati" "shines, glitters"; Greek "phainein" "bring to light, make appear", "phantazein" "make visible, display"; Old Irish "ban" "white, light, ray of light".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*bha- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*bha-
ide. "*bha-", "*bha-" (2) : "*bha-"; Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to speak", "tell", "say".


It forms all or part of:


"abandon"; "affable"; "anthem"; "antiphon"; "aphasia"; "aphonia"; "aphonic"; "apophasis"; "apophatic"; "ban" (n.1) "proclamation" or "edict"; "ban" (v.); "banal"; "bandit"; "banish"; "banlieue"; "banns" (n.); "bifarious"; "blame"; "blaspheme"; "blasphemy"; "boon" (n.); "cacophony"; "confess"; "contraband"; "defame"; "dysphemism"; "euphemism"; "euphony"; "fable"; "fabulous"; "fado"; "fairy"; "fame"; "famous"; "fandango"; "fatal"; "fate"; "fateful"; "fatuous"; "fay"; "gramophone"; "heterophemy"; "homophone"; "ineffable"; "infamous"; "infamy"; "infant"; "infantile"; "infantry"; "mauvais"; "megaphone"; "microphone"; "monophonic"; "nefandous"; "nefarious"; "phatic"; "-phone"; "phone" (n.2) "elementary sound of a spoken language"; "phoneme"; "phonetic"; "phonic"; "phonics"; "phono-"; "pheme"; "-phemia"; "Polyphemus"; "polyphony"; "preface"; "profess"; "profession"; "professional"; "professor"; "prophecy"; "prophet"; "prophetic"; "quadraphonic"; "symphony"; "telephone"; "xylophone".


It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by:


Greek "pheme" = "speech", "voice", "utterance", "a speaking", "talk", "phone" "voice", "sound", "phanai" = "to speak"; Sanskrit "bhanati" = "speaks"; Latin "fari" = "to say", "fabula" = "narrative", "account", "tale", "story", "fama" = "talk", "rumor", "report"; "reputation", "public opinion"; "renown", "reputation"; Armenian "ban", "bay" = "word", "term"; Old Church Slavonic "bajati" = "to talk", "tell"; Old English "boian" = "to boast", "ben" "prayer", "request"; Old Irish "bann" = "law".



Erstellt: 2018-03

*bhag- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*bhag-

"*bhag-", "*bhag-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to share out, apportion; to get a share". It forms all or part of: "aphagia"; "Bhagavad-Gita"; "baksheesh"; "esophagus"; "nebbish"; "pagoda"; "-phage"; "phago-"; "-phagous"; "porgy"; "sarcophagus". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "bhajati" "assigns, allots, apportions, enjoys, loves", "bhagah" "allotter, distributor, master, lord", "bhaksati" "eats, drinks, enjoys"; Persian "bakhshidan" "to give"; Greek "phagein" "to eat", literally "to have a share of food"; Old Church Slavonic "bogatu" "rich".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*bhau- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*bhau-

"*bhau-", "*bhau-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to strike". It forms all or part of: "abut"; "baste" (v.3) "beat with a stick, thrash"; "battledore"; "beat"; "beetle" (n.2) "heavy wooden mallet"; "botony"; "boutonniere"; "butt" (n.1) "thick end"; "butt" (v.) "strike with the head"; "buttocks"; "button"; "buttress"; "confute"; "halibut"; "rebut"; "refute"; "sackbut"; "turbot". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin "*futare" "to beat" (in compounds); Old English "beadu" "battle", "beatan" "to beat", "bytl" "hammer, mallet".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*bheid- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*bheid-

"*bheid-", "*bheid-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to split", with derivatives in Germanic "referring to biting (hence also to eating and to hunting) and woodworking" [Watkins]. It forms all or part of: "abet"; "bait" (n.) "food used to attract prey"; "bait" (v.) "to torment, persecute"; "bateau"; "beetle" (n.1) "type of insect; "bit" (n.1) "small piece"; "bite"; "bitter"; "bitter end"; "boat"; "boatswain"; "-fid"; "fissile"; "fission"; "fissure"; "giblets"; "pita"; "pizza"; "vent" (n.). It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "bhinadmi" "I cleave", Latin Latin "findere" "to split, cleave, separate, divide", Old High German "bizzan" "to bite", Old English "bita" "a piece bitten off, morsel", Old Norse "beita" "to hunt with dogs", "beita" "pasture, food".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*bheidh- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*bheidh-

"*bheidh-", "*bheidh-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to trust, confide, persuade". It forms all or part of: "abide"; "abode"; "affiance"; "affidavit"; "auto-da-fe"; "bide"; "bona fide"; "confederate"; "confidant"; "confide"; "confidence"; "confident"; "defiance"; "defy"; "diffidence"; "diffident"; "faith"; "fealty"; "federal"; "federate"; "federation"; "fiancee"; "fideism"; "fidelity"; "fiducial"; "fiduciary"; "infidel"; "infidelity"; "nullifidian"; "perfidy"; "solifidian". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "pistis" "faith, confidence, honesty"; Latin "fides" "trust, faith, confidence, reliance, credence, belief"; Albanian "be" "oath", "bindem" "to be convinced, believe"; Old Church Slavonic "beda" "distress, necessity", "bediti" "to force, persuade"; Old English "biddan" "to ask, beg, pray", German "bitten" "to ask".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*bhel- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*bhel-

"*bhel-", "*bhel-" (2) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to blow, swell", "with derivatives referring to various round objects and to the notion of tumescent masculinity" [Watkins].


It forms all or part of: "bale" (n.) "large bundle or package of merchandise prepared for transportation"; "baleen"; "ball" (n.1) "round object, compact spherical body"; "balloon"; "ballot"; "bawd"; "bold"; "bole"; "boll"; "bollocks"; "bollix"; "boulder"; "boulevard"; "bowl" (n.) "round pot or cup"; "bulk"; "bull" (n.1) "bovine male animal"; "bullock"; "bulwark"; "follicle"; "folly"; "fool"; "foosball"; "full" (v.) "to tread or beat cloth to cleanse or thicken it"; "ithyphallic"; "pall-mall"; "phallus".


It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "phyllon" "leaf", "phallos" "swollen penis"; Latin "flos" "flower", "florere" "to blossom, flourish", "folium" "leaf"; Old Prussian "balsinis" "cushion"; Old Norse "belgr" "bag, bellows"; Old English "bolla" "pot, cup, bowl"; Old Irish "bolgaim" "I swell", "blath" "blossom, flower", "bolach" "pimple", "bolg" "bag"; Breton "bolc'h" "flax pod"; Serbian "buljiti" "to stare, be bug-eyed"; Serbo-Croatian "blazina" "pillow".


An extended form of the root, "*bhelgh-" "to swell", forms all or part of: "bellows"; "belly"; "bilge"; "billow"; "bolster"; "budget"; "bulge"; "Excalibur"; "Firbolgs".


An extended form of the root, "*bhleu-" "to swell, well up, overflow", forms all or part of: "affluent"; "bloat"; "confluence"; "effluent"; "effluvium"; "efflux"; "fluctuate"; "fluent"; "fluid"; "flume"; "fluor"; "fluorescence"; "fluoride"; "fluoro-"; "flush" (v.1) "spurt, rush out suddenly, flow with force"; "fluvial"; "flux"; "influence"; "influenza"; "influx"; "mellifluous"; "phloem"; "reflux"; "superfluous".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*bhel- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*bhel-

"*bhel-", "*bhel-" (3) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to thrive, bloom", possibly a variant of PIE root "*bhel-" (2) "to blow, swell". It forms all or part of: "blade"; "bleed"; "bless"; "blood"; "blow" (v.2) "to bloom, blossom"; "bloom" (n.1) "blossom of a plant"; "bloom" (n.2) "rough mass of wrought iron"; "blossom"; "cauliflower"; "chervil"; "cinquefoil"; "deflower"; "defoliation"; "effloresce"; "exfoliate"; "feuilleton"; "flora"; "floral"; "floret"; "florid"; "florin"; "florist"; "flour"; "flourish"; "flower"; "foil" (n.) "very thin sheet of metal"; "foliage"; "folio"; "folium"; "gillyflower"; "Phyllis"; "phyllo-"; "portfolio"; "trefoil". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "phyllon" "leaf"; Latin "flos" "flower", "folio", "folium" "leaf"; Middle Irish "blath", Welsh "blawd" "blossom, flower"; Gaelic "bile" "leaflet, blossom"; Old English "blowan" "to flower, bloom".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*bhel- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*bhel-

"*bhel-", "*bhel-" (1) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to shine, flash, burn", also "shining white" and forming words for bright colors. - It forms all or part of: "beluga"; "Beltane"; "black"; "blancmange"; "blanch"; "blank"; "blanket"; "blaze" (n.1) "bright flame, fire"; "bleach"; "bleak"; "blemish"; "blench"; "blende"; "blend"; "blind"; "blindfold"; "blitzkrieg"; "blond"; "blue" (adj.1); "blush"; "conflagration"; "deflagration"; "effulgence"; "effulgent"; "flagrant"; "flambe"; "flambeau"; "flamboyant"; "flame"; "flamingo"; "flammable"; "Flavian"; "Flavius"; "fulgent"; "fulminate"; "inflame"; "inflammable"; "phlegm"; "phlegmatic"; "phlogiston"; "phlox"; "purblind"; "refulgent"; "riboflavin". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "bhrajate" "shines"; Greek "phlegein" "to burn"; Latin "flamma" "flame", "fulmen" "lightning", "fulgere" "to shine, flash", "flagrare" "to burn, blaze, glow"; Old Church Slavonic "belu" "white"; Lithuanian "balnas" "pale".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*bhendh- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*bhendh-

"*bhendh-", "*bhendh-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to bind". It forms all or part of: "band"; "bandanna"; "bend"; "bind"; "bindle"; "bond"; "bund"; "bundle"; "cummerbund"; "ribbon"; "woodbine". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "badhnati" "binds", "bandhah" "a tying, bandage"; Old Persian "bandaka-" "subject"; Lithuanian "bendras" "partner"; Middle Irish "bainna" "bracelet"; Old English "bendan" "to bend a bow, confine with a string", "bindan" "to bind", Gothic "bandi" "that which binds".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*bhereg- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*bhereg-

"*bhereg-", "*bhereg-" : "*bher?g-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to shine; bright, white". It forms all or part of: "Albert"; "Bertha"; "birch"; "bright"; "Egbert"; "Ethelbert"; "Gilbert"; "Herbert"; "Hubert"; "Lambert"; "Robert". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "bhrajate" "shines, glitters"; Lithuanian "brekti" "to dawn"; Welsh "berth" "bright, beautiful".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*bhergh- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*bhergh-

"*bhergh-", "*bhergh-" (2) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "high", with derivatives referring to hills and hill-forts. It forms all or part of: "barrow" (n.2) "mound, hill, grave-mound"; "belfry"; "borough"; "bourgeoisie"; "burg"; "burgess"; "burgher"; "burglar"; "faubourg"; "iceberg". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "b'rhant" "high", "brmhati" "strengthens, elevates"; Avestan "brzant-" "high", Old Persian "bard-" "be high"; Greek "Pergamos", name of the citadel of Troy; Old Church Slavonic "bregu" "mountain, height"; Old Irish "brigh" "mountain"; Welsh "bera" "stack, pyramid".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*bhergh- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*bhergh-

"*bhergh-", "*bhergh-" (1) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to hide, protect". It forms all or part of: "bargain"; "borrow"; "burial"; "bury"; "harbor"; "hauberk"; "scabbard". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Old Church Slavonic "brego" "I preserve, guard".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*bheug- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*bheug-

"*bheug-", "*bheug-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to bend", with derivatives referring to bent, pliable, or curved objects.

It forms all or part of: "akimbo"; "bagel"; "bight"; "bog"; "bow" (v.) "to bend the body"; "bow" (n.1) "weapon for shooting arrows"; "bow" (n.2) "front of a ship"; "bowsprit"; "buxom"; "elbow".

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "bhujati" "bends, thrusts aside"; Old English "bugan", German "biegen", Gothic "biugan" "to bend"; Old High German "boug", Old English "beag" "a ring".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*bhle- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*bhle-

"*bhle-", "*bhle-" : "bhle-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to blow", possibly a variant of PIE root "*bhel-" (2) "to blow, swell". It forms all or part of: "afflatus"; "bladder"; "blase"; "blast"; "blather"; "blaze" (v.2) "make public"; "blow" (v.1) "move air"; "conflate"; "deflate"; "flageolet"; "flatulent"; "flatus"; "flavor"; "inflate"; "inflation"; "insufflation"; "isinglass"; "souffle".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*bhorh- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*bhorh-

"*bhorh-", "*bhorh-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "hole", with verbal form "*bherh-" "to pierce, strike". It forms all or part of: "bore" (v.1) "to drill through, perforate"; "Boris"; "burin"; "foramen"; "Foraminifera"; "foraminous"; "interfere"; "interference"; "perforate"; "perforation". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "pharao" "I plow"; Latin "ferire" "to knock, strike", "forare" "to bore, pierce"; Lithuanian "barti" "to scold, accuse, forbid"; Old Church Slavonic "barjo" "to strike, fight", "brati" "to fight", Russian "borot" "to overpower"; Albanian "brime" "hole"; Old English "borian" "to bore through, perforate", Old Norse "berja" "to beat, hit", Old High German "berjan" "to hit, pound, knead".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*bhrater- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*bhrater-

"*bhrater-", "*bhrater-" : "bhrater-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "brother". - It forms all or part of: "br'er"; "brethren"; ??"brother"; "bully" (n.); "confrere"; "fraternal"; "fraternity"; "fraternize"; "fratricide"; "friar"; "friary"; "pal". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "bhrtr-", Old Persian "brata", Greek "phratr", Latin "frater", Old Irish "brathir", Welsh "brawd", Lithuanian "broterelis", Old Prussian "brati", Old Church Slavonic "bratru", Czech "bratr", Polish "brat", Russian "bratu", Kurdish "bera"; Old English "broor", Old Norse "broir", German "Bruder", Gothic "brar".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*bhreg- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*bhreg-

"*bhreg-", "*bhreg-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to break". - It forms all or part of: "anfractuous"; "Brabant"; "bracken"; "brake" (n.1) "stopping device for a wheel"; "brake" (n.2) "kind of fern"; "brash"; "breach"; "break"; "breccia"; "breeches"; "brioche"; "chamfer"; "defray"; "diffraction"; "fractal"; "fraction"; "fractious"; "fracture"; "fragile"; "fragility"; "fragment"; "frail"; "frangible"; "infraction"; "infringe"; "irrefragable"; "irrefrangible"; "naufragous"; "ossifrage"; "refract"; "refraction"; "refrain" (n.); "refrangible"; "sassafras"; "saxifrage"; "suffragan"; "suffrage". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "(giri)-bhraj" "breaking-forth (out of the mountains)"; Latin "frangere" "to break (something) in pieces, shatter, fracture"; Lithuanian "braketi" "crash, crack"; Old Irish "braigim" "break wind"; Gothic "brikan", Old English "brecan" "to break".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*bhreu- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*bhreu-

"*bhreu-", "*bhreu-" : also "*bhreu?-", "*bhre?u-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to boil, bubble, effervesce, burn", with derivatives referring to cooking and brewing. It forms all or part of: "barm"; "barmy"; "bourn" (n.1) "small stream"; "braise"; "bratwurst"; "brawn"; "brawny"; "braze" (v.1) "to expose to the action of fire"; "brazier"; "Brazil"; "bread"; "breed"; "brew"; "broth"; "broil" (v.2) "to quarrel, brawl"; "brood"; "effervesce"; "effervescence"; "effervescent"; "embroil"; "ferment"; "fervent"; "fervid"; "fervor"; "imbroglio". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "bhurnih" "violent, passionate"; Greek "phrear" "well, spring, cistern"; Latin "fervere" "to boil, foam", Thracian Greek "brytos" "fermented liquor made from barley"; Russian "bruja" "current"; Old Irish "bruth" "heat"; Old English "breowan" "to brew", "beorma" "yeast"; Old High German "brato" "roast meat".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*bhrug- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*bhrug-

"*bhrug-", "*bhrug-" : "*bhrug-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to enjoy", with derivatives referring to agricultural products. It forms all or part of: "brook" (v.) "to endure"; "defunct"; "fructify"; "fructose"; "frugal"; "fruit"; "fruitcake"; "fruitful"; "fruition"; "fruitless"; "frumentaceous"; "function"; "fungible"; "perfunctory"; "tutti-frutti"; "usufruct". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin "frui" "to use, enjoy", "fructus" "an enjoyment, proceeds, fruit, crops"; Old English "brucan" "use, enjoy, possess", German "brauchen" "to use".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*da- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*da-

"*da-", "*da-" : "*da-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to divide". It forms all or part of: "betide"; "daimon"; "Damocles"; "demagogue"; "demiurge"; "democracy"; "demography"; "demon"; "demotic"; "endemic"; "epidemic"; "eudaemonic"; "geodesic"; "geodesy"; "pandemic"; "pandemonium"; "tidal"; "tide" (n.) "rise and fall of the sea"; "tidings"; "tidy"; "time"; "zeitgeist". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "dati" "cuts, divides"; Greek "demos" "people, land", perhaps literally "division of society", "daiesthai" "to divide"; Old Irish "dam" "troop, company"; Old English "tid" "point or portion of time", German "Zeit" "time".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*deik- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*deik-

"*deik-", "*deik-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to show", also "pronounce solemnly", "also in derivatives referring to the directing of words or objects" [Watkins]. It forms all or part of: "abdicate"; "abdication"; "addict"; "adjudge"; "apodictic"; "avenge"; "benediction"; "betoken"; "condition"; "contradict"; "contradiction"; "dedicate"; "deictic"; "deixis"; "dictate"; "diction"; "dictionary"; "dictum"; "digit"; "disk"; "ditto"; "ditty"; "edict"; "Eurydice"; "index"; "indicate"; "indication"; "indict"; "indiction"; "indictive"; "indite"; "interdict"; "judge"; "judicial"; "juridical"; "jurisdiction"; "malediction"; "malison"; "paradigm"; "policy" (n.2) "written insurance agreement"; "preach"; "predicament"; "predicate"; "predict"; "prejudice"; "revenge"; "soi-disant"; "syndic"; "teach"; "tetchy"; "theodicy"; "toe"; "token"; "valediction"; "vendetta"; "verdict"; "veridical"; "vindicate"; "vindication"; "voir dire". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "dic-" "point out, show"; Greek "deiknynai" "to show, to prove", "dike" "custom, usage"; Latin "dicere" "speak, tell, say", "digitus" "finger", Old High German "zeigon", German "zeigen" "to show", Old English "teon" "to accuse", "tcan" "to teach".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*dek- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*dek-

"*dek-", "*dek-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to take, accept". It forms all or part of: "condign"; "dainty"; "decent"; "decor"; "decorate"; "decorous"; "deign"; "dignify"; "dignity"; "diplodocus"; "disciple"; "discipline"; "disdain"; "docent"; "Docetism"; "docile"; "docimacy"; "doctor"; "doctrine"; "document"; "dogma"; "dogmatic"; "doxology"; "heterodox"; "indignance"; "indignant"; "indignation"; "indignity"; "orthodox"; "paradox"; "synecdoche". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "dasasyati" "shows honor, is gracious", "dacati" "makes offerings, bestows"; Greek "dokein" "to appear, seem, think", "dekhesthai" "to accept"; Latin "decere" "to be fitting or suitable", "docere" "to teach", "decus" "grace, ornament".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*dekm- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*dekm-

"*dekm-", "*dekm-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "ten". - It forms all or part of: "cent"; "centenarian"; "centenary"; "centi-"; "centime"; "centurion"; "century"; "centennial"; "cinquecento"; "dean"; "deca-"; "decade"; "decagon"; "Decalogue"; "Decameron"; "decapod"; "decathlon"; "December"; "decennial"; "deci-"; "decile"; "decimal"; "decimate"; "decimation"; "decuple"; "decussate"; "denarius"; "denier" (n.) "French coin"; "dicker"; "dime"; "dinar"; "doyen"; "dozen"; "duodecimal"; "duodecimo"; "eighteen"; "fifteen"; "fourteen"; "hecatomb"; "hendeca-"; "hundred"; "icosahedron"; "nineteen"; "nonagenarian"; "octogenarian"; "Pentecost"; "percent"; "quattrocento"; "Septuagint"; "sexagenarian"; "seventeen"; "sixteen"; "ten"; "tenth"; "thirteen"; "thousand"; "tithe". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "dasa", Avestan "dasa", Armenian "tasn", Greek "deka", Latin "decem" (source of Spanish "diez", French "dix"), Old Church Slavonic "deseti", Lithuanian "deimt", Old Irish "deich", Breton "dek", Welsh "deg", Albanian "djetu", Old English "ten", Old High German "zehan", Gothic "taihun" "ten".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*deks- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*deks-

"*deks-", "*deks-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "right, opposite left", hence "south" (from the viewpoint of one facing east). - It forms all or part of: "ambidexterity"; "ambidextrous"; "deasil"; "destrier"; "Dexter"; "dexterity"; "dexterous"; "dextro-". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "daksinah" "on the right hand, southern, skillful"; Avestan "dashina-" "on the right hand"; Greek "dexios" "on the right hand", also "fortunate, clever"; Latin "dexter" "skillful", also "right (hand)"; Old Irish "dess" "on the right hand, southern"; Welsh "deheu"; Gaulish "Dexsiva", name of a goddess of fortune; Gothic "taihswa"; Lithuanian "deinas"; Old Church Slavonic "desnu", Russian "desnoj".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*dem- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*dem-

"*dem-", "*dem-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "house, household". It represents the usual Indo-European word for "house" (Italian, Spanish "casa" are from Latin "casa" "cottage, hut"; Germanic "*hus" is of obscure origin). It forms all or part of: "Anno Domini"; "belladonna"; "condominium"; "dame"; "damsel"; "dan" "title of address to members of religious orders"; "danger"; "dangerous"; "demesne"; "despot"; "Dom Perignon"; "domain"; "dome"; "domestic"; "domesticate"; "domicile"; "dominate"; "domination"; "dominion"; "domino"; "don" (n.) "Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese title of respect"; "Donna"; "dungeon"; "ma'am"; "madam"; "madame"; "mademoiselle"; "madonna"; "major-domo"; "predominant"; "predominate"; "timber"; "toft". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "damah" "house"; Avestan "demana-" "house"; Greek "domos" "house", "despotes" "master, lord"; Latin "domus" "house", "dominus" "master of a household"; Armenian "tanu-ter" "house-lord"; Old Church Slavonic "domu", Russian "dom" "house"; Lithuanian "dimstis" "enclosed court, property"; Old Norse "topt" "homestead".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*dent- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*dent-

"*dent-", "*dent-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "tooth". It forms all or part of: "al dente"; "dandelion"; "dental"; "dentifrice"; "dentist"; "dentition"; "denture"; "glyptodon"; "indent" (v.1) "to make notches"; "mastodon"; "orthodontia"; "periodontal"; "teethe"; "tooth"; "toothsome"; "tusk"; "trident". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "danta", Greek "odontos", Latin "dens", Lithuanian "dantis", Old Irish "det", Welsh "dent", Old English "to", German "Zahn", Gothic "tunus" "tooth".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*der- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*der-

"*der-", "*der-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to split, flay, peel", with derivatives referring to skin and leather. It forms all or part of: "derm"; "-derm"; "derma"; "dermal"; "dermato-"; "dermatology"; "echinoderm"; "epidermis"; "hypodermic"; "pachyderm"; "scleroderma"; "taxidermy"; "tart" (adj.) "having a sharp taste"; "tear" (v.1) "pull apart"; "tetter"; "turd". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "drnati" "cleaves, bursts"; Greek "derein" "to flay"; Armenian "terem" "I flay"; Old Church Slavonic "dera" "to burst asunder"; Breton "darn" "piece"; Old English "teran" "to tear, lacerate".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*deru- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*deru-

"*deru-", "*deru-" : also "*dreu-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "be firm, solid, steadfast", with specialized senses "wood", "tree" and derivatives referring to objects made of wood. - It forms all or part of: "betroth"; "Dante"; "dendrite"; "dendro-"; "dendrochronology"; "dour"; "Druid"; "drupe"; "dryad"; "dura mater"; "durable"; "durance"; "duration"; "duress"; "during"; "durum"; "endure"; "hamadryad"; "indurate"; "obdurate"; "perdurable"; "philodendron"; "rhododendron"; "shelter"; "tar" (n.1) "viscous liquid"; "tray"; "tree"; "trig" (adj.) "smart, trim"; "trim"; "troth"; "trough"; "trow"; "truce"; "true"; "trust"; "truth"; "tryst". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "dru" "tree, wood", "daru" "wood, log, timber"; Greek "drys" "oak", "drymos" "copse, thicket", "doru" "beam, shaft of a spear"; Old Church Slavonic "drievo" "tree, wood", Serbian "drvo" "tree", "drva" "wood", Russian "drevo" "tree, wood", Czech "drva", Polish "drwa" "wood"; Lithuanian "drutas" "firm", "derva" "pine, wood"; Welsh "drud", Old Irish "dron" "strong", Welsh "derw" "true", Old Irish "derb" "sure", Old Irish "daur", Welsh "derwen" "oak"; Albanian "drusk" "oak"; Old English "treo", "treow" "tree", "triewe" "faithful, trustworthy, honest".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*deu- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*deu-

"*deu-", "*deu-" (2) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to do, perform; show favor, revere". It forms all or part of: "beatific"; "beatify"; "beatitude"; "Beatrice"; "beau"; "beauty"; "Bella"; "belle"; "beldam"; "belladonna"; "belvedere"; "bene-"; "benedict"; "Benedictine"; "benediction"; "benefactor"; "beneficiary"; "benefice"; "beneficence"; "benefit"; "benevolent"; "benign"; "bonanza"; "bonbon"; "bonhomie"; "bonito"; "bonjour"; "bonny"; "bonus"; "boon" (adj.); "bounty"; "debonair"; "embellish". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin "bene" (adv.) "well, in the right way, honorably, properly", "bonus" "good", "bellus" "handsome, fine, pretty", and possibly "beatus" "blessed", "beare" "to make blessed".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*deuk- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*deuk-

"*deuk-", "*deuk-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to lead". It forms all or part of: "abduce"; "abducent"; "abduct"; "abduction"; "adduce"; "aqueduct"; "circumduction"; "conduce"; "conducive"; "conduct"; "conductor"; "conduit"; "deduce"; "deduction"; "dock" (n.1) "ship's berth"; "doge"; "douche"; "ducal"; "ducat"; "Duce"; "duchess"; "duchy"; "duct"; "ductile"; "duke" (n.); "educate"; "education"; "induce"; "induction"; "introduce"; "introduction"; "misconduct"; "produce"; "production"; "reduce"; "reduction"; "seduce"; "seduction"; "subduce"; "subduction"; "taut"; "team" (n.); "teem" (v.1) "abound, swarm, be prolific"; "tie" (n.); "tow" (v.); "traduce"; "transducer"; "tug"; "zugzwang". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin "dux" (genitive "ducis") "leader, commander", in Late Latin "governor of a province", "ducere" "to lead"; Old English "togian" "to pull, drag", "teon"teon "to pull, drag"; German "Zaum" "bridle", "ziehen" "to draw, pull, drag"; Middle Welsh "dygaf" "I draw".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*dhe(i)- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*dhe(i)-

"*dhe(i)-", "*dhe(i)-" : "*dhe(i)-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to suck". - It forms all or part of: "affiliate"; "affiliation"; "effeminate"; "effete"; "epithelium"; "fawn" (n.) "young deer"; "fecund"; "fellatio"; "Felicia"; "felicitate"; "felicity"; "Felix"; "female"; "feminine"; "femme"; "fennel"; "fenugreek"; "fetal"; "feticide"; "fetus"; "filial"; "filiation"; "filicide"; "filioque"; "fitz"; "infelicity". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "dhayati" "sucks", "dhayah" "nourishing"; Greek "thele" "mother's breast, nipple", "thelys" "female, fruitful"; Latin "felare" "to suck", "femina" "woman" ("she who suckles"), "felix" "happy, auspicious, fruitful", "fetus" "offspring, pregnancy"; "fecundus" "fruitful, fertile, productive; rich, abundant"; Old Church Slavonic "dojiti" "to suckle", "dojilica" "nurse", "deti" "child"; Lithuanian "dele" "leech"; Old Prussian "dadan" "milk"; Gothic "daddjan" "to suckle"; Old Swedish "dia" "suckle"; Old High German "tila" "female breast"; Old Irish "denaim" "I suck", "dinu" "lamb".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*dhe- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*dhe-

"*dhe-", "*dhe-" : "*dhe-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to set, put". - It forms all or part of: "abdomen"; "abscond"; "affair"; "affect" (v.1) "make a mental impression on"; "affect" (v.2) "make a pretense of"; "affection"; "amplify"; "anathema"; "antithesis"; "apothecary"; "artifact"; "artifice"; "beatific"; "benefice"; "beneficence"; "beneficial"; "benefit"; "bibliothec"; "bodega"; "boutique"; "certify"; "chafe"; "chauffeur"; "comfit"; "condiment"; "confection"; "confetti"; "counterfeit"; "deed"; "deem"; "deface"; "defeasance"; "defeat"; "defect"; "deficient"; "difficulty"; "dignify"; "discomfit"; "do" (v.); "doom"; "-dom"; "duma"; "edifice"; "edify"; "efface"; "effect"; "efficacious"; "efficient"; "epithet"; "facade"; "face"; "facet"; "facial"; "-facient"; "facile"; "facilitate"; "facsimile"; "fact"; "faction" (n.1) "political party"; "-faction"; "factitious"; "factitive"; "factor"; "factory"; "factotum"; "faculty"; "fashion"; "feasible"; "feat"; "feature"; "feckless"; "fetish"; "-fic"; "fordo"; "forfeit"; "-fy"; "gratify"; "hacienda"; "hypothecate"; "hypothesis"; "incondite"; "indeed"; "infect"; "justify"; "malefactor"; "malfeasance"; "manufacture"; "metathesis"; "misfeasance"; "modify"; "mollify"; "multifarious"; "notify"; "nullify"; "office"; "officinal"; "omnifarious"; "orifice"; "parenthesis"; "perfect"; "petrify"; "pluperfect"; "pontifex"; "prefect"; "prima facie"; "proficient"; "profit"; "prosthesis"; "prothesis"; "purdah"; "putrefy"; "qualify"; "rarefy"; "recondite"; "rectify"; "refectory"; "sacrifice"; "salmagundi"; "samadhi"; "satisfy"; "sconce"; "suffice"; "sufficient"; "surface"; "surfeit"; "synthesis"; "tay"; "ticking" (n.); "theco-"; "thematic"; "theme"; "thesis"; "verify". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "dadhati" "puts, places"; Avestan "dadaiti" "he puts"; Old Persian "ada" "he made"; Hittite "dai-" "to place"; Greek "tithenai" "to put, set, place"; Latin "facere" "to make, do; perform; bring about"; Lithuanian "deti" "to put"; Polish "dziac sie" "to be happening"; Russian "delat'"; "to do"; Old High German "tuon", German "tun", Old English "don" "to do".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*dheigh- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*dheigh-

"*dheigh-", "*dheigh-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to form, build". It forms all or part of: "configure"; "dairy"; "dey" (n.1) "female servant, housekeeper, maid"; "disfigure"; "dough"; "effigy"; "faineant"; "faint"; "feign"; "feint"; "fictile"; "fiction"; "fictitious"; "figment"; "figure"; "figurine"; "lady"; "paradise"; "prefigure"; "thixotropy"; "transfigure". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "dehah" "body", literally "that which is formed", "dih-" "to besmear"; Greek "teikhos" "wall"; Latin "fingere" "to form, fashion", "figura" "a shape, form, figure"; Old Irish "digen" "firm, solid", originally "kneaded into a compact mass"; Gothic "deigan" "to smear", Old English "dag", Gothic "daigs" "dough".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*dher- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*dher-

"*dher-", "*dher-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to hold firmly, support". - It forms all or part of: "affirm"; "confirm"; "Darius"; "dharma"; "farm"; "fermata"; "firm" (adj.); "firm" (n.); "firmament"; "furl"; "infirm"; "infirmary"; "terra firma"; "throne". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "dharmah" "custom, statute, law", "dharayati" "holds"; Prakrit "dhara?a" "a holding firm"; Iranian "dara-" "holding"; Greek "thronos" "seat"; Latin "firmus" "strong, steadfast, enduring, stable"; Lithuanian "dirnas" "strong"; Welsh "dir" "hard", Breton "dir" "steel".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*dhes- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*dhes-

"*dhes-", "*dhes-" : "*dhes-", Proto-Indo-European root forming words for religious concepts. Possibly an extension of PIE root "*dhe-" "to set, put". It forms all or part of: "apotheosis"; "atheism"; "atheous"; "Dorothy"; "enthusiasm"; "fair" (n.) "a stated market in a town or city"; "fanatic"; "ferial"; "feast"; "fedora"; "-fest"; "festal"; "festival"; "festive"; "festoon"; "Festus"; "fete"; "fiesta"; "henotheism"; "monotheism"; "pantheism"; "pantheon"; "polytheism"; "profane"; "profanity"; "Thea"; "-theism"; "theist"; "theo-"; "theocracy"; "theodicy"; "Theodore"; "Theodosia"; "theogony"; "theology"; "theophany"; "Theophilus"; "theosophy"; "theurgy"; "tiffany"; "Timothy". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "theos" "god"; Latin "feriae" "holidays", "festus" "festive", "fanum" "temple".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*dhghem- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*dhghem-

"*dhghem-", "*dhghem-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "earth". - It forms all or part of: "antichthon"; "autochthon"; "autochthonic"; "bonhomie"; "bridegroom"; "camomile"; "chameleon"; "chernozem"; "chthonic"; "exhume"; "homage"; "hombre"; "homicide"; "hominid"; "Homo sapiens"; "homunculus"; "human"; "humane"; "humble"; "humiliate"; "humility"; "humus"; "inhumation"; "inhume"; "nemo"; "ombre"; "omerta". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "ksam-" "earth" (opposed to "sky"); Greek "khthon" "the earth, solid surface of the earth", "khamai" "on the ground"; Latin "humus" "earth, soil", "humilis" "low"; Lithuanian "eme", Old Church Slavonic "zemlja" "earth"; Old Irish "du", genitive "don" "place", earlier "earth".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*dhwer- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*dhwer-

"*dhwer-", "*dhwer-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "door, doorway". The base form is frequently in dual or plural, leading to speculation that houses of the original Indo-Europeans had doors with two swinging halves. It forms all or part of: "afforest"; "deforest"; "door"; "faubourg"; "foreclose"; "foreign"; "forensic"; "forest"; "forfeit"; "forum"; "hors d'oeuvre"; "thyroid". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "dvrah" "door, gate"; Old Persian "duvara-" "door"; Greek "thyra" "door"; Latin "foris" "out-of-doors, outside"; Gaulish "doro" "mouth"; Old Prussian "dwaris" "gate"; Russian "dver'"; "a door"; Old English "dor", German "Tr" "door", Gothic "dauro" "gate".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*dlegh- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*dlegh-

"*dlegh-", "*dlegh-" : Proto-Indo-European root found in Celtic, Germanic, Slavic, and possibly Latin, meaning "to engage oneself, be or become fixed". It forms all or part of: "indulge"; "indulgence"; "play"; "pledge"; "plight" (v.) "to pledge"; "replevin". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "drmha-", "drhya-" "to fix, make firm"; Old Avestan "derez-" "fetter"; Gaulish "delgu" "to hold", Middle Welsh "dala" "to hold", Old Breton "delgim" "to hold"; Old Saxon "plegan" "vouch for", Gothic "tulgjan" "to fasten".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*dnghu- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*dnghu-

"*dnghu-", "*dnghu-" : "*dnghu-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "tongue". - It forms all or part of: "bilingual"; "language"; "languet"; "lingo"; "lingua franca"; "Linguaphone"; "linguiform"; "linguine"; "linguist"; "linguistics"; "multilingual"; "sublingual"; "tongue"; "trilingual". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin "lingua" "tongue, speech, language" (from Old Latin "dingua"); Old Irish "tenge", Welsh "tafod", Lithuanian "lieuvis", Old Church Slavonic "jezyku" "tongue"; Old English "tunge" "tongue; speech".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*do- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*do-

"*do-", "*do-" : "*do-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to give". It forms all or part of: "add"; "anecdote"; "antidote"; "betray"; "condone"; "dacha"; "dado"; "data"; "date" (n.1) "time"; "dative"; "deodand"; "die" (n.); "donation"; "donative"; "donor"; "Dorian"; "Dorothy"; "dose"; "dowager"; "dower"; "dowry"; "edition"; "endow"; "Eudora"; "fedora"; "Isidore"; "mandate"; "Pandora"; "pardon"; "perdition"; "Polydorus"; "render"; "rent" (n.1) "payment for use of property"; "sacerdotal"; "samizdat"; "surrender"; "Theodore"; "Theodosia"; "tradition"; "traitor"; "treason"; "vend". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "dadati" "gives", "danam" "offering, present"; Old Persian "dadatuv" "let him give"; Greek "didomi", "didonai", "to give, offer", "doron" "gift"; Latin "dare" "to give, grant, offer", "donum" "gift"; Armenian "tam" "to give"; Old Church Slavonic "dati" "give", "dani" "tribute"; Lithuanian "duoti" "to give", "duonis" "gift"; Old Irish "dan" "gift, endowment, talent", Welsh "dawn" "gift".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*dwo- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*dwo-

"*dwo-", "*dwo-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "two". - It forms all or part of: "anadiplosis"; "balance"; "barouche"; "between"; "betwixt"; "bezel"; "bi-"; "binary"; "bis-"; "biscuit"; "combination"; "combine"; "deuce"; "deuterium"; "Deuteronomy"; "di-" (1) "two, double, twice"; "dia-"; "dichotomy"; "digraph"; "dimity"; "diode"; "diphthong"; "diploid"; "diploma"; "diplomacy"; "diplomat"; "diplomatic"; "diplodocus"; "double"; "doublet"; "doubloon"; "doubt"; "dozen"; "dual"; "dubious"; "duet"; "duo"; "duodecimal"; "duplex"; "duplicate"; "duplicity"; "dyad"; "epididymis"; "hendiadys"; "pinochle"; "praseodymium"; "redoubtable"; "twain"; "twelfth"; "twelve"; "twenty"; "twi-"; "twice"; "twig"; "twilight"; "twill"; "twin"; "twine"; "twist"; "'twixt"; "two"; "twofold"; "zwieback". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "dvau", Avestan "dva", Greek "duo", Latin "duo", Old Welsh "dou", Lithuanian "dvi", Old Church Slavonic "duva", Old English "twa", "twegen", German "zwei", Gothic "twai" "two"; first element in Hittite "ta-ugash" "two years old".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*dyeu- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*dyeu-

"*dyeu-", "*dyeu-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to shine", in derivatives "sky, heaven, god". - It forms all or part of: "adieu"; "adios"; "adjourn"; "Asmodeus"; "circadian"; "deific"; "deify"; "deism"; "deity"; "deodand"; "deus ex machina"; "deva"; "dial"; "diary"; "Diana"; "Dianthus"; "diet" (n.2) "assembly"; "Dioscuri"; "Dis"; "dismal"; "diurnal"; "diva"; "Dives"; "divine"; "joss"; "journal"; "journalist"; "journey"; "Jove"; "jovial"; "Julia"; "Julius"; "July"; "Jupiter"; "meridian"; "Midi"; "per diem"; "psychedelic"; "quotidian"; "sojourn"; "Tuesday"; "Zeus". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "deva" "god" (literally "shining one"); "diva" "by day"; Avestan "dava-" "spirit, demon"; Greek "delos" "clear"; Latin "dies" "day", "deus" "god"; Welsh "diw", Breton "deiz" "day"; Armenian "tiw" "day"; Lithuanian "dievas" "god", "diena" "day"; Old Church Slavonic "dini", Polish "dzien", Russian "den" "day"; Old Norse "tivar" "gods"; Old English "Tig", genitive "Tiwes", name of a god.


Erstellt: 2018-03

*ed- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*ed-

"*ed-", "*ed-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to eat", originally "to bite". - It forms all or part of: "alfalfa"; "anodyne"; "comedo"; "comestible"; "eat"; "edacious"; "edible"; "escarole"; "esculent"; "esurient"; "etch"; "ettin"; "fret" (v.); "frass"; "jotun"; "obese"; "obesity"; "ort"; "postprandial"; "prandial". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "admi" "I eat"; Avestan "ad-" "to eat"; Greek "edo" "I eat"; Latin "edere" "to eat"; Lithuanian "edu" "I eat", "edioti" "to devour, bite"; Hittite "edmi" "I eat", "adanna" "food"; Armenian "utem" "I eat"; Old Church Slavonic "jasti" "to eat", Russian "jest" "to eat"; Old Irish "ithim" "I eat"; Gothic "itan", Old Swedish and Old English "etan", Old High German "essan" "to eat".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*ei- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*ei-

"*ei-", "*ei-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to go". It forms all or part of: "Abitur"; "adit"; "ambience"; "ambient"; "ambit"; "ambition"; "ambitious"; "andante"; "anion"; "cation"; "circuit"; "coitus"; "commence"; "commencement"; "concomitant"; "constable"; "count" (n.1) title of nobility; "county"; "dysprosium"; "errant"; "exit"; "initial"; "initiate"; "initiation"; "introit"; "ion"; "issue"; "itinerant"; "itinerary"; "janitor"; "January"; "Janus"; "Jena"; "Mahayana"; "obiter"; "obituary"; "perish"; "praetor"; "Praetorian"; "preterite"; "sedition"; "sudden"; "trance"; "transient"; "transit"; "transitive"; "viscount". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "e'ti" "goes", "imas" "we go", "ayanam" "a going, way"; Avestan "ae'iti" "goes", Old Persian "aitiy" "goes"; Greek "ienai" "to go"; Latin "ire" "to go", "iter" "a way"; Old Irish "ethaim" "I go", Irish "bothar" "a road" (from "*bou-itro-" "cows' way"), Gaulish "eimu" "we go"; Lithuanian "eiti" "to go"; Old Church Slavonic "iti" "go"; Bulgarian "ida" "I go"; Russian "idti" "to go"; Gothic "iddja" "went".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*ekwo- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*ekwo-

"*ekwo-", "*ekwo-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "horse". Perhaps related to "*oku-" "swift". It forms all or part of: "alfalfa"; "Eohippus"; "equestrian"; "equine"; "equus"; "hippo-"; "hippocampus"; "Hippocratic"; "Hippocrene"; "hippocrepian"; "hippodrome"; "hippogriff"; "Hippolytus"; "hippopotamus"; "Philip"; "philippic"; "Philippines"; "Xanthippe". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "ava-", Avestan "aspa-", Greek "hippos", Latin "equus", Old Irish "ech", Old Church Slavonic "ehu-", Old English "eoh", Gothic "aihwa-" all meaning "horse".





Erstellt: 2018-03

*em- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*em-

"*em-", "*em-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to take, distribute". - It forms all or part of: "assume"; "consume"; "emption"; "example"; "exemplar"; "exemplary"; "exemplify"; "exempt"; "exemption"; "impromptu"; "peremptory"; "pre-emption"; "premium"; "presume"; "presumption"; "prompt"; "pronto"; "ransom"; "redeem"; "redemption"; "resume"; "sample"; "sejm"; "subsume"; "sumptuary"; "sumptuous"; "vintage". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "yamati" "holds, subdues"; Latin "emere" "buy", originally "take", "sumere" "to take, obtain, buy"; Old Church Slavonic "imo" "to take"; Lithuanian "imu, imti" "to take".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*en (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*en

"*en", "*en - Proto-Indo-European root meaning "in". It forms all or part of: "and"; "atoll"; "dysentery"; "embargo"; "embarrass"; "embryo"; "empire"; "employ"; "en-" (1) "in; into"; "en-" (2) "near, at, in, on, within"; "enclave"; "endo-"; "enema"; "engine"; "enoptomancy"; "enter"; "enteric"; "enteritis"; "entero-"; "entice"; "ento-"; "entrails"; "envoy"; "envy"; "episode"; "esoteric"; "imbroglio"; "immolate"; "immure"; "impede"; "impend"; "impetus"; "important"; "impostor"; "impresario"; "impromptu"; "in"; "in-" (2) "into, in, on, upon"; "inchoate"; "incite"; "increase"; "inculcate"; "incumbent"; "industry"; "indigence"; "inflict"; "ingenuous"; "ingest"; "inly"; "inmost"; "inn"; "innate"; "inner"; "innuendo"; "inoculate"; "insignia"; "instant"; "intaglio"; "inter-"; "interim"; "interior"; "intern"; "internal"; "intestine"; "intimate" (adj.) "closely acquainted, very familiar"; "intra-"; "intricate"; "intrinsic"; "intro-"; "introduce"; "introduction"; "introit"; "introspect"; "invert"; "mesentery". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "antara-" "interior"; Greek "en" "in", "eis" "into", "endon" "within"; Latin "in" "in, into", "intro" "inward", "intra" "inside, within"; Old Irish "in", Welsh "yn", Old Church Slavonic "on-", Old English "in" "in, into", "inne" "within, inside".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*er- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*er-

"*er-", "*er-" (2) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "earth, ground". It forms all or part of: "aardvark"; "aardwolf"; "earth"; "earthen"; "earthy". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Old English "eore" "ground, soil, dirt, dry land", Old Norse "jr", Old High German "erda", Gothic "aira"; Middle Irish "-ert" "earth".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*ere- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*ere-

"*ere-", "*ere-" : "*er?-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to row". It forms all or part of: "row" (v.) "propel with oars"; "rudder"; "Russia"; "Russian"; "trireme". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "aritrah" "oar"; Greek "eressein" "to row", "eretmon" "oar", "trieres" "trireme"; Latin "remus" "oar"; Lithuanian "iriu, irti" "to row", "irklas" "oar"; Old Irish "rome" "oar", Old English "roor" "rudder", "rowan" "go by water, row".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*eu- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*eu-

"*eu-", "*eu-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to dress", with extended form "*wes-" (2) "to clothe". It forms all or part of: "divest"; "exuviae"; "invest"; "revetment"; "transvestite"; "travesty"; "vest"; "vestry"; "wear". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Hittite "washshush" "garments", "washanzi" "they dress"; Sanskrit "vaste" "he puts on", "vasanam" "garment"; Avestan "vah-"; Greek "esthes" "clothing", "hennymi" "to clothe", "eima" "garment"; Latin "vestire" "to clothe"; Welsh "gwisgo", Breton "gwiska"; Old English "werian" "to clothe, put on, cover up", "wstling" "sheet, blanket".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*eue- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*eue-

"*eue-", "*eue-" : "*eu?-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to leave, abandon, give out", with derivatives meaning "abandoned, lacking, empty". It forms all or part of: "avoid"; "devastation"; "devoid"; "evacuate"; "evanescent"; "vacant"; "vacate"; "vacation"; "vacuity"; "vacuole"; "vacuous"; "vacuum"; "vain"; "vanish"; "vanity"; "vaunt"; "void"; "wane"; "want"; "wanton"; "waste". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "una-" "deficient"; Avestan "va-" "lack", Persian "vang" "empty, poor"; Armenian "unain" "empty"; Latin "vacare" "to be empty", "vastus" "empty, waste", "vanus" "empty, void", figuratively "idle, fruitless"; Old English "wanian" "to lessen", "wan" "deficient"; Old Norse "vanta" "to lack".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*g(a)lag- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*g(a)lag-

"*g(a)lag-", "*g(a)lag-" : also "*g(a)lakt-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "milk". It forms all or part of: "ablactation"; "cafe au lait"; "galactic"; "galaxy"; "lactate" (v.); "lactate" (n.); "lactation"; "lacteal"; "lactescence"; "lactic"; "lactivorous"; "lacto-"; "lactose"; "latte"; "lettuce". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin "lac" (genitive "lactis") "milk"; Greek "gala" (genitive "galaktos"), "milk"; Armenian dialectal "kaxc'"; "milk". The initial "g" probably was lost in Latin by dissimilation. This and the separate root "*melg-", account for words for "milk" in most of the Indo-European languages. The absence of a common word for it is considered a mystery.


Erstellt: 2018-03

*gal- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*gal-

"*gal-", "*gal-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to call, shout". It forms all or part of: "call"; "clatter"; "Gallic"; "gallinaceous"; "gallium"; "glasnost"; "Glagolitic". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "garhati" "bewail, criticize"; Latin "gallus" "cock"; Old English "ceallian" "to shout, utter in a loud voice", Old Norse "kalla" "to cry loudly", Dutch "kallen" "to talk, chatter"; German "Klage" "complaint, grievance, lament, accusation"; Old English "clacu" "affront"; Old Church Slavonic "glasu" "voice", "glagolu" "word"; Welsh "galw" "call".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*gel- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*gel-

"*gel-", "*gel-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "cold; to freeze". - It forms all or part of: "chill"; "cold"; "congeal"; "cool"; "gel"; "gelatine"; "gelatinous"; "gelato"; "gelid"; "glace"; "glacial"; "glaciate"; "glaciation"; "glacier"; "glaciology"; "glacis"; "jell"; "jelly". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin "gelare" "to freeze", "gelu" "frost", "glacies" "ice"; Old English "cald" "cold, cool", German "kalt".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*gembh- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*gembh-

"*gembh-", "*gembh-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "tooth, nail". - It forms all or part of: "cam" (n.1) "projecting part of a rotating machinery"; "comb"; "gem"; "oakum"; "unkempt". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "jambha-s" "tooth"; Greek "gomphos" "peg, bolt, nail; a molar tooth"; Albanian "dhemb" "tooth"; Old English "camb" "comb".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*gene- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*gene-

"*gene-", also "*gen-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "give birth", "beget", with derivatives referring to procreation and familial and tribal groups.

It forms all or part of:

"Antigone"; "autogenous"; "benign"; "cognate"; "congener"; "congenial"; "congenital"; "connate"; "cosmogony"; "cryogenic"; "degenerate"; "engender"; "engine"; "epigone"; "eugenics"; "-gen"; "gendarme"; "gender"; "gene"; "genealogy"; "general"; "generate"; "generation"; "generic"; "generous"; "genesis"; "-genesis"; "genial"; "-genic"; "genital"; "genitive"; "genius"; "genocide"; "genotype"; "genre"; "gens"; "gent"; "genteel"; "gentile"; "gentle"; "gentry"; "genuine"; "genus"; "-geny"; "germ"; "german" (adj.) "of the same parents or grandparents"; "germane"; "germinal"; "germinate"; "germination"; "gingerly"; "gonad"; "gono-"; "gonorrhea"; "heterogeneous"; "homogeneous"; "homogenize"; "homogenous"; "impregnate"; "indigenous"; "ingenious"; "ingenuous"; "innate"; "jaunty"; "kermes"; "kin"; "kindergarten"; "kindred"; "king"; "kind" (n.) "class, sort, variety"; "kind" (adj.) "friendly, deliberately doing good to others"; "Kriss Kringle"; "malign"; "miscegenation"; "nada"; "naive"; "nascent"; "natal"; "Natalie"; "nation"; "native"; "nature"; "nee"; "neonate"; "Noel"; "oncogene"; "ontogeny"; "photogenic"; "phylogeny"; "pregnant" (adj.1) "with child"; "primogenitor"; "primogeniture"; "progenitor"; "progeny"; "puisne"; "puny"; "renaissance"; "theogony"; "wunderkind".

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by:

Sanskrit "janati" = "begets, bears"; "janah" = "offspring, child, person"; "janman-" = "birth, origin"; "jatah" = "born"; Avestan "zizanenti" = "they bear"; Greek "gignesthai" = "to become, happen"; "genos" = "race, kind"; "gonos" = "birth, offspring, stock"; Latin "gignere" = "to beget"; "gnasci" = "to be born"; "genus" (genitive "generis") = "race, stock, kind, family, birth, descent, origin"; "genius" = "procreative divinity, inborn tutelary spirit, innate quality"; "ingenium" = "inborn character"; possibly "germen" = "shoot, bud, embryo, germ"; Lithuanian "gentis" = "kinsmen"; Gothic "kuni" = "race"; Old English "cennan" = "beget, create"; "gecynd" = "kind, nature, race"; Old High German "kind" = "child"; Old Irish "ro-genar" = "I was born"; Welsh "geni" = "to be born"; Armenian "chanim" = "I bear, I am born".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*genu- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*genu-

"*genu-", "*genu-" (2) : Proto-Indo-European root, probably originally "jaw, jawbone", but also forming words for "chin, cheek". It forms all or part of: "chin"; "Compsognathus"; "gnathic"; "gnatho-". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "hanuh" "jaw", Avestan "zanu-" "chin"; Armenian "cnawt" "jawbone, cheek"; Lithuanian "ndas" "jawbone"; Greek "genus" "chin, lower jaw", "geneion" "chin"; Old Irish "gin" "mouth", Welsh "gen" "jawbone, chin"; Old English "cin", "chin".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*genu- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*genu-

"*genu-", "*genu-" (1) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "knee; angle". It forms all or part of: "agonic"; "decagon"; "diagonal"; "geniculate"; "genuflect"; "genuflection"; "-gon"; "goniometer"; "heptagon"; "hexagon"; "knee"; "kneel"; "octagon"; "orthogonal"; "pentagon"; "polygon"; "trigonometry". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "janu", Avestan "znum", Hittite "genu" "knee"; Greek "gony" "knee", "gonia" "corner, angle"; Latin "genu" "knee"; Old English "cneo", "cneow" "knee".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*ger- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*ger-

"*ger-", "*ger-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to gather". - It forms all or part of: "aggregate"; "aggregation"; "agora"; "agoraphobia"; "allegory"; "category"; "congregate"; "cram"; "egregious"; "gregarious"; "panegyric"; "paregoric"; "segregate". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "gramah" "heap, troop"; Greek "ageirein" "to assemble", "agora" "assembly"; Latin "grex" "flock, herd", "gremium" "bosom, lap"; Old Church Slavonic "grusti" "handful", "gramota" "heap"; Lithuanian "gurgulys" "chaos, confusion", "gurguole" "crowd, mass"; Old English "crammian" "press something into something else".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*gere- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*gere-

"*gere-", "*gere-" (1) : "*ger?-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to grow old". It forms all or part of: "geriatric"; "geriatrics"; "gerontocracy"; "gerontology". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "jara" "old age", "jarati" "makes frail, causes to age"; Avestan "zaurvan" "old age"; Greek "geron" "old man"; Ossetic "zarond" "old man"; Armenian "cer" "old, old man".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*geus- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*geus-

"*geus-", "*geus-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to taste; to choose". It forms words for "taste" in Greek and Latin, but its descendants in Germanic and Celtic mostly mean "try" or "choose". The semantic development could have been in either direction. It forms all or part of: "Angus"; "choice"; "choose"; "degustation"; "disgust"; "Fergus"; "gustation"; "gustatory"; "gusto"; "ragout"; "Valkyrie". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "jus-" "enjoy, be pleased"; Avestan "zaosa-" "pleasure", Old Persian "dau-" "enjoy"; Greek "geuesthai" "to taste"; Latin "gustare" "to taste, take a little of"; Old English "cosan", "cesan", Gothic "kausjan" "to test, to taste of", Old High German "koston" "try", German "kosten" "taste of".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*ghabh- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*ghabh-

"*ghabh-", "*ghabh-" : also "*ghebh-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to give or receive". The basic sense of the root probably is "to hold", which can be either in offering or in taking. It forms all or part of: "able"; "avoirdupois"; "binnacle"; "cohabit"; "cohabitation"; "debenture"; "debit"; "debt"; "dishabille"; "due"; "duty"; "endeavor"; "exhibit"; "exhibition"; "forgive"; "gavel"; "gift"; "give"; "habeas corpus"; "habiliment"; "habit"; "habitable"; "habitant"; "habitat"; "habitation"; "habitual"; "habituate"; "habituation"; "habitude"; "habitue"; "inhabit"; "inhibit"; "inhibition"; "malady"; "prebend"; "prohibit"; "prohibition"; "provender". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "gabhasti-" "hand, forearm"; Latin "habere" "to have, hold, possess", "habitus" "condition, demeanor, appearance, dress"; Old Irish "gaibim" "I take, hold, I have", "gabal" "act of taking"; Lithuanian "gabana" "armful", "gabenti" "to remove"; Gothic "gabei" "riches"; Old English "giefan", Old Norse "gefa" "to give".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*gheim- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*gheim-

"*gheim-", "*gheim-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "winter". - It forms all or part of: "chimera"; "chiono-"; "hiemal"; "hibernacle"; "hibernal"; "hibernate"; "hibernation"; "Himalaya". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "heman" "in winter"; Hittite "gimmant-", Armenian "jmern", Greek "kheima", Latin "hiems", Old Church Slavonic "zima", Lithuanian "iema" "winter"; Greek "khion" "snow".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*ghel- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*ghel-

"*ghel-", "*ghel-" (1) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to call". - It forms all or part of: "nightingale"; "yell"; "yelp". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "kikhle" "thrush", also a kind of fish, "khelidon" "the swallow"; Lithuanian "gulbinti" "to praise"; Old English "galan" "to sing", "galdor" "spell, charm, magic, enchantment", "giellan" "to yell", "gielpan" "to boast".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*ghel- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*ghel-

"*ghel-", "*ghel-" (2) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to shine"; it forms words for "gold" (the "bright" metal), words denoting colors, especially "yellow" and "green", also "bile, gall", for is color, and a large group of Germanic "gl-" words having to do with shining and glittering and, perhaps, sliding. Buck says the interchange of words for yellow and green is "perhaps because they were applied to vegetation like grass, cereals, etc., which changed from green to yellow". - It forms all or part of: "arsenic"; "Chloe"; "chloral"; "chloride"; "chlorinate"; "chlorine"; "chloro-"; "chloroform"; "chlorophyll"; "chloroplast"; "cholecyst"; "choler"; "cholera"; "choleric"; "cholesterol"; "cholinergic"; "Cloris"; "gall" (n.1) "bile, liver secretion"; "gild"; "glad"; "glance"; "glare"; "glass"; "glaze"; "glazier"; "gleam"; "glee"; "glib"; "glide"; "glimmer"; "glimpse"; "glint"; "glissade"; "glisten"; "glister"; "glitch"; "glitter"; "glitzy"; "gloaming"; "gloat"; "gloss" (n.1) "glistening smoothness, luster"; "glow"; "glower"; "gold"; "guilder"; "jaundice"; "melancholic"; "melancholy"; "yellow"; "zloty". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "harih" "yellow, tawny yellow", "hiranyam" "gold"; Avestan "zari" "yellow"; Old Persian "daraniya-", Avestan "zaranya-" "gold"; Greek "khloros" "greenish-yellow color", "kholos" "bile, gall, wrath"; Latin "helvus" "yellowish, bay", Gallo-Latin "gilvus" "light bay"; Lithuanian "geltonas" "yellow"; Old Church Slavonic "zlutu", Polish "zlty", Russian "zeltyj" "yellow"; Latin "galbus" "greenish-yellow", "fellis" "bile, gall"; Lithuanian "alias" "green", "elvas" "greenish", "tulis" "bile"; Old Church Slavonic "zelenu", Polish "zielony", Russian "zelenyj" "green"; Old Irish "glass", Welsh and Breton "glas" "green", also "gray, blue"; Old English "galla" "gall, bile", "geolu", "geolwe", German "gelb", Old Norse "gulr" "yellow"; Old Church Slavonic "zlato", Russian "zoloto", Old English "gold", Gothic "gul" "gold"; Old English "gls" "glass; a glass vessel".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*ghend- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*ghend-

"*ghend-", "*ghend-" : also "*ghed-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to seize, to take". - It forms all or part of: "apprehend"; "apprentice"; "apprise"; "beget"; "comprehend"; "comprehension"; "comprehensive"; "comprise"; "depredate"; "depredation"; "emprise"; "enterprise"; "entrepreneur"; "forget"; "get"; "guess"; "impresario"; "misprision"; "osprey"; "predatory"; "pregnable"; "prehensile"; "prehension"; "prey"; "prison"; "prize" (n.2) "something taken by force"; "pry" (v.2) "raise by force"; "reprehend"; "reprieve"; "reprisal"; "reprise"; "spree"; "surprise". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "khandanein" "to hold, contain"; Lithuanian "godetis" "be eager"; second element in Latin "prehendere" "to grasp, seize"; Welsh "gannu" "to hold, contain"; Russian "za-gadka" "riddle"; Old Norse "geta" "to obtain, reach; to be able to; to beget; to learn; to be pleased with"; Albanian "gjen" "to find".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*gher- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*gher-

"*gher-", "*gher-" (1) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to grasp, enclose".

It forms all or part of:

"Asgard"; "carol"; "choir"; "choral"; "chorale"; "choric"; "chorister"; "chorus"; "cohort"; "cortege"; "court"; "courteous"; "courtesan"; "courtesy"; "courtier"; "curtilage"; "curtsy"; "garden"; "garth"; "gird"; "girdle"; "girt"; "girth"; "-grad"; "hangar"; "Hilda"; "Hildegard"; "Hortense"; "horticulture"; "jardiniere"; "kindergarten"; "Midgard"; "orchard"; "Terpsichore"; "Utgard"; "yard" (n.1) "patch of ground around a house".

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by:

Sanskrit "ghra-" = "house"; Albanian "garth" = "hedge"; Greek "khortos" = "pasture"; Phrygian "-gordum" = "town"; Latin "hortus" = "garden"; Old Irish "gort" = "field"; Breton "garz" = "enclosure, garden"; Old English "gyrdan" = "to gird"; "geard" = "fenced enclosure, garden"; German "Garten" = "garden". Lithuanian "gardas" = "pen, enclosure"; Old Church Slavonic "gradu" = "town, city"; and Russian "gorod", "-grad" = "town, city" belong to this group, but linguists dispute whether they are independent developments or borrowings from Germanic.


Erstellt: 2018-03

*gher- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*gher-

"*gher-", "*gher-" (2) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to like, want". - It forms all or part of: "catachresis"; "charisma"; "chervil"; "chrestomathy"; "Eucharist"; "exhort"; "exhortation"; "greedy"; "hortative"; "hortatory"; "yearn". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "haryati" "finds pleasure, likes", "harsate" "is aroused"; Avestan "zara" "effort, aim"; Greek "khresthai" "to lack, want; use, make use of", "kharis" "grace, favor", "khairein" "to rejoice, delight in"; Latin "hortari" "exhort, encourage, urge, incite, instigate"; Russian "zhariti" "awake desire, charm"; Old English "giernan" "to strive, desire, yearn"; Gothic "gairnei" "desire".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*ghere- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*ghere-

"*ghere-", "*ghere-" : *gher?-, Proto-Indo-European root meaning "gut, entrail". - It forms all or part of: "Chordata"; "chordate"; "chord" (n.2) "structure in animals resembling a string"; "chorion"; "cord"; "cordon"; "harpsichord"; "haruspex"; "hernia"; "notochord"; "yarn". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "hira" "vein; band"; Latin "hernia" "rupture"; Greek "khorde" "intestine, gut-string"; Lithuanian "arna" "guts, leather bag"; Old English "gearn", Old High German "garn" "yarn" (originally made of dried gut), Old Norse "gorn" "gut".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*ghes- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*ghes-

"*ghes-", "*ghes-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "the hand". - It forms all or part of: "chiral"; "chiro-"; "chirognomy"; "chirography"; "chirology"; "chiromancy"; "chiropodist"; "chiropractic"; "chiropractor"; "chirosophy"; "chirurgeon"; "enchiridion"; "surgeon"; "surgery""; surgical". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "kheir", Hittite "keshshar", Armenian "jern" "the hand"


Erstellt: 2018-03

*gheu- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*gheu-

"*gheu-", "*gheu-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to pour, pour a libation". It forms all or part of: "alchemy"; "chyle"; "chyme"; "confound"; "confuse"; "diffuse"; "diffusion"; "effuse"; "effusion"; "effusive"; "fondant"; "fondue"; "font" (n.2) "complete set of characters of a particular face and size of type"; "found" (v.2) "to cast metal"; "foundry"; "funnel"; "fuse" (v.) "to melt, make liquid by heat"; "fusible"; "fusion"; "futile"; "futility"; "geyser"; "gush"; "gust" (n.) "sudden squall of wind"; "gut"; "infuse"; "ingot"; "parenchyma"; "perfuse"; "perfusion"; "profuse"; "refund"; "refuse" (v.) "reject, disregard, avoid"; "refuse" (n.) "waste material, trash"; "suffuse"; "suffusion"; "transfuse"; "transfusion". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "khein" "to pour", "khoane" "funnel", "khymos" "juice"; Latin "fundere" (past participle "fusus") "melt, cast, pour out"; Gothic "giutan", Old English "geotan" "to pour"; Old English "guttas" (plural) "bowels, entrails"; Old Norse "geysa" "to gush"; German "Gosse" "gutter, drain".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*ghos-ti- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*ghos-ti-

"*ghos-ti-", "*ghos-ti-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "stranger, guest, host", properly "someone with whom one has reciprocal duties of hospitality", representing "a mutual exchange relationship highly important to ancient Indo-European society" [Watkins]. But as strangers are potential enemies as well as guests, the word has a forked path. The word "ghos-ti-" was thus the central expression of the guest-host relationship, a mutual exchange relationship highly important to ancient Indo-European society. A guest-friendship was a bond of trust between two people that was accompanied by ritualized gift-giving and created an obligation of mutual hospitality and friendship that, once established, could continue in perpetuity and be renewed years later by the same parties or their descendants. [Calvert Watkins, "American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots"] It forms all or part of: "Euxine"; "guest"; "hospice"; "hospitable"; "hospital"; "hospitality"; "hospodar"; "host" (n.1) "person who receives guests"; "host" (n.2) "multitude"; "hostage"; "hostel"; "hostile"; "hostility"; "hostler"; "hotel"; "Xenia"; "xeno-"; "xenon". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "xenos" "guest, host, stranger"; Latin "hostis", in earlier use "a stranger", in classical use "an enemy", "hospes" "host"; Old Church Slavonic "gosti" "guest, friend", "gospodi" "lord, master"; Old English "gst", "chance comer, a stranger".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*ghredh- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*ghredh-

"*ghredh-", "*ghredh-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to walk, go". - It forms all or part of: "aggress"; "aggression"; "aggressive"; "centigrade"; "congress"; "degrade"; "degree"; "degression"; "digress"; "digression"; "egress"; "gradation"; "grade"; "gradual"; "graduate"; "grallatorial"; "gravigrade"; "ingredient"; "ingress"; "plantigrade"; "progress"; "progression"; "regress"; "regression"; "retrograde"; "retrogress"; "tardigrade"; "transgress"; "transgression". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin "gradus" "a step, a pace, gait", figuratively "a step toward something, a degree of something rising by stages"; "gradi" "to walk, step, go"; Lithuanian "gridiju, gridyti" "to go, wander"; Old Church Slavonic "gredo" "to come"; Old Irish "in-greinn" "he pursues".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*ghrei- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*ghrei-

"*ghrei-", "*ghrei-" : "ghrei-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to rub". - It forms all or part of: "chrism"; "Christ"; "christen"; "Christian"; "Christmas"; "cream"; "grime"; "grisly"; "Kriss Kringle". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "khriein" "to anoint, besmear"; Lithuanian "grieju, grieti" "to skim the cream off"; Old English "grima" "mask, helmet, ghost", Middle Low German "greme" "dirt".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*ghwer- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*ghwer-

"*ghwer-", "*ghwer-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "wild beast". - It forms all or part of: "baluchitherium"; "feral"; "ferine"; "ferocious"; "ferocity"; "fierce"; "ther-"; "Theropoda"; "treacle". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin "ferus" "wild, untamed"; Greek "ther", Old Church Slavonic "zveri", Lithuanian "veris" "wild beast".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*gleubh- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*gleubh-

"*gleubh-", "*gleubh-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to tear apart, cleave". - It forms all or part of: "cleave" (v.1) "to split, part or divide by force"; "cleft"; "clever"; "clevis"; "clove" (n.2) "slice of garlic"; "glyptodon"; "hieroglyphic"; "petroglyph". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "glyphe" "a carving", "glyphein" "to hollow out, cut out with a knife, engrave, carve"; Latin "glubere" "to peel, shell, strip"; Old High German "klioban", Old English "cleofan", Old Norse" kljufa" "to cleave", Old Norse "klofi", Middle Dutch "clove" "a cleft".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*gno- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*gno-

"*gno-", "*gno-" : "*gno-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to know". It forms all or part of: "acknowledge"; "acquaint"; "agnostic"; "anagnorisis"; "astrognosy"; "can" (v.1) "have power to, be able"; "cognition"; "cognizance"; "con" (n.2) "study"; "connoisseur"; "could"; "couth"; "cunning"; "diagnosis"; "ennoble"; "gnome"; (n.2) "short, pithy statement of general truth"; "gnomic"; "gnomon"; "gnosis"; "gnostic"; "Gnostic"; "ignoble"; "ignorant"; "ignore"; "incognito"; "ken" (n.1) "cognizance, intellectual view"; "kenning"; "kith"; "know"; "knowledge"; "narrate"; "narration"; "nobility"; "noble"; "notice"; "notify"; "notion"; "notorious"; "physiognomy"; "prognosis"; "quaint"; "recognize"; "reconnaissance"; "reconnoiter"; "uncouth"; "Zend". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "jna-" "know"; Avestan "zainti-" "knowledge", Old Persian "xnasatiy" "he shall know"; Old Church Slavonic "znati" "recognizes", Russian "znat" "to know"; Latin "gnoscere" "get to know", "nobilis" "known, famous, noble"; Greek "gignoskein" "to know", "gnotos" "known", "gnosis" "knowledge, inquiry"; Old Irish "gnath" "known"; German "kennen" "to know", Gothic "kannjan" "to make known".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*gre-no- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*gre-no-

"*gre-no-", "*gre-no-" : "*gr?-no-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "grain". It forms all or part of: "corn" (n.1); "filigree"; "garner"; "garnet"; "grain"; "granary"; "grange"; "granger"; "granite"; "granular"; "granule"; "grenade"; "grenadine"; "kernel"; "pomegranate". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin "granum" "seed", Old Church Slavonic "zruno" "grain", Lithuanian "irnis" "pea", Old English "corn".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*gwei- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*gwei-

"*gwei-", "*gwei-" : also "*gweie-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to live". It forms all or part of: "abiogenesis"; "aerobic"; "amphibian"; "anaerobic"; "azo-"; "azoic"; "azotemia"; "bio-"; "biography"; "biology"; "biome"; "bionics"; "biopsy"; "biota"; "biotic"; "cenobite"; "Cenozoic"; "convivial"; "couch-grass"; "epizoic"; "epizoon"; "epizootic"; "macrobiotic"; "Mesozoic"; "microbe"; "Protozoa"; "protozoic"; "quick"; "quicken"; "quicksand"; "quicksilver"; "quiver" (v.) "to tremble"; "revive"; "survive"; "symbiosis"; "viable"; "viand"; "viper"; "vita"; "vital"; "vitamin"; "victuals"; "viva"; "vivace"; "vivacious"; "vivarium"; "vivid"; "vivify"; "viviparous"; "vivisection"; "whiskey"; "wyvern"; "zodiac"; "Zoe"; "zoetrope"; "zoic"; "zoo-"; "zoolatry"; "zoology"; "zoon"; "zoophilia"; "zoophobia"; "zooplankton". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "jivah" "alive, living"; Old Persian "*jivaka-" "alive", Middle Persian "zhiwak" "alive"; Greek "bios" "one's life, course or way of living, lifetime", "zoe" "animal life, organic life"; Old English "cwic", "cwicu" "living, alive"; Latin "vivus" "living, alive", "vita" "life"; Old Church Slavonic "zivo" "to live"; Lithuanian "gyvas" "living, alive", "gyvata" "(eternal) life"; Old Irish "bethu" "life", "bith" "age"; Welsh "byd" "world".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*gwele- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*gwele-

"*gwele-", "*gwele-" : "*gwel?-", also "*gwel-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to throw, reach", with extended sense "to pierce". - It forms all or part of: "anabolic"; "arbalest"; "astrobleme"; "ball" (n.2) "dancing party"; "ballad"; "ballet"; "ballista"; "ballistic"; "ballistics"; "belemnite"; "catabolism"; "devil"; "diabolical"; "discobolus"; "emblem"; "embolism"; "hyperbola"; "hyperbole"; "kill" (v.); "metabolism"; "palaver"; "parable"; "parabola"; "parley"; "parliament"; "parlor"; "parol"; "parole"; "problem"; "quell"; "quail" (v.) "lose heart, shrink, cower"; "symbol". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "apa-gurya" "swinging", "balbaliti" "whirls, twirls"; Greek "ballein" "to throw, to throw so as to hit", also in a looser sense, "to put, place, lay", "bole" "a throw, beam, ray", "belemnon" "dart, javelin", "belone" "needle", "ballizein" "to dance"; Armenian "kelem" "I torture"; Old Church Slavonic "zali" "pain"; Lithuanian "galas" "end", "gela" "agony", "gelti" "to sting".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*gwen- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*gwen-

"*gwen-", "*gwen-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "woman". It forms all or part of: "androgynous"; "banshee"; "gynarchy"; "gyneco-"; "gynecology"; "gynecomastia"; "gyno-"; "misogyny"; "polygyny"; "quean"; "queen". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "janis" "a woman", "gn" "wife of a god, a goddess"; Avestan "jainish" "wife"; Armenian "kin" "woman"; Greek "gyn" "a woman, a wife"; Old Church Slavonic "zena", Old Prussian "genna" "woman"; Gaelic "bean" "woman"; Old English "cwen" "queen, female ruler of a state, woman, wife"; Gothic "qino" "a woman, wife, "qns" "queen".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*gwere- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*gwere-

"*gwere-", "*gwere-" (2) : "gwer?-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to favor". - It forms all or part of: "agree"; "bard" (n.); "congratulate"; "congratulation"; "disgrace"; "grace"; "gracious"; "grateful"; "gratify"; "gratis"; "gratitude"; "gratuitous"; "gratuity"; "gratulation"; "ingrate"; "ingratiate". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "grnati" "sings, praises, announces"; Avestan "gar-" "to praise"; Lithuanian "giriu, girti" "to praise, celebrate"; Old Celtic "bardos" "poet, singer".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*gwere- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*gwere-

"*gwere-", "*gwere-" (1) : "gwer?-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "heavy". It forms all or part of: "aggravate"; "aggravation"; "aggrieve"; "bar" (n.4) "unit of pressure"; "bariatric"; "baritone"; "barium"; "barometer"; "blitzkrieg"; "brig"; "brigade"; "brigand"; "brigantine"; "brio"; "brut"; "brute"; "charivari"; "gravamen"; "grave" (adj.); "gravid"; "gravimeter"; "gravitate"; "gravity"; "grief"; "grieve"; "kriegspiel"; "guru"; "hyperbaric"; "isobar"; "quern"; "sitzkrieg". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "guruh" "heavy, weighty, venerable"; Greek "baros" "weight", "barys" "heavy in weight", often with the notion of "strength, force"; Latin "gravis", "heavy, ponderous, burdensome, loaded; pregnant"; Old English "cweorn" "quern"; Gothic "kaurus" "heavy"; Lettish "gruts" "heavy".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*gwher- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*gwher-

"*gwher-", "*gwher-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to heat, warm". It forms all or part of: "brand"; "brandish"; "brandy"; "brimstone"; "brindled"; "burn"; "forceps"; "Fornax"; "fornicate"; "fornication"; "fornix"; "furnace"; "hypothermia"; "thermal"; "thermo-"; "Thermopylae"; "Thermos". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "gharmah" "heat"; Old Persian "Garmapada-", name of the fourth month, corresponding to June/July, from "garma-" "heat"; Hittite "war-" "to burn"; Armenian "jerm" "warm"; Greek "thermos" "warm"; Latin "formus" "warm", "fornax" "oven"; Old Irish "fogeir" "heated"; Old English "brnan" "to kindle".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*gwhi- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*gwhi-

"*gwhi-", "*gwhi-" : "*gwhi-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "thread, tendon". It forms all or part of: "defile" (n.) "narrow passage"; "enfilade"; "filament"; "file" (v.1) "place (papers) in consecutive order for future reference"; "filigree"; "filipendulous"; "fillet"; "profile". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Avestan "jya-" "bowstring"; Latin "filum" "a thread, string"; Armenian "jil" "sinew, string, line"; Lithuanian "gysla" "vein, sinew"; Old Church Slavonic "zila" "vein".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*gwora- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*gwora-

"*gwora-", "*gwora-" : also "*gwera-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "food, devouring". It forms all or part of: "carnivorous"; "devour"; "gorge"; "gurges"; "hellebore"; "herbivore"; "herbivorous"; "insectivore"; "locavore"; "omnivorous"; "voracious"; "voracity"; "-vorous". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "girati" "devours, swallows", "garah" "drink"; Avestan "aspo-gar-" "devouring horses", "nere-gar-" "devouring men"; Greek "bobroskein" "to eat, digest", "brotos" "edible", "brosis" "eating", "bora" "fodder"; Latin "vorare" "to swallow, devour"; Armenian "e-ker" "ate"; Lithuanian "gerti" "to drink", "grtas" "drunk"; Old Church Slavonic "iro" "to swallow", "grulo" "gullet", "po-reti" "to eat" (of animals), "to devour".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*gwou- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*gwou-

"*gwou-", "*gwou-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "ox, bull, cow", perhaps ultimately imitative of lowing; compare Sumerian "gu", Chinese "ngu", "ngo" "ox". - It forms all or part of: "beef"; "Boeotian"; "Bosphorus"; "boustrophedon"; "bovine"; "bugle"; "Bucephalus"; "bucolic"; "buffalo"; "bugloss"; "bulimia"; "butane"; "butter"; "butyl"; "butyric"; "cow" (n.); "cowbell"; "cowboy"; "cowlick"; "cowslip"; "Euboea"; "Gurkha"; "hecatomb"; "kine". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "gaus", Greek "bous", Latin "bos", Old Irish "bo", Latvian "guovs", Armenian "gaus", Old English "cu", German "Kuh", Old Norse "kyr", Slovak "hovado" "cow, ox". - In Germanic and Celtic, of females only; in most other languages, of either gender. Other "cow" words sometimes are from roots meaning "horn, horned", such as Lithuanian "karve", Old Church Slavonic "krava".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*ka- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*ka-

"*ka-", "*ka-" : "*ka-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to like, desire". It forms all or part of: "caress"; "charity"; "cherish"; "Kama Sutra"; "whore"; "whoredom". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "Kama", name of the Hindu god of love, "kamah" "love, desire"; Old Persian "kama" "desire"; Latin "carus" "dear"; Old Irish "cara" "friend"; Old English "hore" "prostitute, harlot".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*kad- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*kad-

"*kad-", "*kad-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to fall". It forms all or part of: "accident"; "cadaver"; "cadence"; "caducous"; "cascade"; "case" (n.1); "casual"; "casualty"; "casuist"; "casus belli"; "chance"; "cheat"; "chute" (n.1); "coincide"; "decadence"; "decay"; "deciduous"; "escheat"; "incident"; "occasion"; "occident"; "recidivist". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "sad-" "to fall down"; Latin "casus" "a chance, occasion, opportunity; accident, mishap", literally "a falling", "cadere" "to fall, sink, settle down, decline, perish"; Armenian "chacnum" "to fall, become low"; perhaps also Middle Irish "casar" "hail, lightning".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*kae-id- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*kae-id-

"*kae-id-", "*kae-id-" : "*ka?-id-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to strike". - It forms all or part of: "abscise"; "avicide"; "biocide"; "caesarian"; "caesura"; "cement"; "chisel"; "-cide"; "circumcise"; "circumcision"; "concise"; "decide"; "decision"; "deicide"; "excise" (v.); "excision"; "felicide"; "feticide"; "filicide"; "floricide"; "fratricide"; "fungicide"; "gallinicide"; "genocide"; "germicide"; "herbicide"; "homicide"; "incise"; "incision"; "incisor"; "infanticide"; "insecticide"; "legicide"; "liberticide"; "libricide"; "matricide"; "parricide"; "patricide"; "pesticide"; "precise"; "precision"; "prolicide"; "scissors"; "senicide"; "spermicide"; "suicide"; "uxoricide"; "verbicide". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "skhidati" "beats, tears"; Latin "caedere" "to strike down, fell, slay"; Lithuanian "kaiti" "shave"; Armenian "xait'em" "to stab"; Albanian "qeth" "to shave"; Middle Dutch "heien" "to drive piles", Old High German "heia" "wooden hammer", German "heien" "beat".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*kakka- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*kakka-

"*kakka-", "*kakka-" : also "kaka-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to defecate". According to Watkins, "imitative of glottal closure during defecation". It forms all or part of: "caca"; "cachexia"; "caco-"; "cacoethes"; "cacophony"; "cucking stool"; "kakistocracy"; "poppycock". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "kakke" "human excrement", Latin "cacare", Irish "caccaim", Serbo-Croatian "kakati", Armenian "k'akor"; Old English "cac-hus" "latrine". Etymologists dispute whether the modern Germanic words (Dutch "kakken", Danish "kakke", German "kacken"), are native cognates or student slang borrowed from Latin "cacare". "Caca" appears in Modern English in slang c. 1870, and could have been taken from any or several of the languages that used it.


Erstellt: 2018-03

*kan- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*kan-

"*kan-", "*kan-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to sing". - It forms all or part of: "accent"; "cant" (n.1); "cantabile"; "cantata"; "cantatrice"; "canticle"; "canto"; "cantor"; "canzone"; "Carmen"; "chanson"; "chant"; "chanter"; "chanteuse"; "chanty"; "chanticleer"; "charm"; "concent"; "descant"; "enchant"; "enchantment"; "hen"; "incantation"; "incentive"; "oscine"; "precentor"; "recant". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "eikanos" "cock", literally "bird who sings (for sunrise)"; Latin "cantare", "canere" "to sing"; Old Irish "caniaid" "sings", Welsh "canu" "sing"; Old English "hana" "cock".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*kand- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*kand-

"*kand-", "*kand-" : also "*kend-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to shine". It forms all or part of: "candela"; "candelabrum"; "candescent"; "candid"; "candidate"; "candle"; "candor"; "chandelier"; "chandler"; "frankincense"; "incandescence"; "incandescent"; "incendiary"; "incense" (n.) "substance producing a sweet smell when burned"; "incense" (v.1) "to provoke, anger". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "cand-" "to give light, shine", "candra-" "shining, glowing, moon"; Greek "kandaros" "coal"; Latin "candere" "to shine"; Welsh "cann" "white", Middle Irish "condud" "fuel".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*kap- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*kap-

"*kap-", "*kap-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to grasp". It forms all or part of: "accept"; "anticipate"; "anticipation"; "behave"; "behoof"; "behoove"; "cable"; "cacciatore"; "caitiff"; "capable"; "capacious"; "capacity"; "capias"; "capiche"; "capstan"; "caption"; "captious"; "captivate"; "captive"; "captor"; "capture"; "case" (n.2) "receptacle"; "catch"; "catchpoll"; "cater"; "chase" (n.1) "a hunt"; "chase" (v.) "to run after, hunt"; "chasse"; "chasseur"; "conceive"; "cop" (v.) "to sieze, catch"; "copper" (n.2) "policeman"; "deceive"; "emancipate"; "except"; "forceps"; "gaffe"; "haft"; "have"; "hawk" (n.); "heave"; "heavy"; "heft"; "incapacity"; "inception"; "incipient"; "intercept"; "intussusception"; "manciple"; "municipal"; "occupy"; "participation"; "perceive"; "precept"; "prince"; "purchase"; "receive"; "recipe"; "recover"; "recuperate"; "sashay"; "susceptible". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "kapati" "two handfuls"; Greek "kaptein" "to swallow, gulp down", "kope" "oar, handle"; Latin "capax" "able to hold much, broad", "capistrum" "halter", "capere" "to grasp, lay hold; be large enough for; comprehend"; Lettish "kampiu" "seize"; Old Irish "cacht" "servant-girl", literally "captive"; Welsh "caeth" "captive, slave"; Gothic "haban" "have, hold"; Old English "hft" "handle", "habban" "to have, hold".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*kaput- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*kaput-

"*kaput-", "*kaput-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "head". It forms all or part of: "achieve"; "behead"; "biceps"; "cabbage"; "cabochon"; "caddie"; "cadet"; "cap"; "cap-a-pie"; "cape" (n.1) "garment"; "cape" (n.2) "promontory"; "capital" (adj.); "capital" (n.3) "head of a column or pillar"; "capitate"; "capitation"; "capitulate"; "capitulation"; "capitulum"; "capo" (n.1) "leader of a Mafia family"; "capo" (n.2) "pitch-altering device for a stringed instrument"; "caprice"; "capsize"; "captain"; "cattle"; "caudillo"; "chapter"; "chef"; "chief"; "chieftain"; "corporal" (n.); "decapitate"; "decapitation"; "forehead"; "head"; "hetman"; "kaput"; "kerchief"; "mischief"; "occipital"; "precipice"; "precipitate"; "precipitation"; "recapitulate"; "recapitulation"; "sinciput"; "triceps". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "kaput-"; Latin "caput" "head"; Old English "heafod", German "Haupt", Gothic "haubi" "head".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*kar- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*kar-

"*kar-", "*kar-" : also "*ker-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "hard". - It forms all or part of: "-ard"; "Bernard"; "cancer"; "canker"; "carcinogen"; "carcinoma"; "careen"; "chancre"; "-cracy"; "Gerard"; "hard"; "hardly"; "hardy"; "Leonard"; "Richard"; "standard". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "karkatah" "crab", "karkarah" "hard"; Greek "kratos" "strength", "kratys" "strong"; "hard"; Old English "heard", German "hart" "solid and firm, not soft".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*ked- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*ked-

"*ked-", "*ked-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to go, yield". It forms all or part of: "abscess"; "accede"; "access"; "ancestor"; "antecede"; "antecedent"; "cease"; "cede"; "cession"; "concede"; "decease"; "exceed"; "excess"; "incessant"; "intercede"; "necessary"; "precede"; "predecessor"; "proceed"; "recede"; "recess"; "recession"; "secede"; "secession"; "succeed"; "success". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "sedhati" "to drive, chase away"; Avestan "apa-had-" "turn aside, step aside"; Latin "cedere" "to yield, give place; to give up some right or property", originally "to go from, proceed, leave"; Old Church Slavonic "chodu" "a walking, going", "choditi" "to go".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*keg- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*keg-

"*keg-", "*keg-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "hook, tooth". It forms all or part of: "hacek"; "hack" (v.1) "to cut roughly, cut with chopping blows"; "hake"; "Hakenkreuz"; "heckle"; "hook"; "hooker". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Russian "kogot" "claw"; Old English "hoc" "hook, angle".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*kei- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*kei-

"*kei-", "*kei-" (1) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to lie", also forming words for "bed, couch", and with a secondary sense of "beloved, dear". It forms all or part of: "ceilidh"; "cemetery"; "city"; "civic"; "civil"; "civilian"; "civilization"; "civilize"; "hide" (n.2) measure of land; "incivility"; "incunabula"; "Siva". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "Sivah" "propitious, gracious"; Greek "keisthai" "to lie, lie asleep"; Latin "cunae" "a cradle"; Old Church Slavonic "semija" "family, domestic servants"; Lithuanian "eima" "domestic servants", Lettish "sieva" "wife"; Old English "hiwan" "members of a household".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*keie- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*keie-

"*keie-", "*keie-" : also "kei?-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to set in motion". - It forms all or part of: "behest"; "cinema"; "cinematography"; "citation"; "cite"; "excite"; "hest"; "hight"; "hyperkinetic"; "incite"; "kinase"; "kinematics"; "kinesics"; "kinesiology"; "kinesis"; "kinesthesia"; "kinesthetic"; "kinetic"; "kineto-"; "kino-"; "oscitant"; "recital"; "recitation"; "recite"; "resuscitate"; "solicit"; "solicitous"; "suscitate"; "telekinesis". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "cyavate" "stirs himself, goes"; Greek "kinein" "to move, set in motion; change, stir up", "kinymai" "move myself"; Latin "ciere" (past participle "citus", frequentative "citare") "to set in motion, summon"; Gothic "haitan" "call, be called"; Old English "hatan" "command, call".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*kel- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*kel-

"*kel-", "*kel-" (2) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to be prominent", also "hill". - It forms all or part of: "colonel"; "colonnade"; "colophon"; "column"; "culminate"; "culmination"; "excel"; "excellence"; "excellent"; "excelsior"; "hill"; "holm". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "kutam" "top, skull"; Latin "collis" "hill", "columna" "projecting object", "cellere" "raise"; Greek "kolonos" "hill", "kolophon" "summit"; Lithuanian "kalnas" "mountain", "kalnelis" "hill", "kelti" "raise"; Old English "hyll" "hill", Old Norse "hallr" "stone", Gothic "hallus" "rock".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*kel- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*kel-

"*kel-", "*kel-" (1) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to cover, conceal, save". - It forms all or part of: "Anselm"; "apocalypse"; "Brussels"; "caliology"; "Calypso"; "calyx"; "ceiling"; "cell"; "cellar"; "cellular"; "cellulite"; "cellulitis"; "cilia"; "clandestine"; "cojones"; "coleoptera"; "color"; "conceal"; "eucalyptus"; "hall"; "hell"; "helm" (n.2) "a helmet"; "helmet"; "hold" (n.2) "space in a ship below the lower deck"; "hole"; "hollow"; "holster"; "housing" (n.2) "ornamental covering"; "hull" (n.1) "seed covering"; "kil-"; "kleptomania"; "occult"; "rathskeller"; "supercilious"; "Valhalla"; "William". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "cala" "hut, house, hall"; Greek "kalia" "hut, nest", "kalyptein" "to cover", "koleon", "koleos" "sheath", "kelyphos" "shell, husk"; Latin "cella" "small room, store room, hut", "celare" "to hide, conceal", "clam" "secret", "clepere" "to steal, listen secretly to"; Old Irish "cuile" "cellar", "celim" "hide", Middle Irish "cul" "defense, shelter"; Gothic "hulistr" "covering", Old English "heolstor" "lurking-hole, cave, covering", Gothic "huljan" "to cover over", "hulundi" "hole", "hilms" "helmet", "halja" "hell", Old English "hol" "cave", "holu" "husk, pod"; Old Prussian "au-klipts" "hidden"; Old Church Slavonic "poklopu" "cover, wrapping".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*kele- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*kele-

"*kele-", "*kele-" (2) : "*kel?-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to shout". Perhaps imitative. It forms all or part of: "acclaim"; "acclamation"; "Aufklarung"; "calendar"; "chiaroscuro"; "claim"; "Claire"; "clairvoyance"; "clairvoyant"; "clamor"; "Clara"; "claret"; "clarify"; "clarinet"; "clarion"; "clarity"; "class"; "clear"; "cledonism"; "conciliate"; "conciliation"; "council"; "declaim"; "declare"; "disclaim"; "ecclesiastic"; "eclair"; "exclaim"; "glair"; "hale" (v.); "halyard"; "intercalate"; "haul"; "keelhaul"; "low" (v.); "nomenclature"; "paraclete"; "proclaim"; "reclaim"; "reconcile". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "usakala" "cock", literally "dawn-calling"; Latin "calare" "to announce solemnly, call out", "clamare" "to cry out, shout, proclaim"; Middle Irish "cailech" "cock"; Greek "kalein" "to call", "kelados" "noise", "kledon" "report, fame"; Old High German "halan" "to call"; Old English "hlowan" "to low, make a noise like a cow"; Lithuanian "kalba" "language".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*kele- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*kele-

"*kele-", "*kele-" (1) : "kel?-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "warm". It forms all or part of: "caldera"; "calid"; "Calor"; "caloric"; "calorie"; "calorimeter"; "cauldron"; "caudle"; "chafe"; "chauffeur"; "chowder"; "coddle"; "lee"; "lukewarm"; "nonchalant"; "scald" (v.) "afflict painfully with hot liquid or steam". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "carad-" "harvest", literally "hot time"; Latin "calor" "heat", "calidus" "warm", "calere" "be hot"; Lithuanian "ilti" "become warm", "ilus" "August"; Old Norse "hlr", Old English "hleow" "warm".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*ker- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*ker-

"*ker-", "*ker-" (2) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to grow". - It forms all or part of: "accretion"; "accrue"; "cereal"; "Ceres"; "concrete"; "create"; "creation"; "creature"; "Creole"; "crescendo"; "crescent"; "crew" (n.) "group of soldiers"; "croissant"; "cru"; "decrease"; "Dioscuri"; "excrescence"; "excrescent"; "griot"; "increase"; "Kore"; "procerity"; "procreate"; "procreation"; "recreate"; "recreation"; "recruit"; "sincere". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "kouros" "boy", "kore" "girl"; Latin "crescere" "come forth, spring up, grow, thrive, swell", "Ceres", goddess of agriculture, "creare" "to bring forth, create, produce"; Armenian "serem" "bring forth", "serim" "be born".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*ker- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*ker-

"*ker-", "*ker-" (3) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "heat, fire". - It forms all or part of: "carbon"; "carboniferous"; "carbuncle"; "cremate"; "cremation"; "hearth". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "kudayati" "singes"; Latin "carbo" "a coal, glowing coal; charcoal", "cremare" "to burn"; Lithuanian "kuriu, kurti" "to heat", "kartas" "hot", "krosnis" "oven"; Old Church Slavonic "kurjo" "to smoke", "krada" "fireplace, hearth"; Russian "ceren" "brazier"; Old High German "harsta" "roasting"; Gothic "hauri" "coal"; Old Norse "hyrr" "fire"; Old English "heor" "hearth".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*ker- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*ker-

"*ker-", "*ker-" (1) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "horn; head", with derivatives referring to horned animals, horn-shaped objects, and projecting parts. - It forms all or part of: "alpenhorn"; "Capricorn"; "carat"; "carotid"; "carrot"; "carotene"; "cerato-"; "cerebellum"; "cerebral"; "cerebrum"; "cervical"; "cervix"; "charivari"; "cheer"; "chelicerae"; "corn" (n.2) "hardening of the skin"; "cornea"; "corner"; "cornet"; "cornucopia"; "cranium"; "flugelhorn"; "hart"; "hartebeest"; "horn"; "hornbeam"; "hornblende"; "hornet"; "keratin"; "kerato-"; "migraine"; "monoceros"; "reindeer"; "rhinoceros"; "saveloy"; "serval"; "triceratops"; "unicorn". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "srngam" "horn"; Persian "sar" "head", Avestan "sarah-" "head"; Greek "karnon" "horn", "koryne" "club, mace", "koryphe" "head"; Latin "cornu" "horn", "cervus" "deer"; Old English "horn" "horn of an animal"; Welsh "carw" "deer".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*kerd- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*kerd-

"*kerd-", "*kerd-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "heart". It forms all or part of: "accord"; "cardiac"; "cardio-"; "concord"; "core"; "cordial"; "courage"; "credence"; "credible"; "credit"; "credo"; "credulous"; "creed"; "discord"; "grant"; "heart"; "incroyable"; "megalocardia"; "miscreant"; "myocardium"; "pericarditis"; "pericardium"; "quarry" (n.1) "what is hunted"; "record"; "recreant"; "tachycardia". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "kardia", Latin "cor", Armenian "sirt", Old Irish "cride", Welsh "craidd", Hittite "kir", Lithuanian "irdis", Russian "serdce", Old English "heorte", German "Herz", Gothic "hairto", "heart"; Breton "kreiz" "middle"; Old Church Slavonic "sreda" "middle".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*kerp- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*kerp-

"*kerp-", "*kerp-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to gather, pluck, harvest". - It forms all or part of: "carpe diem"; "carpel"; "carpet"; "carpo-" (1) "fruit"; "excerpt"; "harvest"; "scarce"; "scarcity". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "krpana-" "sword", "krpani" "shears"; Greek "karpos" "fruit", "karpizomai" "make harvest of"; Latin "carpere" "to cut, divide, pluck"; Lithuanian "kerpu, kirpti" "to cut"; Middle Irish "cerbaim" "cut"; Old English "hrfest" "autumn".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*kers- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*kers-

"*kers-", "*kers-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to run". - It forms all or part of: "car"; "career"; "cargo"; "caricature"; "cark"; "carpenter"; "carriage"; "carrier"; "carry"; "charabanc"; "charette"; "charge"; "chariot"; "concourse"; "concur"; "concurrent"; "corral"; "corridor"; "corsair"; "courant"; "courier"; "course"; "currency"; "current"; "curriculum"; "cursive"; "cursor"; "cursory"; "discharge"; "discourse"; "encharge"; "excursion"; "hussar"; "incur"; "intercourse"; "kraal"; "miscarry"; "occur"; "precursor"; "recourse"; "recur"; "succor". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "-khouros" "running"; Latin "currere" "to run, move quickly"; Lithuanian "kariu, karti" "go quickly";Old Irish and Middle Welsh "carr" "cart, wagon", Breton "karr" "chariot", Welsh "carrog" "torrent"; Old Norse "horskr" "swift".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*kes- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*kes-

"*kes-", "*kes-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to cut". It forms all or part of: "caret"; "cashier" (v.) "dismiss"; "cassation"; "caste"; "castellan"; "castellated"; "Castile"; "castle"; "castigate"; "castrate"; "castration"; "chaste"; "chastity"; "chateau"; "chatelaine"; "Chester"; "forecastle"; "incest"; "quash" (v.) "make void, annul". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "sastra-" "knife, dagger"; Greek "keazein" "to split"; Latin "carere" "to be cut off from", "cassus" "empty, void"; Old Church Slavonic "kosa" "scythe".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*keu- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*keu-

"*keu-", "*keu-" : also "*skeu-" Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to see, observe, perceive". - It forms all or part of: "Anschauung"; "caution"; "cautious"; "caveat"; "kudos"; "precaution"; "scavenger"; "scone"; "sheen"; "show". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "kavih" "wise, sage; seer, poet"; Avestan "kauui-" "seer, poet, wise man"; Middle Iranian "koh" "splendor, majesty"; Latin "cautio" "care, foresight", "cautus" "careful, heedful", "cavere" "beware, take heed"; Greek "kydos" "glory, fame"; Lithuanian "kavoti" "tend, safeguard"; Armenian" cucanem" "I show"; Old Church Slavonic "cudo" "wonder"; Czech "(z)koumati" "to perceive, be aware of"; Serbian "cuvati" "watch, heed"; Old English "sceawian" "to look at", Middle Dutch "schoon" "beautiful, bright", properly "showy", Old High German "scouwon" "to watch".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*keue- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*keue-

"*keue-", "*keue-" : "*keu?-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to swell", also "vault, hole". It forms all or part of: "accumulate"; "accumulation"; "cave"; "cavern"; "cavity"; "coeliac"; "church"; "codeine"; "coelacanth"; "coeliac"; "coelomate"; "concave"; "cumulate"; "cumulative"; "cumulus"; "enceinte"; "excavate"; "kirk"; "kymatology"; "Kyrie eleison". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "svayati" "swells up, is strong"; Greek "kyein" "to swell", "koilos" "hollow, hollowed out, spacious, deep"; Latin "cumulus" "a heap, pile, mass, surplus"; Lithuanian "aunas" "firm, solid, fit, capable"; Middle Irish "cua" "hollow"; Armenian "soyl" "cavity".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*klau- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*klau-

"*klau-", "*klau-" : also "*kleu-", "kleu-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "hook, crook", also "crooked or forked branch" (used as a bar or bolt in primitive structures). - It forms all or part of: "anschluss"; "autoclave"; "clause"; "claustrophobia"; "claves"; "clavichord"; "clavicle"; "clavier"; "claviger"; "clechy"; "clef"; "cloison"; "cloisonne"; "cloister"; "close" (v.); "close" (adj.); "closet"; "closure"; "cloture"; "clove" (n.1) "dried flowerbud of a certain tropical tree, used as a spice"; "cloy"; "conclave"; "conclude"; "disclose"; "enclave"; "enclose"; "exclude"; "foreclose"; "include"; "occlude"; "preclude"; "recluse"; "seclude"; "slot" (n.2) "bar or bolt used to fasten a door, window, etc". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "kleis" "bar, bolt, key; collarbone", "klobos" "cage"; Latin "clavis" "key", "clavus" "nail", "claudere" "to shut, close"; Lithuanian "kliuti" "to catch, be caught on", "kliaudiu, kliausti" "to check, hinder", "kliuvu, kliuti" "to clasp, hang"; Old Church Slavonic "kljuci" "hook, key", "kljuciti" "shut"; Old Irish "clo" "nail", Middle Irish "clithar" "hedge, fence"; Old High German "sliozan" "shut", German "schlieen" "to shut", "Schlssel" "key".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*klei- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*klei-

"*klei-", "*klei-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to lean". - It forms all or part of: "acclivity"; "anticline"; "clemency"; "client"; "climate"; "climax"; "cline"; "clinic"; "clinical"; "clino-"; "clitellum"; "clitoris"; "decline"; "declivity"; "enclitic"; "heteroclite"; "incline"; "ladder"; "lean" (v.); "lid"; "low" (n.2) "small hill, eminence"; "matroclinous"; "patroclinous"; "polyclinic"; "proclitic"; "proclivity"; "recline"; "synclinal"; "thermocline". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "srayati" "leans", "sritah" "leaning"; Old Persian "cay" "to lean"; Lithuanian "lyti" "to slope", "lieti" "to lean"; Latin "clinare" "to lean, bend", "clivus" "declivity", "inclinare" "cause to bend", "declinare" "bend down, turn aside"; Greek "klinein" "to cause to slope, slant, incline"; Old Irish "cloin" "crooked, wrong"; Middle Irish "cle", Welsh "cledd" "left", literally "slanting").


Erstellt: 2018-03

*kleu- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*kleu-

"*kleu-", "*kleu-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to hear". - It forms all or part of: "ablaut"; "Cleon"; "Clio"; "Damocles"; "Hercules"; "leer"; "list" (v.2) "hear, harken"; "listen"; "loud"; "Mstislav"; "Pericles"; "Slav"; "slave"; "Slavic"; "Slovene"; "Sophocles"; "Themistocles"; "umlaut"; "Wenceslas"; "Yugoslav". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "srnoti" "hears", "srosati" "hears, obeys", "srutah" "heard of, celebrated"; Avestan "sraothra" "ear"; Middle Persian "srod" "hearing, sound"; Greek "klyo" "hear, be called", "klytos" "heard of, celebrated", "kleos" "report, rumor, fame glory", "kleio" "make famous"; Latin "cluere" "to hear oneself called, be spoken of", "inclutus" "renowned, famous"; Armenian "lu" "known"; Lithuanian "klausau, klausyti" "to hear", "love" "splendor, honor"; Old Church Slavonic "slusati" "to hear", "slava" "fame, glory", "slovo" "word"; Old Irish "ro-clui-nethar" "hears", "clunim" "I hear", "clu" "fame, glory", "cluada" "ears", Irish "cloth" "noble, brave"; Welsh "clywaf" "I hear", "clod" "praise, fame"; Old English "hlud" "loud", "hlysnan" "to listen, hear", "hleoor" "tone, tune"; Old High German "hlut" "sound"; Gothic "hilu" "listening, attention".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*ko- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*ko-

"*ko-", "*ko-" : Proto-Indo-European root, the stem of demonstrative pronoun meaning "this". - It forms all or part of: "cis-"; "et cetera"; "harass"; "he"; "hence"; "her"; "here"; "him"; "his"; "hither"; "it". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "ekeinos" "that person"; Latin "cis" "on this side"," citra" (adv.) "on this side"; Old Church Slavonic "si", Lithuanian" is", Hittite "ki" "this"; Old English "hider", Gothic "hidre" "hither".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*krei- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*krei-

"*krei-", "*krei-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to sieve", thus "discriminate, distinguish". It forms all or part of: "ascertain"; "certain"; "concern"; "concert"; "crime"; "criminal"; "crisis"; "critic"; "criterion"; "decree"; "diacritic"; "discern"; "disconcert"; "discreet"; "discriminate"; "endocrine"; "excrement"; "excrete"; "garble"; "hypocrisy"; "incertitude"; "recrement"; "recriminate"; "riddle" (n.2) "coarse sieve"; "secret"; "secretary". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "krinein" "to separate, decide, judge", "krinesthai" "to explain"; Latin "cribrum" "sieve", "crimen" "judgment, crime", "cernere" "to sift, distinguish, separate"; Old Irish "criathar", Old Welsh "cruitr" "sieve"; Middle Irish "crich" "border, boundary"; Old English "hriddel" "sieve".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*kreus- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*kreus-

"*kreus-", "*kreus-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to begin to freeze, form a crust". It forms all or part of: "crouton"; "crust"; "Crustacea"; "crustacean"; "cryo-"; "cryogenic"; "crystal"; "crystalline"; "crystallize"; "custard"; "encrust"; "Kristallnacht". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "krud-" "make hard, thicken"; Avestan "xruzdra-" "hard"; Greek "krystallos" "ice, crystal", "kryos" "icy cold, frost"; Latin "crusta" "rind, crust, shell, bark"; Lettish "kruwesis" "frozen mud"; Old High German "hrosa" "ice, crust"; Old English "hruse" "earth"; Old Norse "hror" "scurf".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*kweie- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*kweie-

"*kweie-", "*kweie-" : "*kwei?-", also "*kwye?-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to rest, be quiet". It forms all or part of: "acquiesce"; "acquit"; "awhile"; "coy"; "quiesce"; "quiescent"; "quiet"; "quietism"; "quietude"; "quietus"; "quit"; "quitclaim"; "quite"; "quit-rent"; "quittance"; "requiescat"; "requiem"; "requite"; "while"; "whilom". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Avestan "shaitish" "joy", "shaiti-" "well-being", "shyata-" "happy"; Old Persian "iyatish" "joy"; Latin "quies" "rest, repose, quiet"; Old Church Slavonic "po-koji" "rest"; Old Norse "hvild" "rest".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*kwel- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*kwel-

"*kwel-", "*kwel-" (1) : also "*kwel?-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "revolve, move round; sojourn, dwell". It forms all or part of: "accolade"; "ancillary"; "atelo-"; "bazaar"; "bicycle"; "bucolic"; "chakra"; "chukker"; "collar"; "collet"; "colonial"; "colony"; "cult"; "cultivate"; "culture"; "cyclamen"; "cycle"; "cyclo-"; "cyclone"; "cyclops"; "decollete"; "encyclical"; "encyclopedia"; "entelechy"; "epicycle"; "hauberk"; "hawse"; "inquiline"; "Kultur"; "lapidocolous"; "nidicolous"; "palimpsest"; "palindrome"; "palinode"; "pole" (n.2) "ends of Earth's axis"; "pulley"; "rickshaw"; "talisman"; "teleology"; "telic"; "telophase"; "telos"; "torticollis"; "wheel". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "cakram" "circle, wheel", "carati" "he moves, wanders"; Avestan "caraiti" "applies himself", "c'axra" "chariot, wagon"; Greek "kyklos" "circle, wheel, any circular body, circular motion, cycle of events","polos" "a round axis" (PIE "*kw-" becomes Greek "p-" before some vowels), "polein" "move around"; Latin "colere" "to frequent, dwell in, to cultivate, move around", "cultus" "tended, cultivated", hence also "polished", "colonus" "husbandman, tenant farmer, settler, colonist"; Lithuanian "kelias" "a road, a way"; Old Norse "hvel", Old English "hweol" "wheel"; Old Church Slavonic "kolo", Old Russian "kolo", Polish "kolo", Russian "koleso" "a wheel".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*kwel- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*kwel-

"*kwel-", "*kwel-" (2) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "far" (in space or time). Some sources connect this root with "*kwel-" (1), forming words to do with turning, via the notion of "completion of a cycle". - It forms all or part of: "paleo-"; "tele-"; "teleconference"; "telegony"; "telegraph"; "telegram"; "telekinesis"; "Telemachus"; "telemeter"; "telepathy"; "telephone"; "telescope"; "television". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "caramah" "the last"; Greek "tele" "far off, afar, at or to a distance", "palaios" "old, ancient", "palai" "long ago, far back"; Breton "pell" "far off", Welsh "pellaf" "uttermost".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*kwent(h)- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*kwent(h)-

"*kwent(h)-", "*kwent(h)-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to suffer". - It forms all or part of: "anthropopathy"; "antipathy"; "apathy"; "empathy"; "idiopathy"; "nepenthe"; "osteopathy"; "-path"; "pathetic"; "-pathic"; "patho-"; "pathogenic"; "pathognomonic"; "pathology"; "pathos"; "-pathy"; "psychopathic"; "sympathy". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "pathos" "suffering, feeling, emotion, calamity", "penthos" "grief, sorrow"; Old Irish "cessaim" "I suffer"; Lithuanian "kenciu, kenteti" "to suffer", "pakanta" "patience".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*kwetwer- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*kwetwer-

"*kwetwer-", "*kwetwer-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "four". It forms all or part of: "cadre"; "cahier"; "carillon"; "carrefour"; "catty-cornered"; "diatessaron"; "escadrille"; "farthing"; "firkin"; "fortnight"; "forty"; "four"; "fourteen"; "fourth"; "quadrant"; "quadraphonic"; "quadratic"; "quadri-"; "quadrilateral"; "quadriliteral"; "quadrille"; "quadriplegia"; "quadrivium"; "quadroon"; "quadru-"; "quadruped"; "quadruple"; "quadruplicate"; "quarantine"; "quarrel" (n.2) "square-headed bolt for a crossbow"; "quarry" (n.2) "open place where rocks are excavated"; "quart"; "quarter"; "quarterback"; "quartermaster"; "quarters"; "quartet"; "quarto"; "quaternary"; "quatrain"; "quattrocento"; "quire" (n.1) "set of four folded pages for a book"; "squad"; "square"; "tessellated"; "tetra-"; "tetracycline"; "tetrad"; "tetragrammaton"; "tetrameter"; "tetrarch"; "trapezium". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "catvarah", Avestan "cathwaro", Persian "catvar", Greek "tessares", Latin "quattuor", Oscan "petora", Old Church Slavonic "cetyre", Lithuanian "keturi", Old Irish "cethir", Welsh "pedwar".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*kwo- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*kwo-

"*kwo-", "*kwo-" : also "*kwi-", Proto-Indo-European root, stem of relative and interrogative pronouns. It forms all or part of: "cheese" (n.2) "a big thing"; "cue" (n.1) "stage direction"; "either"; "hidalgo"; "how"; "kickshaw"; "neither"; "neuter"; "qua"; "quality"; "quandary"; "quantity"; "quasar"; "quasi"; "quasi-"; "query"; "quib"; "quibble"; "quiddity"; "quidnunc"; "quip"; "quodlibet"; "quondam"; "quorum"; "quote"; "quotidian"; "quotient"; "ubi"; "ubiquity"; "what"; "when"; "whence"; "where"; "whether"; "which"; "whither"; "who"; "whoever"; "whom"; "whose"; "why". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "kah" "who, which"; Avestan "ko", Hittite "kuish" "who"; Latin "quis"/"quid" "in what respect, to what extent; how, why", "qua" "where, which way", "qui"/"quae"/"quod" "who, which"; Lithuanian "kas" "who"; Old Church Slavonic "kuto", Russian "kto" "who"; Old Irish "ce", Welsh "pwy" "who"; Old English "hwa", "hwt", "hwr", etc.


Erstellt: 2018-03

*kwon- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*kwon-

"*kwon-", "*kwon-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "dog". It forms all or part of: "canaille"; "canary"; "canicular"; "canid"; "canine"; "chenille"; "corgi"; "cynic"; "cynical"; "cynosure"; "dachshund"; "hound"; "kennel"; "Procyon"; "quinsy". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "svan-", Avestan "spa", Greek "kyon", Latin "canis", Old English "hund", Old High German "hunt", Old Irish "cu", Welsh "ci", Russian "sobaka" (apparently from an Iranian source such as Median "spaka"), Armenian "shun", Lithuanian "uo" "dog".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*kwrep- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*kwrep-

"*kwrep-", "*kwrep-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "body, form, appearance", probably a verbal root meaning "to appear". It forms all or part of: "corporal" (adj.) "of or belonging to the body"; "corporate"; "corporation"; "corporeal"; "corps"; "corpse"; "corpulence"; "corpulent"; "corpus"; "corpuscle"; "corsage"; "corse"; "corset"; "incorporeal"; "incorporate"; "leprechaun"; "midriff". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "krp-" "form, body"; Avestan "kerefsh" "form, body"; Latin "corpus" "body" (living or dead); Old English "hrif" "belly", Old High German "href" "womb, belly, abdomen".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*le- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*%E2%80%8C%E2%80%8Cl%C4%93-#etymonline_v_53459

"*le-", "*le-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to let go, slacken". - It forms all or part of: "alas"; "allegiance"; "lassitude"; "last" (adj.) "following all others"; "late"; "latter"; "lenient"; "lenitive"; "lenity"; "let" (v.) "allow"; "let" (n.) "stoppage, obstruction"; "liege". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "ledein" "to be weary"; Latin "lenis" "mild, gentle, calm", "lassus" "faint, weary"; Lithuanian "lenas" "quiet, tranquil, tame, slow", "leisti" "to let, to let loose"; Old Church Slavonic "lena" "lazy", Old English "lt" "sluggish, slow", "ltan" "to leave behind".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*leg- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*leg-

"*leg-", "*leg-" (1) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to collect, gather", with derivatives meaning "to speak" on the notion of "to gather words, to pick out words". It forms all or part of: "alexia"; "analects"; "analogous"; "analogue"; "analogy"; "anthology"; "apologetic"; "apologue"; "apology"; "catalogue"; "coil"; "colleague"; "collect"; "college"; "collegial"; "Decalogue"; "delegate"; "dialect"; "dialogue"; "diligence"; "doxology"; "dyslexia"; "eclectic"; "eclogue"; "elect"; "election"; "epilogue"; "hapax legomenon"; "homologous"; "horology"; "ideologue"; "idiolect"; "intelligence"; "lectern"; "lectio difficilior"; "lection"; "lector"; "lecture"; "leech" (n.2) "physician"; "legacy"; "legal"; "legate"; "legend"; "legible"; "legion"; "legislator"; "legitimate"; "lesson"; "lexicon"; "ligneous"; "ligni-"; "logarithm"; "logic"; "logistic"; "logo-"; "logogriph"; "logopoeia"; "Logos"; "-logue"; "-logy"; "loyal"; "monologue"; "neglect"; "neologism"; "philology"; "privilege"; "prolegomenon"; "prologue"; "relegate"; "sacrilege"; "select"; "syllogism"; "tautology"; "trilogy". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "legein" "to say, tell, speak, declare; to count", originally, in Homer, "to pick out, select, collect, enumerate"; "lexis" "speech, diction"; "logos" "word, speech, thought, account"; Latin "legere" "to gather, choose, pluck; read", "lignum" "wood, firewood", literally "that which is gathered", "legare" "to depute, commission, charge", "lex" "law" (perhaps "collection of rules"); Albanian "mb-ledh" "to collect, harvest"; Gothic "lisan" "to collect, harvest", Lithuanian "lesti" "to pick, eat picking"; Hittite "less-zi" "to pick, gather".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*legh- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*legh-

"*legh-", "*legh-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to lie down, lay". It forms all or part of: "allay"; "anlage"; "belay"; "beleaguer"; "bylaw"; "coverlet"; "fellow"; "lager"; "lair"; "law"; "lawful"; "lawless"; "lawsuit"; "lawyer"; "lay" (v.) "to cause to lie or rest"; "ledge"; "ledger"; "lees"; "lie" (v.2) "rest horizontally"; "litter"; "lochia"; "low" (adj.) "not high"; "outlaw"; "scofflaw"; "stalag"; "vorlage". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Hittite "laggari" "falls, lies"; Greek "lekhesthai" "to lie down", "legos" "bed", "lokhos" "lying in wait, ambush", "alokhos" "bedfellow, wife"; Latin "lectus" "bed"; Old Church Slavonic "lego" "to lie down"; Lithuanian "at-lagai" "fallow land"; Old Irish "laigim" "I lie down", Irish "luighe" "couch, grave"; Old English "licgan" "be situated, have a specific position; remain; be at rest, lie down".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*legwh- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*legwh-

"*legwh-", "*legwh-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "not heavy, having little weight". It forms all or part of: "alleviate"; "alleviation"; "alto-rilievo"; "carnival"; "elevate"; "elevation"; "elevator"; "leaven"; "legerdemain"; "leprechaun"; "Levant"; "levator"; "levee"; "lever"; "levity"; "levy" (v.) "to raise or collect"; "light" (adj.1) "not heavy, having little weight"; "lighter" (n.1) "type of barge used in unloading"; "lung"; "relevance"; "relevant"; "releve"; "relief"; "relieve". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "laghuh" "quick, small"; Greek "elakhys" "small", "elaphros" "light"; Latin "levare" "to raise", "levis" "light in weight, not heavy"; Old Church Slavonic "liguku", Russian "lgkij", Polish "lekki", Lithuanian "lengvas" "light in weight"; Old Irish "lu" "small", "laigiu" "smaller, worse"; Gothic "leihts", Old English "leoht" "not heavy, light in weight".





Erstellt: 2018-03

*leikw- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*leikw-

"*leikw-", "*leikw-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to leave". It forms all or part of: "delinquent"; "derelict"; "eclipse"; "eleven"; "ellipse"; "ellipsis"; "elliptic"; "lipo-" (2) "lacking"; "lipogram"; "loan"; "paralipsis"; "relic"; "relict"; "reliction"; "relinquish"; "reliquiae"; "twelve". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "reknas" "inheritance, wealth", "rinakti" "leaves"; Greek "leipein" "to leave, be lacking"; Latin "linquere" "to leave"; Gothic "leihvan", Old English "lnan" "to lend"; Old High German "lihan" "to borrow"; Old Norse "lan" "loan".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*leip- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*leip-

"*leip-", "*leip-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to stick, adhere; fat". It forms all or part of: "adipose"; "beleave"; "delay"; "leave" (v.); "lebensraum"; "life"; "liparo-"; "lipo-" (1) "fat"; "lipoma"; "liposuction"; "lively"; "live" (v.); "liver" (n.1) "secreting organ of the body"; "Olaf"; "relay". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "liparein" "to persist, persevere", "aleiphein" "anoint with oil", "lipos" "fat"; Old English "lifer" "liver", "lfan" "to allow to remain".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*leu- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*leu-

"*leu-", "*leu-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to loosen, divide, cut apart". It forms all or part of: "absolute"; "absolution"; "absolve"; "analysis"; "analytic"; "catalysis"; "catalyst"; "catalytic"; "dialysis"; "dissolve"; "electrolysis"; "electrolyte"; "forlorn"; "Hippolytus"; "hydrolysis"; "-less"; "loess"; "loose"; "lorn"; "lose"; "loss"; "Lysander"; "lysergic"; "lysis"; "-lysis"; "lyso-"; "lysol"; "lytic"; "-lytic"; "palsy"; "paralysis"; "pyrolusite"; "resolute"; "resolution"; "resolve"; "soluble"; "solute"; "solution"; "solve"; "solvent". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "lunati" "cuts, cuts off", "lavitram" "sickle"; Greek "lyein" "to loosen, untie, slacken", "lysus" "a loosening"; Latin "luere" "to loose, release, atone for, expiate"; Old Norse "lauss" "loose, free, unencumbered; vacant; dissolute"; Old English "losian" "be lost, perish".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*leubh- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*leubh-

"*leubh-", "*leubh-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to care, desire, love". - It forms all or part of: "belief"; "believe"; "furlough"; "leave" (n.) "permission, liberty granted to do something"; "leman"; "libido"; "lief"; "livelong"; "love"; "lovely"; "quodlibet". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: - Sanskrit "lubhyati" "desires", "lobhaya-" "to make crazy"; Persian "ahiftan" "to be tangled, be hit down, be in love"; Latin "lubet", later "libet" "pleases", "libido", "lubido" "desire, longing; sensual passion, lust"; Old Church Slavonic "l'ubu" "dear, beloved", "ljubiti", Russian "ljubit'"; "to love"; Lithuanian "liaupse" "song of praise"; Old English "lufu" "feeling of love; romantic sexual attraction", German "Liebe" "love", Gothic "liufs" "dear, beloved".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*leue- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*leue-

"*leue-", "*leue-" : "*leu?-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to wash". It forms all or part of: "ablution"; "alluvium"; "deluge"; "dilute"; "elution"; "lather"; "latrine"; "launder"; "lautitious"; "lavage"; "lavation"; "lavatory"; "lave"; "lavish"; "lotion"; "lye". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "louein" "to wash, bathe"; Latin "lavare" "to wash", "luere" "to wash"; Old Irish "loathar" "basin", Breton "laouer" "trough"; Old English "leaor" "lather", "lg" "lye".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*leuk- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*leuk-

"*leuk-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "light, brightness". It forms all or part of: "allumette"; "elucidate"; "illumination"; "illustration"; "lea"; "leukemia"; "leuko-"; "light" (n.) "brightness, radiant energy"; "lightning"; "limn"; "link" (n.2) "torch of pitch, tow, etc."; "Lucifer"; "luciferase"; "luciferous"; "luculent"; "lumen"; "Luminal"; "luminary"; "luminate"; "luminescence"; "luminous"; "luna"; "lunacy"; "lunar"; "Lunarian"; "lunate"; "lunation"; "lunatic"; "lune"; "lunette"; "luni-"; "lucent"; "lucid"; "lucifugous"; "lucubrate"; "lucubration"; "luster"; "lustrum"; "lux"; "pellucid"; "sublunary"; "translucent". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "rocate" "shines"; Armenian "lois" "light", "lusin" "moon"; Greek "leukos" "bright, shining, white"; Latin "lucere" "to shine", "lux" "light", "lucidus" "clear"; Old Church Slavonic "luci" "light"; Lithuanian "laukas" "pale"; Welsh "llug" "gleam, glimmer"; Old Irish "loche" "lightning", "luchair" "brightness"; Hittite "lukezi" "is bright"; Old English "leht", "leoht" "light, daylight; spiritual illumination", German "Licht", Gothic "liuha" "light".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*mag- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*mag-

"*mag-", "*mag-" : also "*mak-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to knead, fashion, fit". It forms all or part of: "amass"; "among"; "macerate"; "magma"; "make"; "mason"; "mass" (n.1) "lump, quantity, size"; "match" (n.2) "one of a pair, an equal"; "mingle"; "mongrel". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "magis" "kneaded mass, cake", "mageus" "one who kneads, baker"; Latin "macerare" "soften, make soft, soak, steep"; Lithuanian "minkyti" "to knead"; Old Church Slavonic "mazo" "to anoint, smear"; Breton "meza" "to knead"; Old English "macian" "to make, form, construct, do", German "machen" "to make"; Middle Irish "maistir" "to churn".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*magh- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*magh-

"*magh-", "*magh-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to be able, have power". It forms all or part of: "dismay"; "deus ex machina"; "may" (v.1) "am able"; "might" (n.) "bodily strength, power"; "main"; "machine"; "mechanic"; "mechanism"; "mechano-"; "mage"; "magi"; "magic". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "mahan" "great"; Greek "mekhane" "device, means", "mekhos", "makhos" "means, instrument"; Old Church Slavonic "mogo" "to be able", "mosti" "power, force"; Old English "mg" "I can".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*maghu- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*maghu-

"*maghu-", "*maghu-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "young person" of either sex. It forms all or part of: "maiden". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Avestan "magava-" "unmarried"; Old English "magu" "child, son, male descendant", Old English "mgden", "mden" "maiden, virgin, girl; maid, servant"; German "Magd" "maid, maidservant", "Mdchen" "girl, maid"; Old Irish "maug" "slave".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*mak- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*mak-

"*mak-", "*mak-" : "*mak-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "long, thin". It forms all or part of: "emaciate"; "macro"; "macro-"; "macrobiotic"; "macron"; "meager"; "paramecium". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "makros" "long, large", "mekos" "length"; Latin "macer" "lean, thin"; Old Norse "magr", Old English "mger" "lean, thin".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*me- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*me-

"*me-", "*me-" (2) : "*me-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to measure". Some words may belong instead to root "*med-" "to take appropriate measures". It forms all or part of: "amenorrhea"; "centimeter"; "commensurate"; "diameter"; "dimension"; "gematria"; "geometry"; "immense"; "isometric"; "meal" (n.1) "food, time for eating"; "measure"; "menarche"; "meniscus"; "menopause"; "menses"; "menstrual"; "menstruate"; "mensural"; "meter" (n.1) "poetic measure"; "meter" (n.2) unit of length; "meter" (n.3) "device for measuring"; "-meter"; "Metis"; "metric"; "metrical"; "metronome"; "-metry"; "Monday"; "month"; "moon"; "parameter"; "pentameter"; "perimeter"; "piecemeal"; "semester"; "symmetry"; "thermometer"; "trigonometry"; "trimester". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "mati" "measures", "matra" "measure"; Avestan, Old Persian "ma-" "to measure"; Greek "metron" "measure", "metra" "lot, portion"; Latin "metri" "to measure".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*me- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*me-

"*me-", "*me-" (4) : "*me-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to cut down grass or grain". It forms all or part of: "aftermath"; "math" (n.2) "a mowing"; "mead" (n.2) "meadow"; "meadow"; "mow" (v.). - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek (poetic) "amao", Latin "metere" "to reap, mow, crop"; Italian "mietere", Old Irish "meithleorai" "reapers", Welsh "medi"; Old English "mawan" "to mow", "md" "meadow".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*med- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*med-

"*med-", "*med-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "take appropriate measures". It forms all or part of: "accommodate"; "accommodation"; "commode"; "commodious"; "commodity"; "empty"; "immoderate"; "immodest"; "Medea"; "medical"; "medicament"; "medicaster"; "medicate"; "medication"; "medicine"; "medico"; "medico-"; "meditate"; "meditation"; "Medusa"; "meet" (adj.) "proper, fitting"; "mete" (v.) "to allot"; "modal"; "mode"; "model"; "moderate"; "modern"; "modest"; "modicum"; "modify"; "modular"; "modulate"; "module"; "modulation"; "mold" (n.1) "hollow shape"; "mood" (n.2) "grammatical form indicating the function of a verb"; "must" (v.); "premeditate"; "premeditation"; "remedial"; "remediation"; "remedy". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "midiur" "I judge, estimate"; Avestan "vi-mad-" "physician"; Greek "medomai" "be mindful of", "medesthai" "think about", "medein" "to rule", "medon" "ruler"; Latin "meditari" "think or reflect on, consider", "modus" "measure, manner", "modestus" "moderate", "modernus" "modern", "mederi" "to heal, give medical attention to, cure"; Irish "miduir" "judge"; Welsh "meddwl" "mind, thinking"; Gothic "miton", Old English "metan" "to measure out".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*medhyo- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*medhyo-

"*medhyo-", "*medhyo-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "middle". Perhaps related to PIE root "*me-" (2) "to measure". It forms all or part of: "amid"; "intermediate"; "mean" (adj.2) "occupying a middle or intermediate place"; "medal"; "medial"; "median"; "mediate"; "medieval"; "mediocre"; "Mediterranean"; "medium"; "meridian"; "mesic"; "mesial"; "meso-"; "meson"; "Mesopotamia"; "Mesozoic"; "mezzanine"; "mezzo"; "mezzotint"; "mid" (prep., adj.); "middle"; "Midgard"; "midriff"; "midst"; "midwife"; "milieu"; "minge"; "mizzen"; "moiety"; "mullion". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "madhyah", Avestan "madiya-" "middle", Greek "mesos", Latin "medius" "in the middle, between; from the middle", Gothic "midjis", Old English "midd" "middle", Old Church Slavonic "medzu" "between", Armenian "mej" "middle".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*meg- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*meg-

"*meg-", "*meg-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "great". It forms all or part of: "acromegaly"; "Almagest"; "Charlemagne"; "maestro"; "magisterial"; "magistral"; "magistrate"; "Magna Carta"; "magnate"; "magnitude"; "magnum"; "magnanimity"; "magnanimous"; "magni-"; "Magnificat"; "magnificence"; "magnificent"; "magnify"; "magniloquence"; "magniloquent"; "Magnus"; "maharajah"; "maharishi"; "mahatma"; "Mahayana"; "Maia"; "majesty"; "major"; "major-domo"; "majority"; "majuscule"; "master"; "maxim"; "maximum"; "may" (v.2) "to take part in May Day festivities"; "May"; "mayor"; "mega-"; "megalo-"; "mickle"; "Mister"; "mistral"; "mistress"; "much"; "omega". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Armenian "mets" "great"; Sanskrit "mahat-" "great, "mazah-" "greatness"; Avestan "mazant-" "great"; Hittite "mekkish" "great, large"; Greek "megas" "great, large"; Latin "magnus" "great, large, much, abundant", "major" "greater", "maximus" "greatest"; Middle Irish "mag, maignech" "great, large"; Middle Welsh "meith" "long, great".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*mei- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*mei-

"*mei-", "*mei-" (2) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "small". - It forms all or part of: "administer"; "administration"; "comminute"; "diminish"; "meiosis"; "Menshevik"; "menu"; "metier"; "mince"; "minestrone"; "minim"; "minimum"; "minister"; "ministration"; "ministry"; "minor"; "minuend"; "minuet"; "minus"; "minuscule"; "minute"; "minutia"; "Miocene"; "mis-" (2); "mite" (n.2) "little bit"; "mystery" (n.2) "handicraft, trade, art"; "nimiety". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "miyate" "diminishes, declines"; Greek "meion" "less, smaller"; Latin "minus", "minor" "smaller", "minuere" "to diminish, reduce, lessen"; Old English "minsian" "to diminish"; Russian "men'she" "less".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*mei- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*mei-

"*mei-", "*mei-" (1) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to change, go, move", "with derivatives referring to the exchange of goods and services within a society as regulated by custom or law" [Watkins]. It forms all or part of: "amiss"; "amoeba"; "azimuth"; "common"; "commune"; "communicate"; "communication"; "communism"; "commute"; "congee"; "demean"; "emigrate"; "emigration"; "excommunicate"; "excommunication"; "immune"; "immutable"; "incommunicado"; "mad"; "mean" (adj.1) "low-quality"; "mew" (n.2) "cage"; "mews"; "migrate"; "migration"; "mis-" (1) "bad, wrong"; "mistake"; "Mithras"; "molt"; "Mstislav"; "municipal"; "munificent"; "mutable"; "mutant"; "mutate"; "mutation"; "mutatis mutandis"; "mutual"; "permeable"; "permeate"; "permutation"; "permute"; "remunerate"; "remuneration"; "transmutation"; "transmute"; "zenith". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "methati" "changes, alternates, joins, meets"; Avestan "mitho" "perverted, false"; Hittite "mutai-" "be changed into"; Latin "mutare" "to change", "meare" "to go, pass", "migrare" "to move from one place to another", "mutuus" "done in exchange"; Old Church Slavonic "mite" "alternately"; Czech "mijim" "to go by, pass by", Polish "mijac" "avoid"; Gothic "maidjan" "to change".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*meigh- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*meigh-

"*meigh-", "*meigh-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to urinate". - It forms all or part of: "micturate"; "micturition"; "missel"; "mist"; "mistletoe". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "mehati" "urinates"; Avestan "maezaiti" "urinates"; Greek "omeikhein" "to urinate"; Latin "mingere" "to urinate"; Armenian "mizem" "urinate"; Lithuanian "minu, minti" "urinate"; Old English "migan" "to urinate", "micga" "urine", "meox" "dung, filth".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*meik- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*meik-

"*meik-", "*meik-" : also "*meig-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to mix". - It forms all or part of: "admix"; "admixture"; "immiscible"; "mash"; "meddle"; "medley"; "melange"; "melee"; "mestizo"; "metis"; "miscegenation"; "miscellaneous"; "miscible"; "mix"; "mixo-"; "mixture"; "mustang"; "pell-mell"; "promiscuous". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "misrah" "mixed"; Greek "misgein, mignynai" "to mix, mix up, mingle; to join, bring together; join (battle); make acquainted with"; Old Church Slavonic "meo, mesiti" "to mix", Russian "meshat", Lithuanian "maiau, maiyti" "to mix, mingle", Welsh "mysgu" "to mix".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*mel- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*mel-

"*mel-", "*mel-" (1) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "soft", with derivatives referring to soft or softened materials. It forms all or part of: "amblyopia"; "bland"; "blandish"; "blenny"; "emollient"; "enamel"; "malacia"; "malaxation"; "malt"; "melt"; "mild"; "Mildred"; "milt"; "moil"; "mollify"; "Mollusca"; "mollusk"; "mulch"; "mullein"; "mutton"; "schmaltz"; "smelt" (v.); "smelt" (n.). It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "mrdh" "to neglect", also "to be moist"; Greek "malakos" "soft", "malthon" "weakling"; Latin "mollire" "soften", "mollis" "soft"; Old Irish "meldach" "tender".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*mel- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*mel-

"*mel-", "*mel-" (2) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "strong, great". It forms all or part of: "ameliorate"; "amelioration"; "meliorate"; "melioration"; "meliorism"; "multi-"; "multiform"; "multiple"; "multiply"; "multitude". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "mala" "very, very much"; Latin "multus" "much, many", "melior" "better".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*mel- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*mel-

"*mel-", "*mel-" (3) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "false, bad, wrong". The exact sense of the root remains uncertain, "since it concerns a collection of largely isolated words in different IE branches" [de Vaan]. - It forms all or part of: "blame"; "blaspheme"; "blasphemous"; "blasphemy"; ??"dismal"; "mal-"; "malady"; "malaise"; "malaria"; "malediction"; "malefactor"; "malefic"; "malevolence"; "malevolent"; "malice"; "malicious"; "malign"; "malison"; "malversation"; "mauvais". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Avestan "mairiia-", "treacherous"; Greek "meleos" "idle; unhappy"; Latin "male" (adv.) "badly", "malus" (adj.) "bad, evil"; Old Irish "mell" "destruction"; Armenian "mel" "sin"; Lithuanian "melas" "lie", Latvian "malds" "mistake", possbily also Greek "blasphemein" "to slander".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*mele- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*mele-

"*mele-", "*mele-" : "*mel?-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to crush, grind", with derivatives referring to ground or crumbling substances and crushing or grinding instruments. - It forms all or part of: "amyl"; "amyloid"; "blintz"; "emmer"; "emolument"; "immolate"; "maelstrom"; "mall"; "malleable"; "malleolus"; "mallet"; "malleus"; "maul"; "meal" (n.2) "edible ground grain"; "mill" (n.1) "building fitted to grind grain"; "millet"; "mola"; "molar" (n.); "mold" (n.3) "loose earth"; "molder"; "ormolu"; "pall-mall". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Hittite "mallanzi" "they grind"; Armenian "malem" "I crush, bruise"; Greek "mylos" "millstone", "myle" "mill"; Latin "molere" "to grind", "mola" "millstone, mill", "milium" "millet"; Old English "melu" "meal, flour"; Albanian "miel" "meal, flour"; Old Church Slavonic "meljo", Lithuanian "malu, malti" "to grind"; Old Church Slavonic "mlatu", Russian "molotu" "hammer".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*melg- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*melg-

"*melg-", "*melg-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to rub off", also "to stroke; to milk", in reference to the hand motion involved in milking an animal. Compare "*g(a)lag-". - It forms all or part of: "emulgent"; "emulsify"; "emulsion"; "milch"; "milk". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "marjati" "wipes off"; Greek "amelgein", Latin "mulgere", Old Church Slavonic "mlesti", Lithuanian "melti" "to milk"; Old Irish "melg" "milk".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*melit- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*melit-

"*melit-", "*melit-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "honey". It forms all or part of: "caramel"; "marmalade"; "mellifluous"; "mildew"; "molasses"; "mousse". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "meli", Latin "mel" "honey; sweetness"; Albanian "mjal'"; "honey"; Old Irish "mil" "honey", Irish "milis" "sweet"; Old English "mildeaw" "nectar", "milisc" "honeyed, sweet"; Old High German "milsken" "to sweeten"; Gothic "mili" "honey".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*men- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*men-

"*men-", "*men-" (4) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "small, isolated". - It forms all or part of: "malmsey"; "manometer"; "monad"; "monarchy"; "monastery"; "monism"; "monist"; "monk"; "mono"; "mono-"; "monoceros"; "monochrome"; "monocle"; "monocular"; "monogamy"; "monogram"; "monolith"; "monologue"; "monomania"; "Monophysite"; "monopoly"; "monosyllable"; "monotony". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "monos" "single, alone", "manos" "rare, sparse"; Armenian "manr" "thin, slender, small".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*men- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*men-

"*men-", "*men-" (3) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to remain". It forms all or part of: "maisonette"; "manor"; "manse"; "mansion"; "menage"; "menial"; "immanent"; "permanent"; "remain"; "remainder". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Persian "mandan" "to remain"; Greek "menein" "to remain"; Latin "manere" "to stay, abide".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*men- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*men-

"*men-", "*men-" (1) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to think", with derivatives referring to qualities and states of mind or thought. - It forms all or part of: "admonish"; "Ahura Mazda"; "ament"; "amentia"; "amnesia"; "amnesty"; "anamnesis"; "anamnestic"; "automatic"; "automaton"; "balletomane"; "comment"; "compos mentis"; "dement"; "demonstrate"; "Eumenides"; "idiomatic"; "maenad"; "-mancy"; "mandarin"; "mania"; "maniac"; "manic"; "mantic"; "mantis"; "mantra"; "memento"; "mens rea"; "mental"; "mention"; "mentor"; "mind"; "Minerva"; "minnesinger"; "mnemonic"; "Mnemosyne"; "money"; "monition"; "monitor"; "monster"; "monument"; "mosaic"; "Muse"; "museum"; "music"; "muster"; "premonition"; "reminiscence"; "reminiscent"; "summon". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "manas-" "mind, spirit", "matih" "thought", "munih" "sage, seer"; Avestan "manah-" "mind, spirit"; Greek "memona" "I yearn", "mania" "madness", "mantis" "one who divines, prophet, seer"; Latin "mens" "mind, understanding, reason", "memini" "I remember", "mentio" "remembrance"; Lithuanian "mintis" "thought, idea", Old Church Slavonic "mineti" "to believe, think", Russian "pamjat" "memory"; Gothic "gamunds", Old English "gemynd" "memory, remembrance; conscious mind, intellect".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*men- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*men-

"*men-", "*men-" (2) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to project". - It forms all or part of: "amenable"; "amount"; "cismontane"; "demeanor"; "dismount"; "eminence"; "eminent"; "imminence"; "imminent"; "menace"; "minacious"; "minatory"; "mons"; "montage"; "montagnard"; "monte"; "mount" (n.1) "hill, mountain"; "mount" (v.) "to get up on"; "mountain"; "mountebank"; "mouth"; "Osmond"; "Piedmont"; "promenade"; "prominence"; "prominent"; "promontory"; "remount"; "surmount"; "ultramontane". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "manya" "nape of the neck"; Latin "mons" "mountain", "eminere" "to stand out", "monile" "necklace"; Old Irish "muin" "neck", Welsh "mwnwgl" "neck", "mwng" "mane"; Welsh "mynydd" "mountain".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*mendh- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*mendh-

"*mendh-", "*mendh-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to learn". It forms all or part of: "chrestomathy"; "mathematic"; "mathematical"; "mathematics"; "opsimathy"; "polymath". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "menthere" "to care", "manthanein" "to learn", "mathema" "science, knowledge, mathematical knowledge"; Lithuanian "mandras" "wide-awake"; Old Church Slavonic "madru" "wise, sage"; Gothic "mundonsis" "to look at", German "munter" "awake, lively".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*mer- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*mer-

"*mer-", "*mer-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to rub away, harm". Possibly identical with the root "*mer-" that means "to die" and forms words referring to death and to beings subject to death. - It forms all or part of: "amaranth"; "ambrosia"; "amortize"; "Amritsar"; "immortal"; "manticore"; "marasmus"; "mare" (n.3) "night-goblin, incubus"; "morbid"; "mordacious"; "mordant"; "moribund"; "morsel"; "mort" (n.2) "note sounded on a horn at the death of the quarry"; "mortal"; "mortality"; "mortar"; "mortgage"; "mortify"; "mortmain"; "mortuary"; "murder"; "murrain"; "nightmare"; "post-mortem"; "remorse". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "mrnati" "crushes, bruises", "mriyate" "to kill", "martave" "to die", "mrta-" "died, dead", "mrtih" "death", "martah" "mortal man", "amrta-" "immortal"; Avestan "miriia-" "to die", "miryeite" "dies", Old Persian "martiya-" "man"; Hittite "mer-" "to disappear, vanish", "marnu-" "to make disappear"; Armenian "meranim" "to die"; Greek "marainein" "to consume, exhaust, put out, quench", "marasmus" "consumption", "emorten" "died", "brotos" "mortal" (hence "ambrotos" "immortal"); Latin "mors" (genitive "mortis") "death", "mori" "to die"; Armenian "merani-" "to die"; Gothic "maurr", Old English "mor" "murder"; Old Irish "marb", Welsh "marw" "dead"; Lithuanian "mirti" "to die", "mirtis" "death"; Old Church Slavonic "mreti" "to die", "mrutvu" "dead"; Russian "mertvyj", Serbo-Croatian "mrtav" "dead".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*merg- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*merg-

"*merg-", "*merg-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "boundary, border". It forms all or part of: "Cymric"; "demarcation"; "Denmark"; "emarginate"; "landmark"; "march" (v.) "walk with regular tread"; "march" (n.2) "boundary"; "marchioness"; "margin"; "margrave"; "mark" (n.1) "trace, impression"; "mark" (n.2) "unit of money or weight"; "marque"; "marquee"; "marquetry"; "marquis"; "remark"; "remarkable". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin "margo" "margin"; Avestan "mareza-" "border"; Old Irish "mruig", Irish "bruig" "borderland", Welsh "bro" "district"; Old English "mearc" "boundary, sign, limit, mark", Gothic "marka" "boundary, frontier".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*meue- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*meue-

"*meue-", "*meue-" : "*meu?-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to push away". It forms all or part of: "commotion"; "emotion"; "mob"; "mobile"; "moment"; "momentary"; "momentous"; "momentum"; "motif"; "motility"; "motion"; "motive"; "moto-"; "motor"; "move"; "movement"; "mutiny"; "premotion"; "promote"; "remote"; "remove". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "kama-muta" "moved by love" and probably "mivati" "pushes, moves"; Greek "ameusasthai" "to surpass", "amyno" "push away"; Latin "movere" "move, set in motion"; Lithuanian "mauti" "push on".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*mregh-u- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*mregh-u-

"*mregh-u-", "*mregh-u-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "short". It forms all or part of: "abbreviate"; "abbreviation"; "abridge"; "amphibrach"; "brace"; "bracelet"; "brachio-"; "brachiopod"; "brachiosaurus"; "brachy-"; "brassiere"; "breviary"; "brevity"; "brief"; "brumal"; "brume"; "embrace"; "merry"; "mirth"; "pretzel"; "vambrace". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "brakhys" "short"; Latin "brevis" "short, low, little, shallow"; Old Church Slavonic "bruzeja" "shallow places, shoals"; Gothic "gamaurgjan" "to shorten".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*nas- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*nas-

"*nas-", "*nas-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "nose".

It forms all or part of: "nares"; "nark"; "nasal"; "nasopharynx"; "nasturtium"; "ness"; "nose"; "nostril"; "nozzle"; "nuzzle"; "pince-nez".

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "nasa", Old Persian "naham", Latin "nasus", Old Church Slavonic "nasu", Lithuanian "nosis", Old English "nosu", German "Nase" "nose".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*nau- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*nau-

"*nau-", "*nau-" : "nau-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "boat". It forms all or part of: "aeronautics"; "aquanaut"; "Argonaut"; "astronaut"; "cosmonaut"; "nacelle"; "naval"; "nave" (n.1) "main part of a church"; "navicular"; "navigate"; "navigation"; "navy"; "naufragous"; "nausea"; "nautical"; "nautilus"; "noise". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "nauh", accusative "navam" "ship, boat"; Armenian "nav" "ship"; Greek "naus" "ship", "nautes" "sailor"; Latin "navis" "ship"; Old Irish "nau" "ship", Welsh "noe" "a flat vessel"; Old Norse "nor" "ship".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*ne- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*ne-

"*ne-", "*ne-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "not". It forms all or part of: "a-" (3) "not, without"; "abnegate"; "ahimsa"; "an-" (1) privative prefix; "annihilate"; "annul"; "aught" (n.2) "zero, nothing"; "deny"; "hobnob"; "in-" (1) "not, opposite of, without"; "ixnay"; "naught"; "naughty"; "nay"; "nefarious"; "negate"; "neglect"; "negligee"; "negotiate"; "neither"; "nepenthe"; "nescience"; "nescient"; "neuter"; "never"; "nice"; "nihilism"; "nihility"; "nil"; "nill"; "nimiety"; "nix"; "no"; "non-"; "none"; "nonplus"; "nor"; "not"; "nothing"; "null"; "nullify"; "nulliparous"; "renegade"; "renege"; "un-" (1) prefix of negation; "willy-nilly". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "a-", "an-" "not"; Avestan "na" "not"; Greek "a-", "an-", "ne-" "not"; Latin "in-" "not", "ne" "that not"; Old Church Slavonic and Lithuanian "ne" "not"; Old Irish "an-", "ni", Cornish "ny" "not"; Gothic and Old English "un-" "not".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*nebh- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*nebh-

"*nebh-", "*nebh-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "cloud". It forms all or part of: "nebula"; "nebular"; "nebulosity"; "nebulous"; "Neptune"; "Nibelungenlied"; "Niflheim"; "nimbus". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "nabhas-" "vapor, cloud, mists, fog, sky"; Greek "nephele", "nephos" "cloud"; Latin "nebula" "mist, vapor, fog, smoke, exhalation"; German "Nebel" "fog"; Old English "nifol" "dark, gloomy"; Welsh "niwl" "cloud, fog"; Slavic "nebo".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*ned- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*ned-

"*ned-", "*ned-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to bind, tie". It forms all or part of: "annex"; "annexation"; "connect"; "connection"; "denouement"; "net" (n.) "netting, network, mesh used for capturing"; "nettle"; "nexus"; "node"; "nodule"; "noose". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "nahyati" "binds, ties"; Latin "nodus" "knot"; Old Irish "nascim" "I bind, oblige"; Old English "net" "netting, network".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*nek- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*nek-

"*nek-", "*nek-" (1) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "death". It forms all or part of: "innocent"; "innocuous"; "internecine"; "necro-"; "necropolis"; "necrosis"; "necromancy"; "nectar"; "nectarine"; "nociceptive"; "nocuous"; "noxious"; "nuisance"; "obnoxious"; "pernicious". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "nasyati" "disappears, perishes", Avestan "nasyeiti" "disappears", "nasu-" "corpse", Old Persian "vi-nathayatiy" "he injures"; Greek "nekros" "corpse"; Latin "nex", genitive "necis" "violent death, murder" (as opposed to "mors"), "nocere" "to harm, hurt", "noxius" "harmful"; Greek "nekus" "dead" (adj.), "nekros" "dead body, corpse"; Old Irish "ec", Breton "ankou", Welsh "angeu" "death".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*nem- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*nem-

"*nem-", "*nem-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "assign, allot; take". It forms all or part of: "agronomy"; "anomie"; "anomy"; "antinomian"; "antinomy"; "astronomer"; "astronomy"; "autonomous"; "autonomy"; "benumb"; "Deuteronomy"; "economy"; "enumerate"; "enumeration"; "gastronomy"; "heteronomy"; "innumerable"; "metronome"; "namaste"; "nemesis"; "nimble"; "nim"; "nomad"; "nomothetic"; "numb"; "numeracy"; "numeral"; "numerator"; "numerical"; "numerology"; "numerous"; "numismatic"; "supernumerary"; "taxonomy". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "nemein" "to deal out", "nemesis" "just indignation"; Latin "numerus" "number"; Lithuanian "nuoma" "rent, interest"; Middle Irish "nos" "custom, usage"; German "nehmen" "to take".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*ner- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*ner-

"*ner-", "*ner-" (2) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "man", also "vigorous, vital, strong". - It forms all or part of: "Alexander"; "Andrew"; "andro-"; "androgynous"; "android"; "Andromache"; "Andromeda"; "andron"; "anthropo-"; "anthropocentric"; "anthropology"; "anthropomorphous"; "Leander"; "lycanthropy"; "Lysander"; "misanthrope"; "pachysandra"; "philander"; "philanthropy""; ""polyandria"; "polyandrous". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "nar-", Armenian "ayr", Welsh "ner" "a man"; Greek "aner" (genitive "andros") "a man, a male" (as opposed to a woman, a youth, or a god).


Erstellt: 2018-03

*neu- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*neu-

"*neu-", "*neu-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to shout". It forms all or part of: "announce"; "denounce"; "enunciate"; "nuncio"; "pronounce"; "renounce". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "neuo" "to nod, beckon", Latin "nuntius" "messenger", Old Irish "noid" "make known".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*no-men- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*no-men-

"*no-men-", "*no-men-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "name".

It forms all or part of: "acronym"; "allonym"; "ananym"; "anonymous"; "antonomasia"; "antonym"; "binomial"; "caconym"; "cognomen"; "denominate"; "eponym"; "eponymous"; "heteronym"; "homonym"; "homonymous"; "hyponymy"; "ignominious"; "ignominy"; "innominable"; "Jerome"; "matronymic"; "metonymy"; "metronymic"; "misnomer"; "moniker"; "name"; "nomenclature"; "nominal"; "nominate"; "noun"; "onomastic"; "onomatopoeia"; "paronomasia"; "paronym"; "patronym"; "patronymic"; "praenomen"; "pronoun"; "pseudonym"; "renown"; "synonym"; "synonymy"; "synonymous"; "toponym".

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "nama"; Avestan "nama"; Greek "onoma", "onyma"; Latin "nomen"; Old Church Slavonic "ime", genitive "imene"; Russian "imya"; Old Irish" ainm"; Old Welsh "anu" "name"; Old English "nama, noma", Old High German "namo", Old Norse "nafn", Gothic "namo" "name".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*oi-no- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*oi-no-

"*oi-no-", "*oi-no-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "one, unique". It forms all or part of: "a" (1) indefinite article; "alone"; "an"; "Angus"; "anon"; "atone"; "any"; "eleven"; "inch" (n.1) "linear measure, one-twelfth of a foot"; "lone"; "lonely"; "non-"; "none"; "null"; "once"; "one"; "ounce" (n.1) unit of weight; "quincunx"; "triune"; "unanimous"; "unary"; "une"; "uni-"; "Uniate"; "unilateral"; "uncial"; "unicorn"; "union"; "unique"; "unison"; "unite"; "unity"; "universal"; "universe"; "university"; "zollverein". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "oinos" "ace (on dice)"; Latin "unus" "one"; Old Persian "aivam"; Old Church Slavonic "-inu", "ino-"; Lithuanian "vienas"; Old Irish "oin"; Breton "un" "one"; Old English "an", German "ein", Gothic "ains" "one".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*okw- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*okw-

"*okw-", "*okw-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to see". It forms all or part of: "amblyopia"; "antique"; "antler"; "atrocity"; "autopsy"; "binocle"; "binocular"; "biopsy"; "catoptric"; "cyclops"; "daisy"; "enoptomancy"; "eye"; "eyelet"; "ferocity"; "hyperopia"; "inoculate"; "inveigle"; "monocle"; "monocular"; "myopia"; "necropsy"; "ocular"; "oculist"; "oculus"; "oeillade"; "ogle"; "ophthalmo-"; "optic"; "optician"; "optics"; "optometry"; "panoptic"; "panopticon"; "Peloponnesus"; "pinochle"; "presbyopia"; "prosopopeia"; "stereoptican"; "synopsis"; "triceratops"; "ullage"; "wall-eyed"; "window". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "akshi" "the eye; the number two", Greek "opsis" "a sight"; Old Church Slavonic "oko", Lithuanian "akis", Latin "oculus", Greek "okkos", Tocharian "ak", "ek", Armenian "akn" "eye".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*op- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*op-

"*op-", "*op-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to work, produce in abundance". It forms all or part of: "cooperate"; "cooperation"; "copious"; "copy"; "cornucopia"; "hors d'oeuvre"; "inure"; "maneuver"; "manure"; "oeuvre"; "office"; "official"; "officinal"; "omni-"; "omnibus"; "omnium gatherum"; "op. cit".; "opera"; "operate"; "operation"; "operose"; "optimism"; "optimum"; "opulence"; "opulent"; "opus"; "Oscan". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "apas-" "work, religious act", "apnas-" "possession, property"; Avestan "hvapah-" "good deed"; Latin "opus" "a work, labor, exertion"; Old High German "uoben" "to start work, to practice, to honor"; German "ben" "to exercise, practice"; Dutch "oefenen", Old Norse "fa", Danish "ve" "to exercise, practice"; Old English "fnan" "to perform, work, do", "afol" "power".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*ost- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*ost-

"*ost-", "*ost-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "bone". It forms all or part of: "osseous"; "ossicle"; "ossuary"; "ossifrage"; "ossify"; "osteo-"; "osteology"; "osteopathy"; "ostracism"; "ostracize"; "oyster"; "periosteum". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "asthi", Hittite "hashtai-", Greek "osteon" "bone", Greek "ostrakon" "oyster shell", Avestan "ascu-" "shinbone", Latin "os" (genitive "ossis") "bone", "osseus" "bony, of bone", Welsh "asgwrn", Armenian "oskr", Albanian "asht" "bone".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*pa- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*pa-

"*pa-", "*pa-" : "*pa-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to protect, feed".

It forms all or part of: "antipasto"; "appanage"; "bannock"; "bezoar"; "companion"; "company"; "feed"; "fodder"; "food"; "forage"; "foray"; "foster"; "fur"; "furrier"; "impanate"; "pabulum"; "panatela"; "panic" (n.2) "type of grass"; "pannier"; "panocha"; "pantry"; "pastern"; "pastor"; "pasture"; "pester"; "repast"; "satrap".

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "pateisthai" = "to feed"; Latin "pabulum" = "food", "fodder", "panis" = "bread", "pasci" = "to feed", "pascare" = "to graze", "pasture", "feed", "pastor" = "shepherd", literally "feeder"; Avestan "pitu-" = "food"; Old Church Slavonic "pasti" = "feed cattle", "pasture"; Russian "pishcha" = "food"; Old English "foda", Gothic "fodeins" = "food", "nourishment".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*paewr- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*paewr-

"*paewr-", "*paewr-" : "*pa?wr-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "fire". It forms all or part of: "antipyretic"; "burro"; "empyreal"; "empyrean"; "fire"; "pyracanth"; "pyre"; "pyretic"; "pyrexia"; "pyrite"; "pyro-"; "pyrolusite"; "pyromania"; "pyrrhic"; "sbirro". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "pu", Hittite "pahhur" "fire"; Armenian "hur" "fire, torch"; Czech "pyr" "hot ashes"; Greek "pyr", Umbrian "pir" "fire"; Old English "fyr", German "Feuer" "fire".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*pag- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*pag-

"*pag-", "*pag-" : also "*pak-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to fasten". It forms all or part of: "Areopagus"; "appease"; "appeasement"; "compact" (adj.) "concentrated"; "compact" (n.1) "agreement"; "fang"; "impact"; "impale"; "impinge"; "newfangled"; "pace" (prep.) "with the leave of"; "pacific"; "pacify"; "pact"; "pagan"; "page" (n.1) "sheet of paper"; "pageant"; "pale" (n.) "limit, boundary, restriction"; "palette"; "palisade"; "patio"; "pawl"; "pax"; "pay"; "peace"; "peasant"; "pectin"; "peel" (n.2) "shovel-shaped instrument"; "pole" (n.1) "stake"; "propagate"; "propagation"; "travail"; "travel". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "pasa-" "cord, rope", "pajra-" "solid, firm"; Avestan "pas-" "to fetter"; Greek "pegnynai" "to fix, make firm, fast or solid", "pagos" "pinnacle, cliff, rocky hill"; Latin "pangere" "to fix, to fasten", "pagina" "column", "pagus" "district"; Slavonic "pa" "wooden partition"; Old English "fegan" "to join", "fon" "to catch seize".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*pau- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*pau-

"*pau-", "*pau-" (2) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to cut, strike, stamp". - It forms all or part of: "account"; "amputate"; "amputation"; "anapest"; "berate"; "compute"; "count" (v.); "depute"; "deputy"; "dispute"; "impute"; "pave"; "pavement"; "pit" (n.1) "hole, cavity"; "putative"; "rate" (v.1) "to scold"; "reputation"; "repute". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin "pavire" "to beat, ram, tread down", "putare" "to prune"; Greek "paiein" "to strike"; Lithuanian "pjauti" "to cut", "pjuklas" "saw".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*pau- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*pau-

"*pau-", "*pau-" (1) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "few, little". It forms all or part of: "catchpoll"; "encyclopedia"; "filly"; "foal"; "few"; "hypnopedia"; "impoverish"; "orthopedic"; "Paedophryne"; "paraffin"; "parvi-"; "parvovirus"; "paucity"; "Paul"; "pauper"; "pedagogue"; "pederasty"; "pedo-"; "pedophilia"; "poco"; "poltroon"; "pony"; "pool" (n.2) "game similar to billiards"; "poor"; "poulterer"; "poultry"; "poverty"; "puericulture"; "puerile"; "puerility"; "puerperal"; "pullet"; "pullulate"; "Punch"; "Punchinello"; "pupa"; "pupil" (n.1) "student"; "pupil" (n.2) "center of the eye"; "puppet"; "pusillanimous"; "putti". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "potah" "a young animal", "putrah" "son"; Avestan "puthra-" "son, child"; Greek "pauros" "few, little", "pais" (genitive "paidos") "child", "polos" "foal"; Latin "paucus" "few, little", "paullus" "little", "parvus" "little, small", "pauper" "poor", "puer" "child, boy", "pullus" "young animal"; Oscan "puklu" "child"; Old English "feawe" "not many, a small number", "fola" "young horse"; Old Norse "fylja" "young female horse"; Old Church Slavonic "puta" "bird"; Lithuanian "putytis" "young animal, young bird"; Albanian "pele" "mare".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*ped- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*ped-

"*ped-", "*ped-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "foot". - It forms all or part of: "antipodes"; "apodal"; "Arthropoda"; "babouche"; "biped"; "brachiopod"; "cap-a-pie"; "centipede"; "cephalopod"; "cheliped"; "chiropodist"; "expedite"; "expedition"; "foot"; "foosball"; "fetch" (v.); "fetter"; "fetlock"; "gastropod"; "hexapod"; "impair"; "impede"; "impediment"; "impeach"; "impeccable"; "isopod"; "millipede"; "octopus"; "Oedipus"; "ornithopod"; "pajamas"; "pawn" (n.2) "lowly chess piece"; "peccadillo"; "peccant"; "peccavi"; "pedal"; "pedestrian"; "pedicel"; "pedicle"; "pedicure"; "pedigree"; "pedology"; "pedometer"; "peduncle"; "pejoration"; "pejorative"; "peon"; "pessimism"; "petiole"; "pew"; "Piedmont"; "piepowder"; "pilot"; "pinniped"; "pioneer"; "platypus"; "podiatry"; "podium"; "polyp"; "pseudopod"; "quadruped"; "sesquipedalian"; "stapes"; "talipes"; "tetrapod"; "Theropoda"; "trapezium"; "trapezoid"; "tripod"; "trivet"; "vamp" (n.1) "upper part of a shoe or boot"; "velocipede". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "pad-", accusative "padam" "foot"; Avestan "pad-"; Greek "pos", Attic "pous", genitive "podos"; Latin "pes", genitive "pedis" "foot"; Lithuanian "padas" "sole", "peda" "footstep"; Old English "fot", German "Fu", Gothic "fotus" "foot".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*peig- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*peig-

"*peig-", "*peig-" : also "*peik-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to cut, mark by incision", hence "embroider, paint". - It forms all or part of: "depict"; "file" (n.2) "metal tool for abrading or smoothing"; "paint"; "pictogram"; "pictograph"; "pictorial"; "picture"; "picturesque"; "pigment"; "pimento"; "pint"; "pinto". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "pimsati" "to carve, hew out, cut to measure, adorn"; Greek "pikros" "bitter, sharp, pointed, piercing, painful", "poikilos" "spotted, pied, various"; Latin "pingere" "to embroider, tattoo, paint, picture"; Old Church Slavonic "pila" "file, saw", "pegu" "variegated", "pisati" "to write"; Lithuanian "piela" "file", "pieiu, pieti" "to write"; Old High German "fehjan" "to adorn".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*pel- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*pel-

"*pel-", "*pel-" (3) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "skin, hide". - It forms all or part of: "erysipelas"; "fell" (n.2) "skin or hide of an animal"; "film"; "pell"; "pellagra"; "pellicle"; "pelt" (n.) "skin of a fur-bearing animal"; "pillion"; "surplice". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "pella", Latin "pellis" "skin"; Old English "filmen" "membrane, thin skin, foreskin".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*pel- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*pel-

"*pel-", "*pel-" (2) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to fold". - It forms all or part of: "aneuploidy"; "decuple"; "fold" (v.); "-fold"; "furbelow"; "haplo-"; "hundredfold"; "manifold"; "multiple"; "octuple"; "polyploidy"; "-plus"; "quadruple"; "quintuple"; "sextuple"; "triple". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "putah" "fold, pocket"; Albanian "pale" "fold"; Middle Irish "alt" "a joint"; Lithuanian "pelti" "to plait"; Old English "faldan" "to fold, wrap up, furl".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*pel- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*pel-

"*pel-", "*pel-" (5) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to thrust, strike, drive". It forms all or part of: "anvil"; "appeal"; "catapult"; "compel"; "dispel"; "expel"; "felt" (n.) "unwoven fabric matted together by rolling or beating"; "filter"; "filtrate"; "impel"; "impulse"; "interpellation"; "interpolate"; "peal"; "pelt" (v.) "to strike (with something)"; "polish"; "propel"; "pulsate"; "pulsation"; "pulse" (n.1) "a throb, a beat"; "push"; "rappel"; "repeal"; "repel"; "repousse". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "pallein" "to wield, brandish, swing", "pelemizein" "to shake, cause to tremble"; Latin "pellere" "to push, drive"; Old Church Slavonic "plusti".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*pel- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*pel-

"*pel-", "*pel-" (1) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "pale". - It forms all or part of: "appall"; "falcon"; "fallow" (adj.) "pale yellow, brownish yellow"; "Fauvist"; "Lloyd"; "pale" (adj.); "pallid"; "pallor"; "palomino"; "Peloponnesus"; "polio"; "poliomyelitis". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "palitah" "gray", "panduh" "whitish, pale"; Greek "pelios" "livid, dark"; "polios" "gray" (of hair, wolves, waves); Latin "pallere" "to be pale", "pallidus" "pale, pallid, wan, colorless"; Old Church Slavonic "plavu", Lithuanian "palvas" "sallow"; Welsh "llwyd" "gray"; Old English "fealo", "fealu" "dull-colored, yellow, brown". It also forms the root of words for "pigeon" in Greek ("peleia"), Latin ("palumbes"), and Old Prussian ("poalis").


Erstellt: 2018-03

*pel- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*pel-

"*pel-", "*pel-" (4) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to sell". - It forms all or part of: "bibliopole"; "monopolize"; "monopoly"; "oligopolistic"; "oligopoly". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "panate" "barters, purchases"; Lithuanian "pelnas" "gain"; Greek "polein" "to sell"; Old Church Slavonic "splenu", Russian "polon" "prey, booty"; Old Norse "falr", Dutch "veil", German "feil" "for sale, venal".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*pele- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*pele-

"*pele-", "*pele-" (2) : "*pel?-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "flat; to spread". It forms all or part of: "airplane"; "dysplasia"; "ectoplasm"; "effleurage"; "esplanade"; "explain"; "explanation"; "feldspar"; "field"; "flaneur"; "floor"; "llano"; "palm" (n.1) "flat of the hand"; "palm" (n.2) "tropical tree"; "palmy"; "piano"; "pianoforte"; "plain"; "plan"; "planar"; "Planaria"; "plane" (n.1) "flat surface"; "plane" (n.3) "tool for smoothing surfaces"; "plane" (v.2) "soar, glide on motionless wings"; "planet"; "plani-"; "planisphere"; "plano-"; "-plasia"; "plasma"; "plasmid"; "plasm"; "-plasm"; "-plast"; "plaster"; "plastic"; "plastid"; "-plasty"; "Polack"; "Poland"; "Pole"; "polka"; "protoplasm"; "veldt". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "plassein" "to mold", "plasma" "something molded or created"; Latin "planus" "flat, level, even, plain, clear"; Lithuanian "plonas" "thin"; Celtic "*lanon" "plain"; Old Church Slavonic "polje" "flat land, field", Russian "polyi" "open"; Old English "feld", Middle Dutch "veld" "field".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*penkwe- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*penkwe-

"*penkwe-", "*penkwe-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "five". - It forms all or part of: "cinquain"; "cinque"; "cinquecento"; "cinquefoil"; "fifteen"; "fifth"; "fifty"; "fin" (n.) "five-dollar bill"; "finger"; "fist"; "five"; "foist"; "keno"; "parcheesi"; "penta-"; "pentacle"; "pentad"; "Pentateuch"; "Pentecost"; "pentagon"; "pentagram"; "pentameter"; "pentathlon"; "Pentothal"; "Pompeii"; "Punjab"; "punch" (n.2) "type of mixed drink"; "quinary"; "quincunx"; "quinella"; "quinque-"; "quinquennial"; "quint"; "quintain"; "quintet"; "quintile"; "quintessence"; "quintillion"; "quintuple". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "panca", Greek "pente", Latin "quinque", Old Church Slavonic "pe?ti", Lithuanian "penki", Old Welsh "pimp", Old English "fif", Dutch "vijf", Old High German "funf".





Erstellt: 2018-03

*pet- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*pet-

"*pet-", "*pet-" : Also "pet?-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to rush, to fly". - It forms all or part of: "accipiter"; "appetence"; "appetite"; "apterous"; "apteryx"; "archaeopteryx"; "asymptote"; "centripetal"; "Coleoptera"; "compete"; "competent"; "eurypterid"; "feather"; "helicopter"; "hippopotamus"; "Hymenoptera"; "impetigo"; "impetuous"; "impetus"; "iopterous"; "Lepidoptera"; "ornithopter"; "panache"; "panne"; "pen" (n.1) "writing implement"; "pennon"; "peripeteia"; "perpetual"; "perpetuity"; "petition"; "petulance"; "petulant"; "pin"; "pinion"; "pinnacle"; "pinnate"; "pinniped"; "potamo-"; "potamology"; "propitiation"; "propitious"; "ptero-"; "pterodactyl"; "ptomaine"; "ptosis"; "repeat"; "symptom". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "pattram" "wing, feather, leaf", "patara-" "flying, fleeting"; Hittite "pittar" "wing"; Greek "piptein" "to fall", "potamos" "river, rushing water", "pteron, pteryx" "feather, wing", "ptilon" "soft feathers, down, plume"; Latin "petere" "to attack, assail; seek, strive after; ask for, beg; demand, require", "penna" "feather, wing"; Old Norse "fjr", Old English "feer" "feather"; Old Church Slavonic "pero" "feather"; Old Welsh "eterin" "bird".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*pete- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*pete-

"*pete-", "*pete-" : "*pet?-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to spread". It forms all or part of: "compass"; "El Paso"; "expand"; "expanse"; "expansion"; "expansive"; "fathom"; "pace" (n.); "paella"; "pan" (n.); "pandiculation"; "pas"; "pass"; "passe"; "passim"; "passacaglia"; "passage"; "passenger"; "passport"; "paten"; "patent"; "patina"; "petal"; "spandrel"; "spawn". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "petannynai" "to spread out", "petalon" "a leaf", "patane" "plate, dish"; Old Norse "famr" "embrace, bosom", Old English "fm" "embrace, bosom, fathom", Old Saxon "fathmos" "the outstretched arms".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*peuk- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*peuk-

"*peuk-", "*peuk-" : also "*peug-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to prick". It forms all or part of: "appoint"; "appointment"; "bung"; "compunction"; "contrapuntal"; "expugn"; "expunge"; "impugn"; "interpunction"; "oppugn"; "pink"; "poignant"; "point"; "pointe"; "pointillism"; "poniard"; "pounce"; "pugilism"; "pugilist"; "pugnacious"; "pugnacity"; "punch" (n.1) "pointed tool for making holes or embossing"; "punch" (n.3) "a quick blow with the fist"; "punch" (v.) "to hit with the fist"; "puncheon" (n.2) "pointed tool for punching or piercing"; "punctilio"; "punctilious"; "punctual"; "punctuate"; "punctuation"; "puncture"; "pungent"; "punty"; "Pygmy"; "repugn"; "repugnance"; "repugnant". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "pyx" "with clenched fist", "pygme" "fist, boxing", "pyktes" "boxer"; Latin "pugnare" "to fight", especially with the fists, "pungere" "to pierce, prick".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*pisk- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*pisk-

"*pisk-", "*pisk-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "a fish". It forms all or part of: "fish"; "fishnet"; "grampus"; "piscatory"; "Pisces"; "piscine"; "porpoise". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin "piscis" (source of Italian "pesce", French "poisson", Spanish "pez", Welsh "pysgodyn", Breton "pesk"); Old Irish "iasc"; Old English "fisc", Old Norse "fiskr", Gothic "fisks".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*plak- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*plak-

"*plak-", "*plak-" (1) : also "*plak-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to be flat"; extension of root "*pele-" (2) "flat; to spread". - It forms all or part of: "flag" (n.2) "flat stone for paving"; "flagstone"; "flake" (n.) "thin flat piece,; "flaw"; "floe"; "fluke" (n.3) "flatfish"; "placenta"; "plagal"; "plagiarism"; "plagio-"; "planchet"; "plank". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "plakoeis" "flat", "plax" "level surface, anything flat"; Lettish "plakt" "to become flat"; Old Norse "flaga" "layer of earth", Norwegian "flag" "open sea", Old English "floh" "piece of stone, fragment", Old High German "fluoh" "cliff".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*plak- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*plak-

"*plak-", "*plak-" (2) : "*plak-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to strike". - It forms all or part of: "apoplexy"; "cataplexy"; "complain"; "fling"; "paraplegia"; "plaint"; "plangent"; "plankton"; "planxty"; "plague"; "plectrum"; "quadriplegia". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "plazein" "to drive away", "plessein" "to beat, strike"; Latin "plangere" "to strike, lament"; Old English "flocan" "to strike, beat"; Gothic "flokan" "to bewail"; German "fluchen", Old Frisian "floka" "to curse".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*plat- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*plat-

"*plat-", "*plat-" : also "*plet?-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to spread"; extension of root "*pele- "(2) "flat; to spread". - It forms all or part of: "clan"; "flan"; "flat" (adj.) "without curvature or projection"; "flat" (n.) "a story of a house"; "flatter" (v.); "flounder" (n.) "flatfish"; "implant"; "piazza"; "place"; "plaice"; "plane"; (n.4) type of tree; "plant"; "plantain" (n.2); "plantar"; "plantation"; "plantigrade"; "plat"; "plate"; "plateau"; "platen"; "platform"; "platinum"; "platitude"; "Platonic"; "Plattdeutsch"; "platter"; "platypus"; "plaza"; "supplant"; "transplant". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "prathati" "spreads out"; Hittite "palhi" "broad"; Greek "platys" "broad, flat"; Latin "planta" "sole of the foot"; Lithuanian "platus" "broad"; German "Fladen" "flat cake"; Old Norse "flatr" "flat"; Old English "flet" "floor, dwelling"; Old Irish "lethan" "broad".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*plek- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*plek-

"*plek-", "*plek-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to plait". It is an extended form of root "*pel-" (2) "to fold". It forms all or part of: "accomplice"; "application"; "apply"; "complex"; "complexion"; "complicate"; "complication"; "complicity"; "deploy"; "display"; "duplex"; "duplicate"; "duplicity"; "employ"; "explicate"; "explicit"; "exploit"; "flax"; "implex"; "implicate"; "implication"; "implicit"; "imply"; "multiply"; "perplex"; "perplexity"; "plait"; "plash" (v.2) "to interlace"; "pleat"; "-plex"; "plexus"; "pliable"; "pliant"; "plie"; "plight" (n.1) "condition or state"; "ply" (v.1) "work with, use"; "ply" (v.2) "to bend; "ply" (n.) "a layer, fold"; "replica"; "replicate"; "replication"; "reply"; "simplex"; "splay"; "triplicate". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "prasna-" "turban"; Greek "plekein" "to plait, braid, wind, twine", "plektos" "twisted"; Latin "plicare" "to lay, fold, twist", "plectere" (past participle "plexus") "to plait, braid, intertwine"; Old Church Slavonic "plesti" "to braid, plait, twist", Russian "plesti"; Gothic "flahta" "braid"; Old Norse "fletta", Old High German "flehtan" "to plait"; Old English "fleax" "cloth made with flax, linen".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*pleu- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*pleu-

"*pleu-", "*pleu-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to flow". It forms all or part of: "fletcher"; "fledge"; "flee"; "fleet" (adj.) "swift"; "fleet" (n.2) "group of ships under one command"; "fleet" (v.) "to float, drift; flow, run"; "fleeting"; "flight" (n.1) "act of flying"; "flight" (n.2) "act of fleeing"; "flit"; "float"; "flood"; "flotsam"; "flotilla"; "flow"; "flue"; "flugelhorn"; "fluster"; "flutter"; "fly" (v.1) "move through the air with wings"; "fly" (n.) "winged insect"; "fowl"; "plover"; "Pluto"; "plutocracy"; "pluvial"; "pneumo-"; "pneumonia"; "pneumonic"; "pulmonary". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "plavate" "navigates, swims"; Greek "plynein" "to wash", "plein" "to navigate", "ploein" "to float, swim", "plotos" "floating, navigable", "pyelos" "trough, basin"; Latin "plovere" "to rain", "pluvius" "rainy"; Armenian "luanam" "I wash"; Old English "flowan" "to flow"; Old Church Slavonic "plovo" "to flow, navigate"; Lithuanian "pilu", "pilti" "to pour out", "plauju", "plauti" "to swim, rinse".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*po(i)- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*po(i)-

"*po(i)-", "*po(i)-" : "*po(i)-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to drink". It forms all or part of: "beer"; "bever"; "beverage"; "bib"; "bibitory"; "bibulous"; "hibachi"; "imbibe"; "imbrue"; "pinocytosis"; "pirogi"; "poison"; "potable"; "potation"; "potion"; "symposium". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "pati" "drinks", "panam" "beverage"; Greek "pinein" "to drink", "poton" "that which one drinks", "potos" "drinking bout"; Latin "potare" "to drink", "potio" "a potion, a drinking", also "poisonous draught, magic potion"; Old Church Slavonic "piti" "to drink", "pivo" "beverage".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*porko- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*porko-

"*porko-", "*porko-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "young pig". - It forms all or part of: "aardvark"; "farrow"; "porcelain"; "porcine"; "pork"; "porcupine"; "porpoise". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin "porcus" "pig, tame swine", Umbrian "purka"; Old Church Slavonic "prase" "young pig"; Lithuanian "paras" "pig"; Middle Dutch "varken", German "Ferkel", Old English "fearh" "pig, small pig".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*poti- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*poti-

"*poti-", "*poti-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "powerful"; "lord".

It forms all or part of: "bashaw"; "compos mentis"; "despot"; "hospodar"; "host" (n.1) "person who receives guests"; "idempotent"; "impotent"; "omnipotent"; "pasha"; "plenipotentiary"; "posse"; "possess"; "possible"; "potence"; "potency"; "potent"; "potentate"; "potential"; "potentiate"; "potentiometer"; "power"; "totipotent".

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "patih" = "master, husband"; Greek "posis", Lithuanian "patis" = "husband"; Latin "potis" = "powerful", "able", "capable"; "possible".

Words related to "*poti-"
  • bashaw
  • compos mentis
  • despot
  • hospodar
  • host
  • idempotent
  • impotent
  • omnipotent
  • pasha
  • plenipotentiary
  • posse
  • possess
  • possible
  • potence
  • potency
  • potent
  • potentate
  • potential
  • potentiate
  • potentiometer
  • power
  • totipotent



Erstellt: 2018-03

*prek- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*prek-

"*prek-", "*prek-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to ask, entreat". - It forms all or part of: "deprecate"; "deprecation"; "expostulate"; "imprecate"; "imprecation"; "postulate"; "pray"; "prayer"; "precarious"; "precatory"; "prithee". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "prasna-", Avestan "frashna-" "question"; Sanskrit "prcchati", Avestan "peresaiti" "interrogates"; Latin "precari" "ask earnestly, beg, entreat"; Old Church Slavonic "prositi", Lithuanian "prayti" "to ask, beg"; Old High German "frahen", German "fragen", Old English "fricgan" "to ask" a question.


Erstellt: 2018-03

*pri- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*pri-

"*pri-", "*pri-" : "pri-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to love". In some languages (notably Germanic and Celtic) it developed derivatives with the sense "free, not in bondage", perhaps via "beloved" or "friend" being applied to the free members of one's clan (as opposed to slaves). - It forms all or part of: "afraid"; "affray"; "filibuster"; "Frederick"; "free"; "freebooter"; "freedom"; "friend"; "Friday"; "Frigg"; "Godfrey"; "Geoffrey"; "Siegfried"; "Winfred". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "priyah" "own, dear, beloved", "priyate" "loves"; Old Church Slavonic "prijati" "to help", "prijatelji" "friend"; Welsh "rhydd" "free"; Old English "freo" "exempt from; not in bondage, acting of one's own will", Gothic "frijon" "to love", Old English "freod" "affection, friendship, peace", "friga" "love", "friu" "peace", Old Norse "Frigg", name of the wife of Odin, literally "beloved" or "loving".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*re- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*re-

"*re-", "*re-" : "*re-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to reason, count"; a variant of PIE root "*ar-", also "ar?-", "to fit together". - It forms all or part of: "Alfred"; "arraign"; "arithmetic"; "Conrad"; "dread"; "Eldred"; "Ethelred"; "hatred"; "hundred"; "kindred"; "logarithm"; "Ralph"; "rate" (n.) "estimated value or worth"; "rathskeller"; "ratify"; "ratio"; "ration"; "read"; "reason"; "rede"; "rhyme"; "riddle" (n.1) "word-game"; "rite"; "ritual". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "radh-" "to succeed, accomplish"; Greek "arithmos" "number, amount"; Latin "reri" "to consider, confirm, ratify", "ritus" "rite, religious custom"; Old Church Slavonic "raditi" "to take thought, attend to"; Old Irish "im-radim" "to deliberate, consider"; Old English "rdan" "to advise, counsel, persuade; read"; Old English, Old High German "rim" "number"; Old Irish "rim" "number", "dorimu" "I count".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*red- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*red-

"*red-", "*red-" : "*red-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to scrape, scratch, gnaw". It forms all or part of: "abrade"; "abrasion"; "corrode"; "corrosion"; "erase"; "erode"; "erosion"; "radula"; "rascal"; "rase"; "rash" (n.) "eruption of small red spots on skin"; "raster"; "rat"; "raze"; "razor"; "rodent"; "rostrum"; "tabula rasa". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "radati" "scrapes, gnaws", "radanah" "tooth"; Latin "rodere" "to gnaw, eat away", "radere" "to scrape"; Welsh "rhathu" "scrape, polish".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*reg- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*reg-

"*reg-": Proto-Indo-European root meaning "move in a straight line", with derivatives meaning "to direct in a straight line", thus "to lead", "rule".

It forms all or part of:

"abrogate"; "address"; "adroit"; "Alaric"; "alert"; "anorectic"; "anorexia"; "arrogant"; "arrogate"; "bishopric"; "correct"; "corvee"; "derecho"; "derogate"; "derogatory"; "Dietrich"; "direct"; "dress"; "eldritch"; "erect"; "ergo"; "Eric"; "Frederick"; "Henry"; "incorrigible"; "interregnum"; "interrogate"; "maharajah"; "Maratha"; "prerogative"; "prorogue"; "rack" (n.1) "frame with bars"; "rail" (n.1) "horizontal bar passing from one post or support to another"; "Raj"; "rajah"; "rake" (n.1) "toothed tool for drawing or scraping things together"; "rake" (n.2) "debauchee; idle, dissolute person"; "rakish"; "rank" (adj.) "corrupt, loathsome, foul"; "real" (n.) "small Spanish silver coin"; "realm"; "reck"; "reckless"; "reckon"; "rectangle"; "rectify"; "rectilinear"; "rectitude"; "recto"; "recto-"; "rector"; "rectum"; "regal"; "regent"; "regicide"; "regime"; "regimen"; "regiment"; "region"; "regular"; "regulate"; "Regulus"; "Reich"; "reign"; "resurgent"; "rex"; "rich"; "right"; "Risorgimento"; "rogation"; "royal"; "rule"; "sord"; "source"; "subrogate"; "subrogation"; "surge"; "surrogate"; "viceroy".

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by:
  • Sanskrit "raj-" "a king, a leader", "rjyati" "he stretches himself", "riag" "torture" (by racking);
  • Avestan "razeyeiti" "directs", "ratva-" "directed, arranged, straight";
  • Persian "rahst" "right, correct";
  • Latin "regere" "to rule, direct, lead, govern", "rex" (genitive "regis") "king", "rectus" "right, correct";
  • Greek "oregein" "to reach, extend";
  • Old Irish "ri",
  • Gaelic "righ" "a king",
  • Gaulish "-rix" "a king" (in personal names, such as "Vircingetorix"),
  • Old Irish "rigim" "to stretch out";
  • Gothic "reiks" "a leader", "raihts" "straight, right";
  • Lithuanian "raiytis" "to stretch oneself";
  • Old English "rice" "kingdom", "-ric" "king", "rice" "rich, powerful", "riht" "correct";
  • Gothic "raihts",
  • Old High German "recht",
  • Old Swedish "reht",
  • Old Norse "rettr" "correct".



Erstellt: 2018-03

*rei- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*rei-

"*rei-", "*rei-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to flow, run". It forms all or part of: "derive"; "ember-days"; "rennet" (n.1); "Rhine"; "rialto"; "rill"; "rio"; "rival"; "rivulet"; "run"; "runnel". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "rinati" "causes to flow", "ritih" "stream, course"; Latin "rivus" "stream"; Old Church Slavonic "reka" "river"; Middle Irish "rian" "river, way"; Gothic "rinnan" "run, flow", "rinno" "brook"; Middle Low German "ride" "brook"; Old English "ri" "stream"; Old English "rinnan", Old Norse "rinna" "to run", Dutch "ril" "running stream".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*tere- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*tere-

"*tere-", "*tere-" (1) : "*ter?-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to rub, turn", with derivatives referring to twisting, also to boring, drilling, piercing; and to the rubbing of cereal grain to remove the husks, and thus to threshing. - It forms all or part of: "atresia"; "attorn"; "attorney"; "attrition"; "contour"; "contrite"; "detour"; "detriment"; "diatribe"; "drill" (v.) "bore a hole"; "lithotripsy"; "return"; "septentrion"; "thrash"; "thread"; "thresh"; "throw"; "threshold"; "trauma"; "trepan"; "tribadism"; "tribology"; "tribulation"; "trite"; "triticale"; "triturate"; "trout"; "trypsin"; "tryptophan"; "turn". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "turah" "wounded, hurt"; Greek "teirein" "to rub, rub away"; Latin "terere" "to rub, thresh, grind, wear away", "tornus" "turning lathe"; Old Church Slavonic "tiro" "to rub"; Lithuanian "trinu, trinti" "to rub", Old Irish "tarathar" "borer", Welsh "taraw" "to strike".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*terkw- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*terkw-

"*terkw-", "*terkw-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to twist". It forms all or part of: "contort"; "distort"; "extort"; "extortion"; "nasturtium"; "queer"; "retort"; "thwart"; "torch"; "torment"; "torque" (n.) "rotating force"; "torsion"; "tort"; "torticollis"; "tortuous"; "torture"; "truss". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "tarkuh" "spindle"; Latin "torquere" "to twist"; Old Church Slavonic "traku" "band, girdle"; Old High German "drahsil" "turner", German "drechseln" "to turn on a lathe"; Old Norse "vert" "across", Old English "weorh" "transverse, perverse, angry, cross", Gothic "wairhs" "angry".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*ters- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*ters-

"*ters-", "*ters-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to dry". It forms all or part of: "inter"; "Mediterranean"; "metatarsal"; "parterre"; "subterranean"; "tarsal"; "tarsus"; "Tartuffe"; "terra"; "terrace"; "terra-cotta"; "terrain"; "terran"; "terraqueous"; "terrarium"; "terrene"; "terrestrial"; "terrier"; "territory"; "thirst"; "toast"; "torrent"; "torrid"; "turmeric"; "tureen". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "tarsayati" "dries up"; Avestan "tarshu-" "dry, solid"; Greek "teresesthai" "to become or be dry", "tersainein" "to make dry"; Latin "torrere" "dry up, parch", "terra" "earth, land"; Gothic "aursus" "dry, barren", Old High German "thurri", German "drr", Old English "yrre" "dry"; Old English "urstig" "thirsty".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*teue- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*teue-

"*teue-", "*teue-" : "*teu?-", also "*teu-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to swell". It forms all or part of: "butter"; "contumely"; "creosote"; "intumescence"; "intumescent"; "protuberance"; "protuberant"; "psychosomatic"; "somato-"; "-some" (3) "body, the body"; "soteriology"; "Tartuffe"; "thigh"; "thimble"; "thousand"; "thole" (n.); "thumb"; "tumescent"; "tumid"; "tumor"; "truffle"; "tuber"; "tuberculosis"; "tumult"; "tyrosine". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Avestan "tuma" "fat"; Greek "tylos" "callus, lump"; Latin "tumere" "to swell", "tumidus" "swollen", "tumor" "a swelling"; Lithuanian "tukti" "to become fat"; Lithuanian "taukas", Old Church Slavonic "tuku", Russian "tuku" "fat of animals"; Old Irish "ton" "rump".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*teuta- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*teuta-

"*teuta-", "*teuta-" : "*teuta-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "tribe". It forms all or part of: "Deutsch"; "Dutch"; "Plattdeutsch"; "Teuton"; "Teutonic". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Old Irish "tuoth" "people", Old Lithuanian "tauta" "people", Old Prussian "tauto" "country", Oscan "touto" "community", German "Deutsch", Gothic "iuda", Old English "eod" "people, race, nation", Old English "eodisc" "belonging to the people"


Erstellt: 2018-03

*tkei- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*tkei-

"*tkei-", "*tkei-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to settle, dwell, be home". It forms all or part of: "Amphictyonic"; "hamlet"; "hangar"; "haunt"; "home"; "site"; "situate"; "situation"; "situs". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "kseti" "abides, dwells"; Armenian "shen" "inhabited"; Greek "kome", Lithuanian "kaimas" "village"; Old Church Slavonic "semija" "domestic servants"; Old English "ham" "dwelling place, house, abode", German "heim" "home", Gothic "haims" "village".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*tolkw- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*tolkw-

"*tolkw-", "*tolkw-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to speak". It forms all or part of: "circumlocution"; "colloquium"; "colloquy"; "elocution"; "eloquence"; "grandiloquence"; "interlocution"; "interlocutor"; "locution"; "locutory"; "loquacious"; "loquacity"; "loquitur"; "magniloquence"; "magniloquent"; "obloquy"; "soliloquy"; "somniloquy"; "vaniloquence"; "ventriloquism"; "ventriloquy". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin "loqui" "to speak"; Old Irish "ad-tluch-" "to thank", "to-tluch-" "to ask"; Old Church Slavonic "tloko" "interpretation, explanation".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*trep- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*trep-

"*trep-", "*trep-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to turn". It forms all or part of: "apotropaic"; "atropine"; "Atropos"; "contrive"; "entropy"; "heliotrope"; "isotropic"; "psychotropic"; "retrieve"; "trope"; "-trope"; "trophy"; "tropic"; "tropical"; "tropism"; "troposphere"; "troubadour"; "zoetrope". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "trapate" "is ashamed, confused", properly "turns away in shame"; Greek "trepein" "to turn", "tropos" "a turn, direction, course", "trope" "a turning"; Latin "trepit" "he turns".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*uper (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*uper

"*uper", "*uper - Proto-Indo-European root meaning "over". It forms all or part of: "hyper-"; "insuperable"; "over"; "over-"; "sirloin"; "somersault"; "soprano"; "soubrette"; "sovereign"; "sum"; "summit"; "super-"; "superable"; "superb"; "superior"; "supernal"; "supra-"; "supreme"; "sur-". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "upari", Avestan "upairi" "over, above, beyond"; Greek "hyper", Latin "super" "above, over"; Old English "ofer" "over", German "ber", Gothic "ufaro" "over, across"; Gaulish "ver-", Old Irish "for".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*upo (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*upo

"*upo", "*upo - Proto-Indo-European root meaning "under", also "up from under", hence "over". It forms all or part of: "above"; "assume"; "Aufklarung"; "eave"; "eavesdropper"; "hyphen"; "hypo-"; "hypochondria"; "hypocrisy"; "hypotenuse"; "hypothalamus"; "hypothesis"; "hypsi-"; "hypso-"; "opal"; "open"; "oft"; "often"; "resuscitate"; "somber"; "souffle"; "source"; "soutane"; "souvenir"; "sub-"; "subject"; "sublime"; "subpoena"; "substance"; "subterfuge"; "subtle"; "suburb"; "succeed"; "succinct"; "succor"; "succubus"; "succumb"; "sudden"; "suffer"; "sufficient"; "suffix"; "suffrage"; "suggestion"; "summon"; "supine"; "supple"; "supply"; "support"; "suppose"; "surge"; "suspect"; "suspend"; "sustain"; "up"; "up-"; "Upanishad"; "uproar"; "valet"; "varlet"; "vassal". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "upa" "near, under, up to, on", Greek "hypo" "under", Latin "sub" "under, below", Gothic "iup", Old Norse, Old English "upp" "up, upward", Hittite "up-zi" "rises".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*wal- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*wal-

"*wal-", "*wal-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to be strong". It forms all or part of: "ambivalence"; "Arnold"; "avail"; "bivalent"; "convalesce"; "countervail"; "Donald"; "equivalent"; "evaluation"; "Gerald"; "Harold"; "invalid" (adj.1) "not strong, inform"; "invalid" (adj.2) "of no legal force"; "Isold"; "multivalent"; "polyvalent"; "prevalent"; "prevail"; "Reynold"; "Ronald"; "valediction"; "valence"; "Valerie"; "valetudinarian"; "valiance"; "valiant"; "valid"; "valor"; "value"; "Vladimir"; "Walter"; "wield". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin "valere" "be strong, be well, be worth"; Old Church Slavonic "vlasti" "to rule over"; Lithuanian "valdyti" "to have power"; Celtic "*walos-" "ruler", Old Irish "flaith" "dominion", Welsh "gallu" "to be able"; Old English "wealdan" "to rule", Old High German "-walt", "-wald" "power" (in personal names), Old Norse "valdr" "ruler".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*wed- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*wed-

"*wed-", "*wed-" (1) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "water; wet". It forms all or part of: "abound"; "anhydrous"; "carbohydrate"; "clepsydra"; "dropsy"; "hydra"; "hydrangea"; "hydrant"; "hydrargyrum"; "hydrate"; "hydraulic"; "hydro-"; "hydrogen"; "hydrophobia"; "hydrous"; "Hydrus"; "inundate"; "inundation"; "kirsch-wasser"; "nutria"; "otter"; "redound"; "redundant"; "surround"; "undine"; "undulant"; "undulate"; "undulation"; "vodka"; "wash"; "water" (n.1); "wet"; "whiskey"; "winter". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Hittite "watar", Sanskrit "udrah", Greek "hydor", Old Church Slavonic and Russian "voda", Lithuanian "vanduo", Old Prussian "wundan", Gaelic "uisge" "water"; Latin "unda" "wave"; Old English "wter", Old High German "wazzar", Gothic "wato" "water".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*weg- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*weg-

"*weg-", "*weg-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to be strong, be lively". It forms all or part of: "awake"; "bewitch"; "bivouac"; "invigilate"; "reveille"; "surveillance"; "vedette"; "vegetable"; "velocity"; "vigil"; "vigilant"; "vigilante"; "vigor"; "waft"; "wait"; "wake" (v.) "emerge or arise from sleep"; "waken"; "watch"; "Wicca"; "wicked"; "witch". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "vajah" "force, strength", "vajayati" "drives on"; Latin "vigil" "watchful, awake", "vigere" "be lively, thrive", "velox" "fast, lively", "vegere" "to enliven", "vigor" "liveliness, activity"; Old English "wacan" "to become awake", German "wachen" "to be awake", Gothic "wakan" "to watch".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*wegh- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*wegh-

"*wegh-":

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to go, move, transport in a vehicle".

The root "wegh-", "to convey", especially by wheeled vehicle, is found in virtually every branch of Indo-European, including now Anatolian. The root, as well as other widely represented roots such as "aks-" and "nobh-", attests to the presence of the wheel - and vehicles using it - at the time Proto-Indo-European was spoken. [Watkins, p. 96] -

It forms all or part of: "always"; "away"; "convection"; "convey"; "convex"; "convoy"; "deviate"; "devious"; "envoy"; "evection"; "earwig"; "foy"; "graywacke"; "impervious"; "invective"; "inveigh"; "invoice"; "Norway"; "obviate"; "obvious"; "ochlocracy"; "ogee"; "pervious"; "previous"; "provection"; "quadrivium"; "thalweg"; "trivia"; "trivial"; "trivium"; "vector"; "vehemence"; "vehement"; "vehicle"; "vex"; "via"; "viaduct"; "viatic"; "viaticum"; "vogue"; "voyage"; "wacke"; "wag"; "waggish"; "wagon"; "wain"; "wall-eyed"; "wave" (n.); "way"; "wee"; "weigh"; "weight"; "wey"; "wiggle".

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by:
  • Sanskrit "vahati" = "carries", "conveys",
  • "vahitram", "vahanam" = "vessel", "ship";
  • Avestan "vazaiti" = "he leads", "draws";
  • Greek "okhos" = "carriage", "chariot";
  • Latin "vehere" = "to carry", "convey",
  • "vehiculum" = "carriage", "chariot";
  • Old Church Slavonic "vesti" = "to carry", "convey",
  • "vozu" = "carriage", "chariot";
  • Russian "povozka" = "small sled";
  • Lithuanian "veu, veti" = "to carry", "convey",
  • "vais" = "a small sled";
  • Old Irish "fecht" = "campaign", "journey",
  • "fen" = "carriage", "cart";
  • Welsh "gwain" = "carriage", "cart";
  • Old English "wegan" = "to carry";
  • Old Norse "vegr",
  • Old High German "weg" = "way";
  • Middle Dutch "wagen" = "wagon".



Erstellt: 2018-03

*wei- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*wei-

"*wei-", "*wei-" : also "wei?-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to turn, twist, bend", with derivatives referring to suppleness or binding. - It forms all or part of: "ferrule"; "garland"; "iridescence"; "iridescent"; "iris"; "iridium"; "vise"; "viticulture"; "wire"; "withe"; "withy". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Avestan "vaeiti-" "osier"; Greek "itea" "willow", "iris" "rainbow"; Latin "viere" "to bend, twist", "vitis" "vine"; Lithuanian "vytis" "willow twig"; Old Irish "fiar", Welsh "gwyr" "bent, crooked"; Polish "witwa", Welsh "gwden" "willow", Russian "vitvina" "branch, bough"; Old English "wir" "metal drawn out into a fine thread".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*weid- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*weid-

"*weid-", "*weid-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to see". It forms all or part of: "advice"; "advise"; "belvedere"; "clairvoyant"; "deja vu"; "Druid"; "eidetic"; "eidolon"; "envy"; "evident"; "guide"; "guidon"; "guise"; "guy" (n.1) "small rope, chain, wire"; "Gwendolyn"; "Hades"; "history"; "idea"; "ideo-"; "idol"; "idyll"; "improvisation"; "improvise"; "interview"; "invidious"; "kaleidoscope"; "-oid"; "penguin"; "polyhistor"; "prevision"; "provide"; "providence"; "prudent"; "purvey"; "purview"; "review"; "revise"; "Rig Veda"; "story" (n.1) "connected account or narration of some happening"; "supervise"; "survey"; "twit"; "unwitting"; "Veda"; "vide"; "view"; "visa"; "visage"; "vision"; "visit"; "visor"; "vista"; "voyeur"; "wise" (adj.) "learned, sagacious, cunning"; "wise" (n.) "way of proceeding, manner"; "wisdom"; "wiseacre"; "wit" (n.) "mental capacity"; "wit" (v.) "to know"; "witenagemot"; "witting"; "wot". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "veda" "I know"; Avestan "vaeda" "I know"; Greek "oida", Doric "woida" "I know", "idein" "to see"; Old Irish "fis" "vision", "find" "white", i.e. "clearly seen", "fiuss" "knowledge"; Welsh "gwyn", Gaulish "vindos", Breton "gwenn" "white"; Gothic, Old Swedish, Old English "witan" "to know"; Gothic "weitan" "to see"; English "wise", German "wissen" "to know"; Lithuanian "vysti" "to see"; Bulgarian "vidya" "I see"; Polish "widziec" "to see", "wiedziec" "to know"; Russian "videt'"; "to see", "vest'"; "news", Old Russian "vedat'"; "to know".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*weik- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*weik-

"*weik-", "*weik-" (2) : also "*weig-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to bend, to wind". - It forms all or part of: "vetch"; "vicar"; "vicarious"; "vice-" "deputy, assistant, substitute"; "viceregent"; "vice versa"; "vicissitude"; "weak"; "weakfish"; "week"; "wicker"; "wicket"; "witch hazel"; "wych". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "visti" "changing, changeable"; Old English "wac" "weak, pliant, soft", "wician" "to give way, yield", "wice" "wych elm", Old Norse "vikja" "to bend, turn", Swedish "viker" "willow twig, wand", German "wechsel" "change".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*weik- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*weik-

"*weik-", "*weik-" (3) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to fight, conquer". - It forms all or part of: "convict"; "convince"; "evict"; "evince"; "invictus"; "invincible"; "Ordovician"; "province"; "vanquish"; "victor"; "victory"; "Vincent"; "vincible". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin "victor" "a conqueror", "vincere" "to conquer, overcome, defeat"; Lithuanian "apveikiu, apveikti" "to subdue, overcome"; Old Church Slavonic "veku" "strength, power, age"; Old Norse "vigr" "able in battle", Old English "wigan" "fight"; Welsh "gwych" "brave, energetic", Old Irish "fichim" "I fight", second element in Celtic "Ordovices" "those who fight with hammers".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*weik- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*weik-

"*weik-", "*weik-" (1) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "clan, social unit above the household". It forms all or part of: "antoecian"; "bailiwick"; "Brunswick"; "diocese"; "ecology"; "economy"; "ecumenical"; "metic"; "nasty"; "parish"; "parochial"; "vicinage"; "vicinity"; "viking"; "villa"; "village"; "villain"; "villanelle"; "-ville"; "villein"; "Warwickshire"; "wick" (n.2) "dairy farm". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "visah" "house", "vit" "dwelling, house, settlement"; Avestan "vis" "house, village, clan"; Old Persian "vitham" "house, royal house"; Greek "oikos" "house"; Latin "villa" "country house, farm", "vicus" "village, group of houses"; Lithuanian "viepats" "master of the house"; Old Church Slavonic "visi" "village"; Gothic "weihs" "village".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*weip- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*weip-

"*weip-", "*weip-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to turn, vacillate, tremble ecstatically". - It forms all or part of: "gimlet"; "gimp" (n.2) "ornamental trimming material"; "vibrant"; "vibrate"; "vibration"; "vibrato"; "vibrissa"; "waif"; "waive"; "waiver"; "whip"; "wimple"; "wipe". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin "vibrare" "set in tremulous motion, move quickly to and fro, quiver, tremble, shake", Lithuanian "vyburti" "to wag" (the tail), Danish "vippe", Dutch "wippen" "to swing", Old English "wipan" "to wipe".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*wekw- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*wekw-

"*wekw-", "*wekw-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to speak". It forms all or part of: "advocate"; "avocation"; "calliope"; "convocation"; "epic"; "equivocal"; "equivocation"; "evoke"; "invoke"; "provoke"; "revoke"; "univocal"; "vocabulary"; "vocal"; "vocation"; "vocative"; "vociferate"; "vociferous"; "voice"; "vouch"; "vox"; "vowel". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "vakti" "speaks, says", "vacas-" "word"; Avestan "vac-" "speak, say"; Greek "eipon" (aorist) "spoke, said", "epos" "word"; Latin "vocare" "to call", "vox" "voice, sound, utterance, language, word"; Old Prussian "wackis" "cry"; German "er-whnen" "to mention".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*wel- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*wel-

"*wel-", "*wel-" (3) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to turn, revolve", with derivatives referring to curved, enclosing objects. It forms all or part of: "archivolt"; "circumvolve"; "convoluted"; "convolution"; "devolve"; "elytra"; "evolution"; "evolve"; "Helicon"; "helicopter"; "helix"; "helminth"; "lorimer"; "ileus"; "involve"; "revolt"; "revolution"; "revolve"; "valve"; "vault" (v.1) "jump or leap over"; "vault" (n.1) "arched roof or ceiling"; "volte-face"; "voluble"; "volume"; "voluminous"; "volute"; "volvox"; "volvulus"; "vulva"; "wale"; "walk"; "wallet"; "wallow"; "waltz"; "well" (v.) "to spring, rise, gush"; "welter"; "whelk"; "willow". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "valate" "turns round", "ulvam" "womb, vulva"; Lithuanian "valtis" "twine, net", "vilnis" "wave", "apvalus" "round"; Old Church Slavonic "valiti" "roll, welter", "vluna" "wave"; Greek "eluein" "to roll round, wind, enwrap", "eilein" "twist, turn, squeeze; revolve, rotate", "helix" "spiral object"; Latin "volvere" "to turn, twist"; Gothic "walwjan" "to roll"; Old English "wealwian" "roll", "weoloc" "whelk, spiral-shelled mollusk"; Old High German "walzan" "to roll, waltz"; Old Irish "fulumain" "rolling"; Welsh "olwyn" "wheel".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*wen- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*wen-

"*wen-", "*wen-" (1) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to desire, strive for". It forms all or part of: "vanadium"; "Vanir"; "venerate"; "veneration"; "venerable"; "venereal"; "venery" (n.1) "pursuit of sexual pleasure"; "venery" (n.2) "hunting, the sports of the chase"; "venial"; "venison"; "venom"; "Venus"; "wean"; "ween"; "Wend" "Slavic people of eastern Germany"; "win"; "winsome"; "wish"; "wont"; "wynn". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "veti" "follows after", "vanas-" "desire", "vanati" "desires, loves, wins"; Avestan "vanaiti" "he wishes, is victorious"; Latin "venerari" "to worship", "venus" "love, sexual desire; loveliness, beauty"; Old English "wynn" "joy", "wunian" "to dwell", "wenian" "to accustom, train, wean", "wyscan" "to wish".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*wer- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*wer-

"*wer-", "*wer-" (3) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "perceive, watch out for". - It forms all or part of: "Arcturus"; "avant-garde"; "award"; "aware"; "beware"; "Edward"; "ephor"; "garderobe"; "guard"; "hardware"; "irreverence"; "lord"; "panorama"; "pylorus"; "rearward"; "regard"; "revere"; "reverence"; "reverend"; "reward"; "software"; "steward"; "vanguard"; "ward"; "warden"; "warder"; "wardrobe"; "ware" (n.) "manufactured goods, goods for sale"; "ware" (v.) "to take heed of, beware"; "warehouse"; "wary". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin "vereri" "to observe with awe, revere, respect, fear"; Greek "ouros" "a guard, watchman", "horan" "to see"; Hittite "werite-" "to see"; Old English "weard" "a guarding, protection; watchman, sentry, keeper".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*wer- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*wer-

"*wer-", "*wer-" (1) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to raise, lift, hold suspended". - It forms all or part of: "aerate"; "aeration"; "aerial"; "aero-"; "aerobics"; "aerophyte"; "aerosol"; "air" (n.1) "invisible gases that surround the earth"; "airy"; "aorta"; "anaerobic"; "aria"; "arterial"; "arterio-"; "arteriosclerosis"; "arteriole"; "artery"; "aura"; "malaria"; "meteor". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "aerein" "to lift, raise up"; Lithuanian "svarus" "heavy", "sverti" "to lift, weigh"; Old English "swar", Old Norse "svarr", Old High German "swar", German "schwer" "heavy".


Erstellt: 2018-03

*wer- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*wer-
"*wer-", "*wer-" (2) :


Proto-Indo-European root forming words meaning "to turn", "to bend".


It forms all or part of: "adverse"; "anniversary"; "avert"; "awry"; "controversy"; "converge"; "converse" (adj.) "exact opposite"; "convert"; "diverge"; "divert"; "evert"; "extroversion"; "extrovert"; "gaiter"; "introrse"; "introvert"; "invert"; "inward"; "malversation"; "obverse"; "peevish"; "pervert"; "prose"; "raphe"; "reverberate"; "revert"; "rhabdomancy"; "rhapsody"; "rhombus"; "ribald"; "sinistrorse"; "stalwart"; "subvert"; "tergiversate"; "transverse"; "universe"; "verbena"; "verge" (v.1) "tend, incline"; "vermeil"; "vermicelli"; "vermicular"; "vermiform"; "vermin"; "versatile"; "verse" (n.) "poetry"; "version"; "verst"; "versus"; "vertebra"; "vertex"; "vertigo"; "vervain"; "vortex"; "-ward"; "warp"; "weird"; "worm"; "worry"; "worth" (adj.) "significant, valuable, of value"; "worth" (v.) "to come to be"; "wrangle"; "wrap"; "wrath"; "wreath"; "wrench"; "wrest"; "wrestle"; "wriggle"; "wring"; "wrinkle"; "wrist"; "writhe"; "wrong"; "wroth"; "wry". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "vartate" "turns round, rolls"; Avestan "varet-" "to turn"; Hittite "hurki-" "wheel"; Greek "rhatane" "stirrer, ladle"; Latin "vertere" (frequentative "versare") "to turn, turn back, be turned; convert, transform, translate; be changed", "versus" "turned toward or against"; Old Church Slavonic "vruteti" "to turn, roll", Russian "vreteno" "spindle, distaff"; Lithuanian "verciu, versti" "to turn"; German "werden", Old English "weoran" "to become"; Old English "-weard" "toward", originally "turned toward", "weorthan" "to befall", "wyrd" "fate, destiny", literally "what befalls one"; Welsh "gwerthyd" "spindle, distaff"; Old Irish "frith" "against".



Erstellt: 2018-03

*wer- (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*wer-

ide. "*wer-" (4): Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to cover".

It forms all or part of:

  • engl. "aperitif"
  • engl. "apertive"
  • engl. "aperture"
  • engl. "barbican"
  • engl. "cover"
  • engl. "covert"
  • engl. "curfew"
  • engl. "discover"
  • engl. "garage"
  • engl. "garment"
  • engl. "garnish"
  • engl. "garret"
  • engl. "garrison"
  • engl. "guarantee"
  • engl. "guaranty"
  • engl. "kerchief"
  • engl. "landwehr"
  • engl. "operculum"
  • engl. "overt"
  • engl. "overture"
  • engl. "pert"
  • engl. "warn"
  • engl. "warrant"
  • engl. "warrantee"
  • engl. "warranty"
  • engl. "warren"
  • engl. "wat"
  • engl. "Wehrmacht"
  • engl. "weir"


  • It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by:
    • Sanskrit "vatah" = "enclosure", "vrnoti" = "covers", "wraps", "shuts"
    • Lithuanian "uveriu", "uverti" = "to shut", "to close"
    • Old Persian "*pari-varaka" = "protective"
    • Latin "(op)erire" = "to cover", "(ap)erire" ="open", "uncover" (with "ap-" = "off", "away")
    • Old Church Slavonic "vora" = "sealed", "closed", "vreti" = "shut"
    • Old Irish "feronn" = "field", properly "enclosed land"
    • Old English "wer" = "dam", "fence", "enclosure"
    • German "Wehr" = "defense", "protection"
    • Gothic "warjan" = "to defend", "protect".



    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *were-o- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*were-o-

    "*were-o-", "*were-o-" : "*wer?-o-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "true, trustworthy". It forms all or part of: "aver"; "Varangian"; "veracious"; "veracity"; "verdict"; "veridical"; "verify"; "verisimilitude"; "verism"; "veritas"; "verity"; "very"; "voir dire"; "warlock". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin "verus" "true"; Old Church Slavonic "vera" "faith", Russian "viera" "faith, belief"; Old English "wr" "a compact", Old Dutch, Old High German "war", Dutch "waar", German "wahr" "true"; Welsh "gwyr", Old Irish "fir" "true".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *werg- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*werg-

    "*werg-", "*werg-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to do". It forms all or part of: "allergic"; "allergy"; "argon"; "boulevard"; "bulwark"; "cholinergic"; "demiurge"; "dramaturge"; "energy"; "erg" (n.1) "unit of energy"; "ergative"; "ergonomics"; "ergophobia"; "George"; "georgic"; "handiwork"; "irk"; "lethargic"; "lethargy"; "liturgy"; "metallurgy"; "organ"; "organelle"; "organic"; "organism"; "organize"; "orgy"; "surgeon"; "surgery"; "synergism"; "synergy"; "thaumaturge"; "work"; "wright"; "wrought"; "zymurgy". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "ergon" "work", "orgia" "religious performances"; Armenian "gorc" "work"; Avestan "vareza" "work, activity"; Gothic "waurkjan", Old English "wyrcan" "to work", Old English "weorc" "deed, action, something done"; Old Norse "yrka" "work, take effect".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *wi-ro- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*wi-ro-

    "*wi-ro-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "man".

    It forms all or part of: "curia"; "Fergus"; "triumvir"; "triumvirate"; "Weltanschauung"; "Weltschmerz"; "werewolf"; "wergeld"; "world"; "virago"; "virile"; "virility"; "virtue"; "virtuosity"; "virtuoso"; "virtuous".

    It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "virah", Avestan "vira-", Latin "vir", Lithuanian "vyras", Old Irish "fer", Welsh "gwr", Gothic "wair", Old English "wer" = "a man".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *wrad- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*wrad-

    "*wrad-", "*wrad-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "branch, root". - It forms all or part of: "deracinate"; "eradicate"; "eradication"; "irradicable"; "licorice"; "radical"; "radicant"; "radicle"; "radicular"; "radish"; "ramada"; "ramify"; "ramus"; "rhizoid"; "rhizome"; "rhizophagous"; "root"; "rutabaga"; "wort". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "rhiza", Lesbian "brisda" "root", Greek "hradamnos" "branch"; Latin "radix") "root, radish"; Gothic "waurts", Old English "wyrt"; Welsh "gwridd", Old Irish "fren" "root".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *ye- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*ye-

    "*ye-", "*ye-" : "*ye-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to throw, impel". It forms all or part of: "abject"; "abjection"; "adjacence"; "adjacent"; "adjective"; "aphetic"; "catheter"; "circumjacent"; "conjecture"; "deject"; "ease"; "ejaculate"; "eject"; "enema"; "gist"; "ictus"; "interjacent"; "inject"; "interject"; "interjection"; "jess"; "jet" (v.1) "to sprout or spurt forth, shoot out"; "jet" (n.1) "stream of water"; "jete"; "jetsam"; "jettison"; "jetton"; "jetty" (n.) "pier"; "joist"; "jut"; "object"; "objection"; "objective"; "paresis"; "project"; "projectile"; "reject"; "rejection"; "subjacent"; "subject"; "subjective"; "trajectory". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Hittite "ijami" "I make"; Greek "iemi", "ienai" "to send, throw"; Latin "iacere" "to throw, cast".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *yeug- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*yeug-

    "*yeug-", "*yeug-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to join". - It forms all or part of: "adjoin"; "adjust"; "conjoin"; "conjugal"; "conjugate"; "conjugation"; "conjunct"; "disjointed"; "enjoin"; "injunction"; "jugular"; "jostle"; "joust"; "join"; "joinder"; "joint"; "jointure"; "junction"; "juncture"; "junta"; "juxtapose"; "juxtaposition"; "rejoin" (v.2) "to answer"; "rejoinder"; "subjoin"; "subjugate"; "subjugation"; "subjunctive"; "syzygy"; "yoga"; "yoke"; "zeugma"; "zygoma"; "zygomatic"; "zygote". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "yugam" "yoke", "yunjati" "binds, harnesses", "yogah" "union"; Hittite "yugan" "yoke"; Greek "zygon" "yoke", "zeugnyanai" "to join, unite"; Latin "iungere" "to join", "iugum" "yoke"; Old Church Slavonic "igo", Old Welsh "iou" "yoke"; Lithuanian "jungas" "yoke", "jungti" "to fasten to a yoke"; Old English "geoc" "yoke".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/search?q=*&type=3

    suffix


    -a (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-a

    "-a", "-a" (2) : nominative neuter plural ending of certain nouns and adjectives in Latin and Greek that have been adopted into English ("phenomena", "data", "media", "criteria", etc.). It also is common in biology in Modern Latin formations of class names ("Mammalia", "Reptilia", "Crustacea").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -a (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-a

    "-a", "-a" (1) : word-forming element which in English is characteristic of fem. nouns and adjectives of Latin or Greek origin (such as "idea", "coma", "mania", "basilica", "arena", "formula", "nebula"). From Latin "-a" (plural "-ae") and Greek "-a", "-e" (plural "-ai", Latinized as "-ae"). The Latin suffix also became Italian "-a" (plural "-e"), Spanish "-a" (plural "-as"). It is represented in Old English by "-u", "-e", but even then the suffix was fading and by the time of modern English was totally lost or swallowed into silent final "-e-". It also appears in Romanic words from Latin that have been borrowed into English, such as "opera", "plaza", "armada". It figures in scientific names coined in Modern Latin ("amoeba", "soda", "magnolia", etc.) and is common in geographical names formed according to Latin or Greek models ("Asia", "Africa", "America", "Arabia", "Florida", etc.) In English it marks sex only in personal names ("Julia", "Maria", "Alberta") and in a few words from Italian or Spanish where a corresponding male form also is in use ("donna", "senora").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ability (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ability

    "-ability", "-ability - word-forming element expressing ability, fitness, or capacity, from Latin "-abilitas", forming nouns from adjectives ending in "-abilis" (see "-able"). Not etymologically related to "ability", though popularly connected with it.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -able (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-able

    "-able", "-able - common termination and word-forming element of English adjectives (typically based on verbs) and generally adding a notion of "capable of; allowed; worthy of; requiring; to be ______ed", sometimes "full of, causing", from French "-able" and directly from Latin "-abilis". It is properly "-ble", from Latin "-bilis" (the vowel being generally from the stem ending of the verb being suffixed), and it represents PIE "*-tro-", a suffix used to form nouns of instrument, cognate with the second syllables of English "rudder" and "saddle" (n.). A living element in English, used in new formations from either Latin or native words ("readable", "bearable") and also with nouns ("objectionable", "peaceable"). Sometimes with an active signification ("suitable", "capable"), sometimes of neutral signification ("durable", "conformable"). It has become very elastic in meaning, as in a "reliable witness", a "playable foul ball", "perishable goods". A 17c. writer has "cadaverable" "mortal". To take a single example in detail, no-one but a competent philologist can tell whether "reasonable" comes from the verb or the noun "reason", nor whether its original sense was that can be reasoned out, or that can reason, or that can be reasoned with, or that has reason, or that listens to reason, or that is consistent with reason; the ordinary man knows only that it can now mean any of these, & justifiably bases on these & similar facts a generous view of the termination's capabilities; "credible" meaning for him worthy of credence, why should not "reliable" & "dependable" mean worthy of reliance & dependence? [Fowler] In Latin, infinitives in "-are" took "-abilis", others "-ibilis". Hence the variant form "-ible" in Old French, Spanish, English. In English, "-able" tends to be used with native (and other non-Latin) words, "-ible" with words of obvious Latin origin (but there are exceptions). The Latin suffix is not etymologically connected with "able", but it long has been popularly associated with it, and this probably has contributed to its vigor as a living suffix.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -acea (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-acea

    "-acea", "-acea - word-forming element in Modern Latin making names for orders and classes in zoology ("Crustacea", "Cetacea", etc.), from Latin "-acea", neuter plural of "-aceus" "belonging to, of the nature of" (enlarged from adjectival suffix "-ax", genitive "-acis"). The names are thus formally adjectives, Latin "animalia" "animals" (a neuter plural noun) being understood. Thus "Crustacea" "shellfish" are "*crustacea animalia" "crusty animals". In botany, the suffix is "-aceae", from the fem. plural of "-aceus", forming orders or families of plants ("Rosaceae", etc.) with a presumed "plantae" "plants", which is a fem. plural.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -aceous (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-aceous

    "-aceous", "-aceous - word-forming element denoting "belonging to, of the nature of", from Latin "-aceus", enlarged form of adjectival suffix "-ax" (genitive "-acis"); see "-acea". Especially in biology, "pertaining to X order of plants or animals".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -acious (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-acious

    "-acious", "-acious - compound adjectival word-forming element of Latin origin, attached to verb stems and expressing intensity of action: "given to, inclined to, abounding in", or expressing intensity of physical or mental action, from Latin "-aci-" (nominative "-ax", accusative "-acem"), noun ending used with verbal stems (see "-acea"), + "-ous". The accompanying nouns are formed in "-acity".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -acy (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-acy

    "-acy", "-acy - word-forming element making nouns of quality, state, or condition, a confusion in English of three similar suffixes from Latin: 1. in "primacy", etc., from Old French "-acie" and directly from Medieval Latin "-acia", Late Latin "-atia", making nouns of quality, state, or condition from nouns in "-as". 2. in "advocacy", etc., from Late Latin "-atia", forming nouns of state from nouns in "-atus". 3. in "fallacy", etc., from Latin "-acia", forming nouns of quality from adjectives in "-ax" (genitive "-acis"). Also forming part of "-cracy". Extended in English to nouns not found in Latin ("accuracy") and to non-Latin words ("piracy").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ade (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ade

    "-ade", "-ade - word-forming element denoting an action or product of an action, via French, Spanish, or Italian, ultimately from Latin "-ata", fem. past participle ending used in forming nouns. The usual form in French is "-e". The parallel form, "-ade", came into French about the 13c. via southern Romanic languages (Spanish, Portuguese, and Provenal "-ada", Italian "-ata"), hence "grenade", "crusade", "ballad", "arcade", "comrade", "balustrade", "lemonade", etc. This foreign suffix "ade" has been so largely imported, and at a time when the French language had still a certain plastic force, that it has been adopted as a popular suffix, and is still employed to form a crowd of new words, such as "promenade", "embrassade", "glissade", "bourrade", &c. [Brachet, "Etymological Dictionary of the French Language", Kitchin transl., Oxford, 1882] Latin "-atus", past participle suffix of verbs of the 1st conjugation also became "-ade" in French (Spanish "-ado", Italian "-ato") and came to be used as a suffix denoting persons or groups participating in an action (such as "brigade", "desperado").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ado (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ado

    "-ado", "-ado - in "commando", "desperado", "tornado", and other words of Spanish and Portuguese origin, "person or group participating in an action", from Latin "-atus", past participle suffix of verbs of the first conjugation (see "-ade").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ae (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ae

    "-ae", "-ae - occasional plural suffix of words ending in "-a" (see "a-" (1)), most of which, in English, are from Latin nominative fem. singular nouns (or Greek ones brought up through Latin), which in Latin form their plurals in "-ae". But plurals in native "-s" were established early in English for many of them (such as "idea", "arena") and many have crossed over since. Now it is not possible to insist on purity one way or the other without breeding monsters.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -age (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-age

    "-age", "-age - word-forming element in nouns of act, process, function, condition, from Old French and French "-age", from Late Latin "-aticum" "belonging to, related to", originally neuter adjectival suffix, from PIE "*-at-" (source of Latin "-atus", past participle suffix of verbs of the first conjugation) + "*-(i)ko-", secondary suffix forming adjectives (see "-ic").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -aholic (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-aholic

    "-aholic", "-aholic - word-forming element abstracted from "alcoholic"; first in "sugarholic" (1965), "foodoholic" (sic, 1965); later in "workaholic" (1968), "golfaholic" (1971), "chocoholic" (1971), and "shopaholic" (1984).


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -al (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-al

    "-al", "-al" (1) : suffix forming adjectives from nouns or other adjectives, "of, like, related to, pertaining to", Middle English "-al", "-el", from French or directly from Latin "-alis" (see "-al" (2)).


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -al (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-al

    "-al", "-al" (3) : word-forming element in chemistry to indicate "presence of an aldehyde group" (from "aldehyde"). The suffix also is commonly used in forming the names of drugs, often narcotics (such as "barbital"), a tendency that apparently began in German and might have been suggested by "chloral" (n.).


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -al (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-al

    "-al", "-al" (2) : suffix forming nouns of action from verbs, mostly from Latin and French, meaning "act of ______ing" (such as "survival", "referral"), Middle English "-aille", from French feminine singular "-aille", from Latin "-alia", neuter plural of adjective suffix "-alis", also used in English as a noun suffix. Nativized in English and used with Germanic verbs (as in "bestowal", "betrothal").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -algia (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-algia

    "-algia", "-algia - word-forming element denoting "pain", from Greek "algos" "pain", "algein" "to feel pain", of unknown origin. Related to "alegein" "to care about", originally "to feel pain".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ality (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ality

    "-ality", "-ality - word-forming element; see "-al" (1) + "-ity". Originally also in reduced form "-alty", especially in words from French, hence the occasional doublet such as "fealty"/"fidelity", "realty"/"reality", "specialty"/"speciality", "loyalty"/"legality".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -amide (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-amide

    "-amide", "-amide - also "amide", in chemical use, 1850, word-forming element denoting a compound obtained by replacing one hydrogen atom in ammonia with an element or radical, from French "amide", from "ammonia" + "-ide".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -an (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-an

    "-an", "-an - word-forming element meaning "pertaining to", from Latin "-anus", adjective suffix, in some cases via French "-ain", "-en". From PIE "*-no-".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ana (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ana

    "-ana", "-ana - or "ana", word-forming element denoting "collection of sayings, gossip, etc. connected with a person or place", early 18c., originally the neuter plural ending of Latin adjectives ending in "-anus" "pertaining to", from PIE adjectival suffix "*-no-".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ance (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ance

    "-ance", "-ance - word-forming element attached to verbs to form abstract nouns of process or fact ("convergence" from "converge"), or of state or quality ("absence" from "absent"); ultimately from Latin "-antia" and "-entia", which depended on the vowel in the stem word, from PIE "*-nt-", adjectival suffix. As Old French evolved from Latin, these were leveled to "-ance", but later French borrowings from Latin (some of them subsequently passed to English) used the appropriate Latin form of the ending, as did words borrowed by English directly from Latin ("diligence, absence"). English thus inherited a confused mass of words from French and further confused it since c. 1500 by restoring "-ence" selectively in some forms of these words to conform with Latin. Thus "dependant", but "independence", etc.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ancy (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ancy

    "-ancy", "-ancy - word-forming element denoting quality or state, from Latin "-antia", forming abstract nouns on past-participle adjectives in "-antem", appearing in English mostly in words borrowed directly from Latin (those passing through French usually have "-ance" or "-ence"; see "-ance").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ane (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ane

    "-ane", "-ane - word-forming element in chemical use, indicating a chain of carbon atoms with no double bonds, proposed 1866 by German chemist August Wilhelm von Hofmann (1818-1892) to go with "-ene", "-ine" (2), "-one".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ant (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ant

    "-ant", "-ant - agent or instrumental suffix, from Old French and French "-ant", from Latin "-antem", accusative of "-ans", present participle suffix of many Latin verbs.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ar (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ar

    "-ar", "-ar - word-formation element meaning "pertaining to, of the nature of", from Latin "-arem", "-aris" "of the kind of, belonging to", a secondary form of "-alis", dissimilated form used after syllables with an "-l-" (such as "insularis" for "*insulalis", "stellaris" for "*stellalis").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -arch (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-arch

    "-arch", "-arch - word-forming element meaning "a ruler", from Greek "arkhos" "leader, chief, ruler", from "arkhe" "beginning, origin, first place" (see "archon").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -archy (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-archy

    "-archy", "-archy - word-forming element meaning "rule", from Latin "-archia", from Greek "-arkhia" "rule", from "arkhos" "leader, chief, ruler", from "arkhe" "beginning, origin, first place" (see "archon").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ard (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ard

    "-ard", "-ard - also "-art", from Old French "-ard", "-art", from German "-hard", "-hart" "hardy", forming the second element in many personal names, often used as an intensifier, but in Middle High German and Dutch used as a pejorative element in common nouns, and thus passing into Middle English in "bastard", "coward", "blaffard" ("one who stammers"), etc. It thus became a living element in English, as in "buzzard", "drunkard". The German element is from Proto-Germanic "*-hart"/"*-hard" "bold, hardy", from PIE root "*kar-" "hard".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ary (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ary

    "-ary", "-ary - adjective and noun word-forming element, in most cases from Latin "-arius", "-aria", "-arium" "connected with, pertaining to; the man engaged in", from PIE relational adjective suffix "*-yo-" "of or belonging to". The neuter of the adjectives in Latin also were often used as nouns ("solarium" "sundial", "vivarium", "honorarium", etc.). It appears in words borrowed from Latin in Middle English. In later borrowings from Latin to French, it became "-aire" and passed into Middle English as "-arie", subsequently "-ary".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -aster (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-aster

    "-aster", "-aster - word-forming element expressing incomplete resemblance (such as "poetaster"), usually diminutive and deprecatory, from Latin "-aster", from a suffix forming nouns from verbs ending in Greek "-azein"; in later Latin generalized as a pejorative suffix, as in "patraster" "he who plays the father".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ate (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ate

    "-ate", "-ate" (2) : verbal suffix for Latin verbs in "-are", identical with "-ate" (1). Old English commonly made verbs from adjectives by adding a verbal ending to the word (such as "gnornian" "be sad, mourn", "gnorn" "sad, depressed"), but as the inflections wore off English words in late Old and early Middle English, there came to be no difference between the adjective and the verb in "dry", "empty", "warm", etc. Thus accustomed to the identity of adjectival and verbal forms of a word, the English, when they began to expand their Latin-based vocabulary after c. 1500, simply made verbs from Latin past-participial adjectives without changing their form (such as "aggravate", "substantiate") and it became the custom that Latin verbs were Englished from their past participle stems.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ate (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ate

    "-ate", "-ate" (1) : word-forming element used in forming nouns from Latin words ending in "-atus", "-atum" (such as "estate", "primate", "senate"). Those that came to English via Old and Middle French often arrived with "-at", but an "-e" was added after c. 1400 to indicate the long vowel. The suffix also can mark adjectives formed from Latin past participals in "-atus", "-ata" (such as "desolate", "moderate", "separate"); again, they often were adopted in Middle English as "-at", with an "-e" appended after c. 1400.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ate (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ate

    "-ate", "-ate" (3) : in chemistry, word-forming element used to form the names of salts from acids in "-ic"; from Latin "-atus", "-atum", suffix used in forming adjectives and thence nouns; identical with "-ate" (1). The substance formed, for example, by the action of acetic acid (vinegar) on lead was described in the 18th century as "plumbum acetatum", i.e. acetated lead. "Acetatum" was then taken as a noun meaning "the acetated (product)", i.e. "acetate". [W.E. Flood, "The Origins of Chemical Names", London, 1963]


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -athon (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-athon

    "-athon", "-athon - also "-thon", word-forming element denoting prolonged activity and usually some measure of endurance, abstracted from "marathon"; for example "walkathon" (1931), "skatathon" (1933); "talkathon" (1948); "telethon" (1949).


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -cele (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-cele

    "-cele", "-cele - word-forming element meaning "tumor", from Latinized form of Greek "kele" "tumor, rupture, hernia", from PIE "*kehul-" "tumor" (source also of Old Norse "haull", Old English "heala" "groin rupture", Old Church Slavonic "kyla", Lithuanian "kulas" "rupture").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -cene (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-cene

    "-cene", "-cene - word-forming element in geology, introduced by Sir Charles Lyell (1797-1875), from Latinized form of Greek "kainos" "new", cognate with Latin "recens" (see "recent").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -centric (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-centric

    "-centric", "-centric - word-forming element meaning "having a center (of a certain kind); centered on", from Latinized form of Greek "kentrikos" "pertaining to a center", from "kentron" (see "center" (n.)).


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -cide (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-cide

    "-cide", "-cide - word-forming element meaning "killer", from French "-cide", from Latin "-cida" "cutter, killer, slayer", from "-cidere", combining form of "caedere" "to strike down, chop, beat, hew, fell, slay", from Proto-Italic "kaid-o-", from PIE root "*kae-id-" "to strike". For Latin vowel change, see "acquisition". The element also can represent "killing", from French "-cide", from Latin "-cidium" "a cutting, a killing".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -cracy (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-cracy

    "-cracy", "-cracy" - word-forming element forming nouns meaning "rule or government by", from French "-cratie" or directly from Medieval Latin "-cratia", from Greek "-kratia" "power, might; rule, sway; power over; a power, authority", from "kratos" "strength", from PIE "*kre-tes-" "power, strength", suffixed form of root "*kar-" "hard". The connective "-o-" has come to be viewed as part of it. Productive in English from c. 1800.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -cule (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-cule

    "-cule", "-cule" - word-forming element used to make diminutives, from French "-cule" or directly from Latin "-culus" (masc.), "-cula" (fem.), "-culum" (neuter); these appear to be variants of the diminutive suffix "-ulus" (see "-ule") used after "-i-", "-e-", "-u-", and consonant stems [Gildersleeve], or might be a double-diminutive involving "an ancient diminutive suffix "*-qo-"" [Palmer, "The Latin Language"]. There also was a Latin instrumentive suffix "-culo-", "-culum" in "baculum" "walking stick", "gubernaculum" "rudder, helm; management, government", "operculum" "cover, lid", "obstaculum" "a hindrance, obstacle", "oraculum" "divine announcement".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -cy (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-cy

    "-cy", "-cy - abstract noun suffix of quality or rank, from Latin "-cia", "-tia", from Greek "-kia", "-tia", from abstract ending "-ia" (see "-ia") + stem ending "-c-" or "-t-". The native correspondents are "-ship", "-hood".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -cyte (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-cyte

    "-cyte", "-cyte - word-forming element used in modern science to mean "of a cell", from Latinized form of Greek "kytos" "a hollow, receptacle, basket" (see "cyto-").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -derm (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-derm

    "-derm", "-derm - word-forming element meaning "skin", from Greek "derma" "skin, hide, leather", from PIE root "*der-" "to split, flay, peel", with derivatives referring to skin and leather.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -dom (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-dom

    "-dom", "-dom - abstract suffix of state, from Old English "dom" "statute, judgment" (see "doom" (n.)). Already active as a suffix in Old English (as in "freodom", "wisdom"). Cognate with German "-tum" (Old High German "tuom").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ea- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ea-

    "-ea-", "-ea-" : digraph introduced early 16c., originally having the sound of long "a" and meant to distinguish words spelled "-e-" or "-ee-" with that sound from those with the sound of long "e"; for example "break", "great". Since c. 1700, the sound in some of them has drifted to long "e" ("read", "hear") or sometimes short "e" ("bread", "wealth").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ectomy (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ectomy

    "-ectomy", "-ectomy - word-forming element meaning "surgical removal", from Greek "-ektomia" "a cutting out of", from "ektemnein" "to cut out", from "ek" "out" (see "ex-") + "temnein" "to cut" (from PIE root "*tem-" "to cut").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ed (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ed

    "-ed", "-ed - past participle suffix of weak verbs, from Old English "-ed", "-ad", "-od" (leveled to "-ed" in Middle English), from Proto-Germanic "*-da-" (cognates: Old High German "-ta", German "-t", Old Norse "-a", Gothic "-da", "-s"), from PIE "*-to-", "suffix forming adjectives marking the accomplishment of the notion of the base" [Watkins] (cognates: Sanskrit "-tah", Greek "-tos", Latin "-tus"; see "-th" (1)). Originally fully pronounced, as still in "beloved" (which, with "blessed", "accursed", and a few others retains the full pronunciation through liturgical readings). In Old English already first and third person singular past tense forms of some "weak" verbs was "-te", a variant of "-de" (see "-ed"), often accompanied by a change in vowel sound (as in modern "keep"/"kept", "sleep"/"slept"). A tendency to shorten final consonants has left English with many past tense forms spelled in "-ed" but pronounced "-t". In some older words both forms exist, with different shades of meaning, as in "gilded"/"gilt", "burned"/"burnt".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ee (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ee

    "-ee", "-ee - word-forming element in legal English (and in imitation of it), representing the Anglo-French "-" ending of past participles used as nouns (compare "-y" (3)). As these sometimes were coupled with agent nouns in "-or", the two suffixes came to be used as a pair to denote the initiator and the recipient of an action. Not to be confused with the French "-e" that is a feminine noun ending (as in "fiance"), which is from Latin "-ata".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -eer (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-eer

    "-eer", "-eer - noun word-forming element meaning "one who" (operates, produces, deals in); Englished form of French "-ier", from Latin "-arius", "-iarius"; compare "-ary". Usually in English words of more recent borrowing from French; older words tend to keep "-ier".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -el (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-el

    "-el", "-el" (1) : instrumental word-forming element, expressing "appliance, tool", from Old English "-ol", "-ul", "-el", representing PIE "*-lo-" (see "-ule"). In modern English usually "-le" except after "-n-".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -el (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-el

    "-el", "-el" (2) : diminutive suffix (though in Modern English not always perceived as such), from Old French "-el" (fem. "-elle", Modern French "-el", "-eau"), from Latin "-ellus", "-ella", "-ellum", diminutive suffix, from PIE "*-olo-lo-", itself a double diminutive, from "*-lo-" (see "-ule").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -el (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-el

    "-el", "-el" (3) : derivational suffix, used mostly with verbs but originally also with nouns, "often denoting diminutive, repetitive, or intensive actions or events" ["Middle English Dictionary"], from Old English. Compare "brastlian" alongside "berstan" (see "burst"); "nestlian" (see "nestle") alongside "nistan"). New formations in Middle English might be native formations ("jostle" from "joust") with this or borrowings from Dutch.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -eme (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-eme

    "-eme", "-eme - in linguistics, noted as an active suffix and word-formation element from 1953; from French "-me" "unit, sound", from "phonme" (see "phoneme").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -emia (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-emia

    "-emia", "-emia - word-forming element in pathology meaning "condition of the blood", Modern Latin combining form of Greek "haima" (genitive "haimatos") "blood", possibly from hypothetical PIE root "*sai-" (3) "thick liquid".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -en (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-en

    "-en", "-en" (1) : word-forming element making verbs (such as "darken", "weaken") from adjectives or nouns, from Old English "-nian", from Proto-Germanic "*-inojan" (also source of Old Norse "-na"), from PIE adjectival suffix "*-no-". Most active in Middle English.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -en (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-en

    "-en", "-en" (2) : suffix added to nouns to produce adjectives meaning "made of, of the nature of" (such as "golden", "oaken", "woolen"), corresponding to Latin "-anus", "-inus", Greek "-inos"; from Proto-Germanic "*-ina-", from PIE "*-no-", adjectival suffix. Common in Old, Middle, and early Modern English (e.g. "fyren" "on fire; made of fire", "hunden" "of dogs, canine", "beanen" "of beans", "baken" "baked", "breaden" "of bread"), the few surviving instances are largely discarded in everyday use, and the simple form of the noun doubles as adjective ("gold ring", "wool sweater"). Some are used in special contexts ("brazen", "wooden").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *reudh- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*reudh-

    "*reudh-", "*reudh-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "red, ruddy". The only color for which a definite common PIE root word has been found. The initial "-e-" in the Greek word is because Greek tends to avoid beginning words with "-r-". It forms all or part of: "bilirubin"; "corroborate"; "Eritrea"; "erysipelas"; "erythema"; "erythro-"; "Radnor"; "red"; "redskin"; "roan"; "robust"; "rooibos"; "Rotwelsch"; "rouge"; "roux"; "rowan"; "rubella"; "rubicund"; "rubric"; "ruby"; "ruddock"; "ruddy"; "rufous"; "Rufus"; "russet"; "rust". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin "ruber", also dialectal "rufus" "light red", mostly of hair; Greek "erythros"; Sanskrit "rudhira-"; Avestan "raoidita-"; Old Church Slavonic "rudru", Polish "rumiany", Russian "rumjanyj" "flushed, red", of complexions, etc.; Lithuanian "raudas"; Old Irish "ruad", Welsh "rhudd", Breton "ruz" "red".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *sa- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*sa-

    "*sa-", "*sa-" : "*sa-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to satisfy". It forms all or part of: "assets"; "hadron"; "sad"; "sate"; "satiate"; "satiety"; "satisfy"; "satire"; "saturate"; "saturation". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "a-sinvan" "insatiable"; Greek "hadros" "thick, bulky"; Latin "satis" "enough, sufficient"; Old Church Slavonic "sytu", Lithuanian "sotus" "satiated"; Old Irish "saith" "satiety", "sathach" "sated"; Old English "sd" "sated, full, having had one's fill, weary of".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *sal- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*sal-

    "*sal-", "*sal-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "salt". It forms all or part of: "hali-"; "halide"; "halieutic"; "halite"; "halo-"; "halogen"; "sal"; "salad"; "salami"; "salary"; "saline"; "salmagundi"; "salsa"; "salsify"; "salt"; "salt-cellar"; "saltpeter"; "sauce"; "sausage"; "silt"; "souse". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "hals" "salt, sea"; Latin "sal", Old Church Slavonic "soli", Old Irish "salann", Welsh "halen", Old English "sealt", German "Salz" "salt".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *sawel- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*sawel-
    "*sawel-", "*sawel-" :


    "*sawel-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "the sun". According to Watkins, the "*-el-" in it originally was a suffix, and there was an alternative form "*s(u)wen-", with suffix "*-en-", hence the two forms represented by Latin "sol", English "sun". -


    It forms all or part of: "anthelion"; "aphelion"; "girasole"; "heliacal"; "helio-"; "heliotrope"; "helium"; "insolate"; "insolation"; "parasol"; "parhelion"; "perihelion"; "Sol"; "solar"; "solarium"; "solstice"; "south"; "southern"; "sun"; "Sunday". -


    It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "suryah", Avestan "hvar" "sun, light, heavens"; Greek "helios"; Latin "sol" "the sun, sunlight"; Lithuanian "saule", Old Church Slavonic "slunice"; Gothic "sauil", Old English "sol" "sun"; Old English "swegl" "sky, heavens, the sun"; Welsh "haul", Old Cornish "heuul", Breton "heol" "sun"; Old Irish "suil" "eye"; Avestan "xueng" "sun"; Old Irish "fur-sunnud" "lighting up"; Old English "sunne" German "Sonne", Gothic "sunno" "the sun".






    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *sed- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*sed-

    "*sed-", "*sed-" (1) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to sit". - It forms all or part of: "assess"; "assiduous"; "assiento"; "assize"; "banshee"; "beset"; "cathedra"; "cathedral"; "chair"; "cosset"; "dissident"; "dodecahedron"; "Eisteddfod"; "ephedra"; "ephedrine"; "ersatz"; "icosahedron"; "inset"; "insidious"; "nest"; "niche"; "nick" (n.) "notch, groove, slit"; "nidicolous"; "nidification"; "nidus"; "obsess"; "octahedron"; "piezo-"; "piezoelectric"; "polyhedron"; "possess"; "preside"; "reside"; "saddle"; "sanhedrim"; "seance"; "seat"; "sedan"; "sedate"; (adj.) "calm, quiet"; "sedative"; "sedentary"; "sederunt"; "sediment"; "see" (n.) "throne of a bishop, archbishop, or pope"; "sessile"; "session"; "set" (v.); "sett"; "settle" (n.); "settle" (v.); "siege"; "sit"; "sitz-bath"; "sitzkrieg"; "size"; "soil" (n.1) "earth, dirt"; "Somerset"; "soot"; "subside"; "subsidy"; "supersede"; "surcease"; "tanist"; "tetrahedron"; "Upanishad". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "a-sadat" "sat down", "sidati" "sits", "nidah" "resting place, nest"; Old Persian "hadis" "abode"; Greek "ezesthai" "to sit", "hedra" "seat, chair, face of a geometric solid"; Latin "sedere" "to sit; occupy an official seat, preside; sit still, remain; be fixed or settled", "nidus" "nest"; Old Irish "suide" "seat, sitting", "net" "nest"; Welsh "sedd" "seat", "eistedd" "sitting", "nyth" "nest"; Old Church Slavonic "seda", "sedeti" "to sit", "sedlo" "saddle", "gnezdo" "nest"; Lithuanian "sedeti" "to sit"; Russian "sad" "garden", Lithuanian "sodinti" "to plant"; Gothic "sitan", Old English "sittan" "to sit".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *segh- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*segh-

    "*segh-", "*segh-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to hold". It forms all or part of: "Antioch"; "asseverate"; "asthenia"; "asthenosphere"; "cachectic"; "cachexia"; "calisthenics"; "cathexis"; "entelechy"; "eunuch"; "epoch"; "hectic"; "Hector"; "ischemia"; "myasthenia"; "neurasthenia"; "Ophiuchus"; "persevere"; "schema"; "schematic"; "scheme"; "scholar"; "scholastic"; "school" (n.1) "place of instruction"; "severe"; "severity"; "Siegfried". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "sahate" "he masters, overcomes", "sahah" "power, victory"; Avestan "hazah" "power, victory"; Greek "skhema" "figure, appearance, the nature of a thing", related to "skhein" "to get", "ekhein" "to have, hold; be in a given state or condition"; Gothic "sigis", Old High German "sigu", Old Norse "sigr", Old English "sige" "victory".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *sek- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*sek-

    "*sek-", "*sek-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to cut". It forms all or part of: "bisect"; "dissect"; "hacksaw"; "insect"; "intersect"; "resect"; "saw" (n.1) "cutting tool"; "Saxon"; "scythe"; "secant"; "secateurs"; "sect"; "section"; "sector"; "sedge"; "segment"; "skin"; "skinflint"; "skinny"; "transect". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin "secare" "to cut", "sectio" "a cutting, cutting off, division"; Old Church Slavonic "seko", "seti" "to cut", "secivo" "ax, hatchet", Russian "sech'"; "to cut"; Lithuanian "isekti" "to engrave, carve"; Albanian "ate" "mattock"; Old Saxon "segasna", Old English "sige" "scythe"; Old English "secg" "sword", "seax" "knife, short sword"; Old Irish "doescim" "I cut".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *sekw- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*sekw-

    "*sekw-", "*sekw-" (1) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to follow". - It forms all or part of: "assign"; "assignation"; "associate"; "association"; "consequence"; "consequent"; "consign"; "design"; "designate"; "designation"; "dissociate"; "ensue"; "execute"; "extrinsic"; "insignia"; "intrinsic"; "obsequious"; "persecute"; "persecution"; "prosecute"; "pursue"; "resign"; "scarlatina"; "scarlet"; "seal" (n.1) "design stamped on wax"; "second" (adj.) "next after first"; "second" (n.) "one-sixtieth of a minute"; "sect"; "secundine"; "segue"; "sequacious"; "sequel"; "sequence"; "sequester"; "sigil"; "sign"; "signal"; "signify"; "sociable"; "social"; "society"; "socio-"; "subsequent"; "sue"; "suit"; "suite"; "suitor"; "tocsin". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "sacate" "accompanies, follows"; Avestan "hacaiti", Greek "hepesthai" "to follow"; Latin "sequi" "to follow, come after", "secundus" "second, the following"; Lithuanian "seku, sekti" "to follow"; Old Irish "sechim" "I follow".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *sem- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*sem-

    "*sem-", "*sem-" (1) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "one; as one, together with". It forms all or part of: "acolyte"; "anacoluthon"; "anomalous"; "anomaly"; "assemble"; "assimilate"; "ensemble"; "facsimile"; "fulsome"; "hamadryad"; "haplo-"; "haploid"; "hendeca-"; "hendiadys"; "henotheism"; "hetero-"; "heterodox"; "heterosexual"; "homeo-"; "homeopathy"; "homeostasis"; "homily"; "homo-" (1) "same, the same, equal, like"; "homogenous"; "homoiousian"; "homologous"; "homonym"; "homophone"; "homosexual"; "hyphen"; "resemble"; "same"; "samizdat"; "samovar"; "samsara"; "sangha"; "Sanskrit"; "seem"; "seemly"; "semper-"; "sempiternal"; "similar"; "simple"; "simplex"; "simplicity"; "simulacrum"; "simulate"; "simulation"; "simultaneous"; "single"; "singlet"; "singular"; "some"; "-some" (1); "-some" (2); "verisimilitude". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "sam" "together", "samah" "even, level, similar, identical"; Avestan "hama" "similar, the same"; Greek "hama" "together with, at the same time", "homos" "one and the same", "homios" "like, resembling", "homalos" "even"; Latin "similis" "like"; Old Irish "samail" "likeness"; Old Church Slavonic "samu" "himself".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *sen- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*sen-

    "*sen-", "*sen-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "old". It forms all or part of: "monseigneur"; "seignior"; "senate"; "senescent"; "seneschal"; "senicide"; "senile"; "senility"; "senior"; "seniority"; "senor"; "senora"; "senorita"; "shanachie"; "Shannon"; "signor"; "sir"; "sire"; "surly". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "sanah" "old"; Avestan "hana-" "old", Old Persian "hanata-" "old age, lapse of time"; Armenian "hin" "old"; Greek "enos" "old, of last year"; Latin "senilis" "of old age", "senex" "old, old man"; Lithuanian "senas" "old", "senis" "an old man"; Gothic "sineigs" "old" (used only of persons), "sinistra" "elder, senior"; Old Norse "sina" "dry standing grass from the previous year"; Old Irish "sen", Old Welsh "hen" "old".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *ser- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*ser-

    "*ser-", "*ser-" (2) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to line up". - It forms all or part of: "assert"; "assertion"; "assort"; "consort"; "desert" (v.) "to leave one's duty"; "desertion"; "dissertation"; "ensorcell"; "exert"; "exsert"; "insert"; "seriatim"; "seriation"; "series"; "sermon"; "serried"; "sorcerer"; "sorcery"; "sort". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "sarat-" "thread"; Greek "eirein" "to fasten together in rows"; Latin "serere" "to join, link, bind together", "series" "row, chain, series, sequence, succession"; Gothic "sarwa" (plural) "armor, arms"; Old Norse "srve" "necklace of stringed pearls"; Old Irish "sernaid" "he joins together"; Welsh "ystret" "a row".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *ser- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*ser-

    "*ser-", "*ser-" (1) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to protect". It forms all or part of: "conservation"; "conservative"; "conserve"; "hero"; "observance"; "observatory"; "observe"; "preserve"; "reservation"; "reserve"; "reservoir". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Avestan "haurvaiti" "to guard"; Greek "heros" "hero"; Latin "servare" "to guard, keep, watch"; Old Church Slavonic "xraniti" "to guard, protect"; Old High German "gi-sarwi" "armor, equipment", Old English "searu" "art, skill; wile, deceit".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *skei- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*skei-

    "*skei-", "*skei-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to cut, split", extension of root "*sek-" "to cut". It forms all or part of: "abscissa"; "conscience"; "conscious"; "ecu"; "escudo"; "escutcheon"; "esquire"; "nescience"; "nescient"; "nice"; "omniscience"; "omniscient"; "plebiscite"; "prescience"; "prescient"; "rescind"; "rescission"; "science"; "scienter"; "scilicet"; "sciolist"; "scission"; "schism"; "schist"; "schizo-"; "schizophrenia"; "scudo"; "sheath"; "sheathe"; "sheave" (n.) "grooved wheel to receive a cord, pulley"; "shed" (v.) "cast off"; "shin" (n.) "fore part of the lower leg"; "shingle" (n.1) "thin piece of wood"; "shit" (v.); "shive"; "shiver" (n.1) "small piece, splinter, fragment, chip"; "shoddy"; "shyster"; "skene"; "ski"; "skive" (v.1) "split or cut into strips, pare off, grind away"; "squire". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "chindhi", "chinatti" "to break, split up"; Avestan "a-sista-" "unsplit, unharmed", Greek "skhizein" "to split, cleave, part, separate"; Latin "scindere" "to cut, rend, tear asunder, split"; Armenian "c'tim" "to tear, scratch"; Lithuanian "skiesti" "to separate, divide"; Old Church Slavonic "cediti" "to strain"; Old English "scitan", Old Norse "skita" "to defecate"; Old English "scea", Old High German "sceida" "sheath"; Old Irish "sceid" "to vomit, spit"; Welsh "chwydu" "to break open".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *skel- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*skel-

    "*skel-", "*skel-" (1) : also "*kel-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to cut". It forms all or part of: "coulter"; "cutlass"; "half"; "halve"; "scale" (n.1) "skin plates on fish or snakes"; "scale" (n.2) "weighing instrument"; "scalene"; "scallop"; "scalp"; "scalpel"; "school" (n.2) "group of fish"; "sculpture"; "shale"; "sheldrake"; "shelf"; "shell"; "shield"; "shoal" (n.2) "large number"; "skoal"; "skill". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin "culter" "knife", "scalpere" "to cut, scrape"; Old Church Slavonic "skolika" "mussel, shell", Russian "skala" "rind, bark", Lithuanian "skelti" "split", Old English "scell" "shell", "scalu" "drinking cup, bowl, scale of a balance".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *sker- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*sker-

    "*sker-", "*sker-" (2) : also "*ker-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to turn, bend". - It forms all or part of: "arrange"; "circa"; "circadian"; "circle"; "circuit"; "circum-"; "circumcision"; "circumflex"; "circumnavigate"; "circumscribe"; "circumspect"; "circumstance"; "circus"; "cirque"; "corona"; "crepe"; "crest"; "crinoline"; "crisp"; "crown"; "curb"; "curvature"; "curve"; "derange"; "flounce" (n.) "deep ruffle on the skirt of a dress"; "krone"; "ring" (n.1) "circular band"; "ranch"; "range"; "ranger"; "rank" (n.) "row, line series"; "research"; "recherche"; "ridge"; "rink"; "rucksack"; "search"; "shrink". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin "curvus" "bent, curved", "crispus" "curly"; Old Church Slavonic "kragu" "circle"; perhaps Greek "kirkos" "ring", "koronos" "curved"; Old English "hring" "ring, small circlet".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *sker- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*sker-

    "*sker-", "*sker-" (1) : also "*ker-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to cut". - It forms all or part of: "bias"; "carnage"; "carnal"; "carnation"; "carnival"; "carnivorous"; "carrion"; "cenacle"; "charcuterie"; "charnel"; "corium"; "cortex"; "crone"; "cuirass"; "currier"; "curt"; "decorticate"; "excoriate"; "incarnadine"; "incarnate"; "incarnation"; "kirtle"; "scabbard"; "scar" (n.2) "bare and broken rocky face of a cliff or mountain"; "scaramouche"; "scarf" (n.2) "connecting joint"; "scarp"; "score"; "scrabble"; "scrap" (n.1) "small piece"; "scrape"; "screen"; "screw"; "scrimmage"; "scrofula"; "scrub" (n.1) "low, stunted tree"; "scurf"; "shard"; "share" (n.1) "portion"; "share" (n.2) "iron blade of a plow"; "sharp"; "shear"; "shears"; "sheer" (adj.) "absolute, utter"; "shirt"; "shore" (n.) "land bordering a large body of water"; "short"; "shrub"; "skerry"; "skirmish"; "skirt". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "krnati" "hurts, wounds, kills", "krntati" "cuts"; Hittite "karsh-" "to cut off"; Greek "keirein" "to cut, shear"; Latin "curtus" "short"; Lithuanian "skiriu, skirti" "to separate"; Old English "sceran", "scieran" "to cleave, hew, cut with a sharp instrument"; Old Irish "scaraim" "I separate"; Welsh "ysgar" "to separate", "ysgyr" "fragment".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *skeud- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*skeud-

    "*skeud-", "*skeud-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to shoot, chase, throw". It forms all or part of: "scot-free"; "scout" (v.2) "to reject with scorn"; "sheet" (n.1) "cloth, covering"; "sheet" (n.2) "rope that controls a sail"; "shoot"; "shot"; "shout"; "shut"; "shuttle"; "skeet"; "wainscot". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "skundate" "hastens, makes haste"; Old Church Slavonic "iskydati" "to throw out"; Lithuanian "skudrus" "quick, nimble"; Old English "sceotan" "to hurl missiles", Old Norse "skjota" "to shoot with (a weapon)".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *skoto- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*skoto-

    "*skoto-", "*skoto-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "dark, shade". - It forms all or part of: "nightshade"; "scotoma"; "shade"; "shadow"; "shady". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "skotos" "darkness, gloom"; Albanian "kot" "darkness"; Old Irish "scath", Old Welsh "scod", Breton "squeut" "darkness", Gaelic "sgath" "shade, shadow, shelter"; Old English "scead" "partial darkness", "sceadu" "shade, shadow, darkness", Dutch "schaduw", German "Schatten", Gothic "skadus" "shadow".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *skribh- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*skribh-

    "*skribh-", "*skribh-" : "*skribh-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to cut, separate, sift"; an extended form of root "*sker-" (1) "to cut". It forms all or part of: "ascribe"; "ascription"; "circumscribe"; "conscript"; "conscription"; "describe"; "description"; "festschrift"; "inscribe"; "inscription"; "manuscript"; "postscript"; "prescribe"; "prescription"; "proscribe"; "sans-serif"; "scribble"; "scribe"; "script"; "scriptorium"; "scripture"; "scrivener"; "serif"; "shrift"; "shrive"; "subscribe"; "superscribe"; "superscript"; "transcribe"; "scarification"; "scarify". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "skariphasthai" "to scratch an outline, sketch"; Latin "scribere" "to write" (to carve marks in wood, stone, clay, etc.); Lettish "skripat" "scratch, write"; Old Norse "hrifa" "scratch".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *sleg- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*sleg-

    "*sleg-", "*sleg-" : "*sleg-", also "*leg-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "be slack, be languid". It forms all or part of: "algolagnia"; "catalectic"; "laches"; "languid"; "languish"; "lax"; "lease"; "lessor"; "lush"; "relax"; "release"; "relish"; "slack" (adj.); "sleep". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "legein" "to leave off, stop", "lagnein" "to lust"; Latin "languere" "to be faint, weary", "laxus" "wide, spacious, roomy"; Old Church Slavonic "slabu" "lax, weak"; Lithuanian "silpnas" "weak".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *sleubh- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*sleubh-

    "*sleubh-", "*sleubh-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to slide, slip". - It forms all or part of: "cowslip"; "lubric"; "lubricant"; "lubricate"; "lubricity"; "lubricous"; "sleeve"; "slip" (n.3) "potter's clay"; "sloop"; "slop" (n.1) "semiliquid refuse"; "slop" (n.2) "loose outer garment"; "sloven". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin "lubricus" "slippery, slimy, smooth", "lubricare" "make slippery or smooth"; Middle Dutch "slupen" "to glide"; Gothic "sliupan" "to creep, slide"; Old English "slyppe" "dung".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *sna- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*sna-

    "*sna-", "*sna-" : "*sna-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to swim", with extended form "*nau-, *snau-" "to swim, flow; to let flow", hence "to suckle". It forms all or part of: "naiad"; "natant"; "natation"; "natatorial"; "natatorium"; "nekton"; "nourish"; "nurse"; "nursery"; "nurture"; "nutrient"; "nutriment"; "nutrition"; "nutritious"; "nutritive"; "supernatant". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "snati" "bathes", "snauti" "she drips, gives milk"; Avestan "snayeite" "washes, cleans"; Armenian "nay" "wet, liquid"; Greek "notios" "wet, damp", Greek "nan" "I flow", "nekhein" "to swim"; Latin "nare" "to swim", "natator" "swimmer"; Middle Irish "snaim" "I swim", "snam" "a swimming".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *sol- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*sol-

    "*sol-", "*sol-" : also sol?-, Proto-Indo-European root meaning "whole, well-kept". - It forms all or part of: "catholic"; "consolidate"; "consolidation"; "holism"; "holo-"; "holocaust"; "Holocene"; "hologram"; "holograph"; "insouciant"; "safe"; "safety"; "sage" (n.1) kind of herb; "salubrious"; "salutary"; "salute"; "salvage"; "salvific"; "salvo" "simultaneous discharge of guns"; "save" (v.) "deliver from danger"; "save" (prep.) "except"; "solder"; "soldier"; "solemn"; "solicit"; "solicitous"; "solid"; "solidarity"; "solidity"; "sou". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "sarvah" "uninjured, intact, whole"; Avestan "haurva-" "uninjured, intact"; Old Persian "haruva-"; Greek "holos" "whole"; Latin "salvus" "uninjured, in good health, safe", "salus" "good health", "solidus" "solid"; Armenian "olj" "whole, healthy".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *spek- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*spek-

    "*spek-", "*spek-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to observe". It forms all or part of: "aspect"; "auspex"; "auspices"; "auspicious"; "bishop"; "circumspect"; "conspicuous"; "despicable"; "despise"; "episcopal"; "especial"; "espionage"; "espy"; "expect"; "frontispiece"; "gyroscope"; "haruspex"; "horoscope"; "inspect"; "inspection"; "inspector"; "introspect"; "introspection"; "perspective"; "perspicacious"; "perspicacity"; "prospect"; "prospective"; "respect"; "respite"; "retrospect"; "scope"; "-scope"; "scopophilia"; "-scopy"; "skeptic"; "species"; "specimen"; "specious"; "spectacle"; "spectacular"; "spectrum"; "speculate"; "speculation"; "speculum"; "spice"; "spy"; "suspect"; "suspicion"; "suspicious"; "telescope". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "spasati" "sees"; Avestan "spasyeiti" "spies"; Greek "skopein" "behold, look, consider", "skeptesthai" "to look at", "skopos" "watcher, one who watches"; Latin "specere" "to look at"; Old High German "spehhon" "to spy", German "sphen" "to spy".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *sreu- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*sreu-

    "*sreu-", "*sreu-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to flow". - It forms all or part of: "amenorrhea"; "catarrh"; "diarrhea"; "gonorrhea"; "hemorrhoids"; "maelstrom"; "rheo-"; "rheology"; "rheostat"; "rheum"; "rheumatic"; "rheumatism"; "rheumatoid"; "rhinorrhea"; "rhythm"; "seborrhea"; "stream". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "sravati" "flows", "srotah" "stream"; Avestan "thraotah-" "stream, river", Old Persian "rauta" "river"; Greek "rhein" "to flow", "rheos" "a flowing, stream", "rhythmos" "rhythm", "rhytos" "fluid, liquid"; Old Irish "sruaim", Irish "sruth" "stream, river"; Welsh "ffrwd" "stream"; Old Norse "straumr", Old English "stream"; Lettish "strauma" "stream, river"; Lithuanian "sraveti" "to trickle, ooze"; Old Church Slavonic "struja" "river", "o-strovu" "island", literally "that which is surrounded by a river"; Polish "strumien" "brook".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *sta- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*sta-
    "*sta-", "*sta-" :


    "*sta-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to stand, set down, make or be firm", with derivatives meaning "place or thing that is standing".


    It forms all or part of: "Afghanistan"; "Anastasia"; "apostasy"; "apostate"; "armistice"; "arrest"; "assist"; "astatic"; "astatine"; "Baluchistan"; "bedstead"; "circumstance"; "consist"; "constable"; "constant"; "constitute"; "contrast"; "cost"; "desist"; "destination"; "destine"; "destitute"; "diastase"; "distance"; "distant"; "ecstasy"; "epistasis"; "epistemology"; "establish"; "estaminet"; "estate"; "etagere"; "existence"; "extant"; "Hindustan"; "histidine"; "histo-"; "histogram"; "histology"; "histone"; "hypostasis"; "insist"; "instant"; "instauration"; "institute"; "interstice"; "isostasy"; "isostatic"; "Kazakhstan"; "metastasis"; "obstacle"; "obstetric"; "obstinate"; "oust"; "Pakistan"; "peristyle"; "persist"; "post" (n.1) "timber set upright"; "press" (v.2) "force into service"; "presto"; "prostate"; "prostitute"; "resist"; "rest" (v.2) "to be left, remain"; "restitution"; "restive"; "restore"; "shtetl"; "solstice"; "stable" (adj.) "secure against falling"; "stable" (n.) "building for domestic animals"; "stage"; "stalag"; "stale"; "stall" (n.1) "place in a stable for animals"; "stalwart"; "stamen"; "-stan"; "stance"; "stanchion"; "stand"; "standard"; "stanza"; "stapes"; "starboard"; "stare decisis"; "stasis"; "-stat"; "stat"; "state" (n.1) "circumstances, conditions"; "stater"; "static"; "station"; "statistics"; "stator"; "statue"; "stature"; "status"; "statute"; "staunch"; (adj.) "strong, substantial"; "stay" (v.1) "come to a halt, remain in place"; "stay" (n.2) "strong rope which supports a ship's mast"; "stead"; "steed"; "steer" (n.) "male beef cattle"; "steer" (v.) "guide the course of a vehicle"; "stem" (n.) "trunk of a plant"; "stern" (n.) "hind part of a ship"; "stet"; "stoa"; "stoic"; "stool"; "store"; "stound"; "stow"; "stud" (n.1) "nailhead, knob"; "stud" (n.2) "horse kept for breeding"; "stylite"; "subsist"; "substance"; "substitute"; "substitution"; "superstition"; "system"; "Taurus"; "understand".


    It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "tisthati" "stands"; Avestan "histaiti" "to stand"; Persian "-stan" "country", literally "where one stands"; Greek "histemi" "put, place, cause to stand; weigh", "stasis" "a standing still", "statos" "placed", "stylos" "pillar"; Latin "sistere" "stand still, stop, make stand, place, produce in court", "status" "manner, position, condition, attitude", "stare" "to stand", "statio" "station, post"; Lithuanian "stojuos" "I place myself", "statau" "I place"; Old Church Slavonic "staja" "place myself", "stanu" "position"; Gothic "standan", Old English "standan" "to stand", "stede" "place"; Old Norse "stei" "anvil", "stallr" "pedestal for idols, altar"; German "Stall" "a stable"; Old Irish "sessam" "the act of standing".






    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *stegh- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*stegh-

    "*stegh-", "*stegh-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to stick, prick, sting". It forms all or part of: "stag"; "sting"; "stochastic". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "stokhos" "fixed target, erected pillar for archers to shoot at"; Lithuanian "stagaras" "long, thin stalk of a plant"; Old English "stagga" "stag", "stingan" "to sting"; Old Danish "stag" "point"; Old Norse "stong" "stick, pole".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *ster- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*ster-

    "*ster-", "*ster-" (2) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "star". Buck and others doubt the old suggestion that it is a borrowing from Akkadian "istar" "venus". The source of the common Balto-Slavic word for "star" (Lithuanian "vaigde", Old Church Slavonic "zvezda", Polish "gwiazda", Russian "zvezda") is not explained. - It forms all or part of: "aster"; "asterisk"; "asterism"; "asteroid"; "astral"; "astro-"; "astrobiology"; "astrobleme"; "astrognosy"; "astroid"; "astrolabe"; "astrolatry"; "astrology"; "astromancy"; "astronaut"; "astronomy"; "AstroTurf"; "constellation"; "disaster"; "Estella"; "Esther"; "instellation"; "interstellar"; "lodestar"; "star"; "stardust"; "starfish"; "starlet"; "starlight"; "starry"; "stellar"; "stellate". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "star-"; Hittite "shittar", Greek "aster" "star", with derivative "astron"; Latin "stella", Breton "sterenn", Welsh "seren" "star".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *ster- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*ster-

    "*ster-", "*ster-" (1) : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "stiff". - It forms all or part of: "cholesterol"; "redstart"; "starch"; "stare"; "stark"; "stark-naked"; "start"; "startle"; "starve"; "stere"; "stereo-"; "stern" (adj.); "stork"; "strut"; "torpedo"; "torpid"; "torpor". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "stereos" "solid", "sterizein" "to support", "sterphnios" "stiff, rigid", "sterphos" "hide, skin"; Sanskrit "sthirah" "hard, firm", Persian "suturg" "strong"; Lithuanian "storas" "thick", "stregti" "to become frozen"; Old Church Slavonic "trupeti", Lithuanian "tirpstu, tirpti" "to become rigid"; Old Church Slavonic "strublu" "strong, hard", "staru" "old" (hence Russian "stary" "old"); Old English "starian" "to stare", "stearc" "stiff, strong, rigid", "steorfan" "to die", literally "become stiff", "styrne" "severe, strict".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *stere- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*stere-

    "*stere-", "*stere-" : "*ster?-", also "*ster-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to spread". It forms all or part of: "consternate"; "consternation"; "construct"; "construction"; "destroy"; "destruction"; "industry"; "instruct"; "instruction"; "instrument"; "obstruct"; "obstruction"; "perestroika"; "prostrate"; "sternum"; "sternocleidomastoid"; "strain" (n.2) "race, stock, line"; "stratagem"; "strategy"; "strath"; "strato-"; "stratocracy"; "stratography"; "stratosphere"; "stratum"; "stratus"; "straw"; "stray"; "street"; "strew"; "stroma"; "structure"; "substrate"; "substratum"; "substructure". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "strnoti" "strews, throws down"; Avestan "star-" "to spread out, stretch out"; Greek "stronymi" "strew", "stroma" "bedding, mattress", "sternon" "breast, breastbone"; Latin "sternere" "to stretch, extend"; Old Church Slavonic "stira", "streti" "spread", "strana" "area, region, country"; Russian "stroji" "order"; Gothic "straujan", Old High German "strouwen", Old English "streowian" "to sprinkle, strew"; Old English "streon" "strain", "streaw" "straw, that which is scattered"; Old High German "stirna" "forehead", "strala" "arrow, lightning bolt"; Old Irish "fo-sernaim" "spread out", "srath" "a wide river valley"; Welsh "srat" "plain".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *streb(h)- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*streb(h)-

    "*streb(h)-", "*streb(h)-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to wind, turn". It forms all or part of: "anastrophe"; "antistrophe"; "apostrophe" (n.1); "apostrophe" (n.2); "boustrophedon"; "catastrophe"; "epistrophe"; "strabismus"; "strap"; "strep"; "strepto-"; "streptococcus"; "streptomycin"; "strobe"; "strobic"; "stroboscope"; "strop"; "strophe"; "strophic". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "strophe" "stanza", originally "a turning", "strephein" "to turn", "strophaligs" "whirl, whirlwind", "streblos" "twisted", "stremma" "that which is twisted".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *swen- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*swen-

    "*swen-", "*swen-" : also "swen?-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to sound". - It forms all or part of: "assonance"; "consonant"; "dissonant"; "resound"; "sonant"; "sonata"; "sone"; "sonic"; "sonnet"; "sonogram"; "sonorous"; "sound" (n.1) "noise, what is heard"; "sound" (v.1) "to be audible"; "swan"; "unison". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "svanati" "it sounds", "svanah" "sound, tone"; Latin "sonus" "sound, a noise", "sonare" "to sound"; Old Irish "senim" "the playing of an instrument"; Old English "geswin" "music, song", "swinsian" "to sing"; Old Norse "svanr", Old English "swan" "swan", properly "the sounding bird".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *swep- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*swep-

    "*swep-", "*swep-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to sleep". It forms all or part of: "hypno-"; "hypnosis"; "hypnotic"; "hypnotism"; "insomnia"; "somni-"; "somnambulate"; "somniloquy"; "somnolence"; "somnolent"; "Somnus"; "sopor"; "soporific". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "svapnah", Avestan "kvafna-", Greek "hypnos", Latin "somnus", Lithuanian "sapnas", Old Church Slavonic "sunu", Old Irish "suan", Welsh "hun" "sleep"; Latin "sopor" "a deep sleep"; Old English "swefn", Old Norse "svefn" "a dream".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *syu- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*syu-

    "*syu-", "*syu-" : "syu-", also "su:-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to bind, sew". It forms all or part of: "accouter"; "couture"; "hymen"; "Kama Sutra"; "seam"; "sew"; "souter"; "souvlaki"; "sutra"; "sutile"; "suture". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "sivyati" "sews", "sutram" "thread, string"; Greek "hymen" "thin skin, membrane", "hymnos" "song"; Latin "suere" "to sew, sew together"; Old Church Slavonic "ijo" "to sew", "ivu" "seam"; Lettish "siuviu", "siuti" "to sew", "siuvikis" "tailor"; Russian "vec" "tailor"; Old English "siwian" "to stitch, sew, mend, patch, knit together".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *se- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*se-

    "*se-", "*se-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to sow". - It forms all or part of: "disseminate"; "inseminate"; "seed"; "seme" (adj.); "semen""; seminal"; "seminar"; "seminary"; "semination"; "sinsemilla"; "sow" (v.); "season". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin "serere" "to sow"; Old Church Slavonic "sejo, sejati"; Lithuanian "seju, seti" "to sow"; Old English "sawan" "to sow"; Old Prussian "semen" "seed", Lithuanian "semenys" "seed of flax", Old Church Slavonic "seme", Old High German "samo", German "Same; "Old English "sed, sd" "that which may be sown; an individual grain of seed".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *tag- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*tag-

    "*tag-", "*tag-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to touch, handle", with figurative extensions ("border on; taste, partake of; strike, hit; affect, impress; trick, cheat; mention, speak of"). It forms all or part of: "attain"; "contact"; "contaminate"; "entire"; "intact"; "integer"; "integrate"; "integrity"; "noli me tangere"; "tact"; "tactics"; "tactile"; "tangent"; "tangible"; "task"; "taste"; "tax"; "taxis". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin "tangere" "to touch", "taxare" "to touch, assess", "tactus" "touch", "integer" "intact, whole, complete, perfect; honest"; Greek "tassein" "to arrange", "tetagon" "having seized"; Old English "accian" "stroke, strike gently".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *teks- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*teks-

    "*teks-", "*teks-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to weave", also "to fabricate", especially with an ax", also "to make wicker or wattle fabric for (mud-covered) house walls". - It forms all or part of: "architect"; "context"; "dachshund"; "polytechnic"; "pretext"; "subtle"; "technical"; "techno-"; "technology"; "tectonic"; "tete"; "text"; "textile"; "tiller" (n.1) ""bar to turn the rudder of a boat"; "tissue"; "toil" (n.2) "net, snare". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: "*teks-" "to weave, to fabricate, to make; make wicker or wattle framework" (source also of Sanskrit "taksati" "he fashions, constructs", "taksan" "carpenter"; Avestan "taa" "ax, hatchet", "thwax-" "be busy"; Old Persian "tax-" "be active"; Latin "texere" "to weave, fabricate", "tela" "web, net, warp of a fabric"; Greek "tekton" "carpenter", "tekhne" "art"; Old Church Slavonic "tesla" "ax, hatchet"; Lithuanian "taau, tayti" "to carve"; Old Irish "tal" "cooper's ax"; Old High German "dahs", German "Dachs" "badger", literally "builder"; Hittite "taksh-" "to join, unite, build".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *tem- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*tem-

    "*tem-", "*tem-" : also "*tem?-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to cut". It forms all or part of: "anatomy"; "atom"; "contemplate"; "contemplation"; "diatom"; "dichotomy"; "-ectomy"; "entomolite"; "entomology"; "entomophagous"; "epitome"; "phlebotomy"; "temple" (n.1) "building for worship"; "tmesis"; "tome"; "-tomy"; "tonsorial"; "tonsure". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek "temnein" "to cut", "tomos" "volume, section of a book", originally "a section, piece cut off"; Old Church Slavonic "tina" "to cleave, split"; Middle Irish "tamnaim" "I cut off", Welsh "tam" "morsel".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *ten- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*ten-

    "*ten-", "*ten-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to stretch", with derivatives meaning "something stretched, a string; thin". It forms all or part of: "abstain"; "abstention"; "abstinence"; "abstinent"; "atelectasis"; "attend"; "attenuate"; "attenuation"; "baritone"; "catatonia"; "catatonic"; "contain"; "contend"; "continue"; "detain"; "detente"; "detention"; "diatonic"; "distend"; "entertain"; "extend"; "extenuate"; "hypotenuse"; "hypotonia"; "intend"; "intone" (v.1) "to sing, chant"; "isotonic"; "lieutenant"; "locum-tenens"; "maintain"; "monotony"; "neoteny"; "obtain"; "ostensible"; "peritoneum"; "pertain"; "pertinacious"; "portend"; "pretend"; "rein"; "retain"; "retinue"; "sitar"; "subtend"; "sustain"; "tantra"; "telangiectasia"; "temple" (n.1) "building for worship"; "temple" (n.2) "flattened area on either side of the forehead"; "temporal"; "tenable"; "tenacious"; "tenacity"; "tenant"; "tend" (v.1) "to incline, to move in a certain direction"; "tendency"; "tender" (adj.) "soft, easily injured"; "tender" (v.) "to offer formally"; "tendon"; "tendril"; "tenement"; "tenesmus"; "tenet"; "tennis"; "tenon"; "tenor"; "tense" (adj.) "stretched tight"; "tensile"; "tension"; "tensor"; "tent" (n.) "portable shelter"; "tenterhooks"; "tenuous"; "tenure"; "tetanus"; "thin"; "tone"; "tonic". It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "tantram" "loom", "tanoti" "stretches, lasts", "tanuh" "thin", literally "stretched out"; Persian "tar" "string"; Lithuanian "tankus" "compact", i.e. "tightened"; Greek "teinein" "to stretch", "tasis" "a stretching, tension", "tenos" "sinew", "tetanos" "stiff, rigid", "tonos" "string", hence "sound, pitch"; Latin "tenere" "to hold, grasp, keep, have possession, maintain", "tendere" "to stretch", "tenuis" "thin, rare, fine"; Old Church Slavonic "tento" "cord"; Old English "ynne" "thin".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    *tere- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*tere-

    "*tere-", "*tere-" (2) : "*ter?-" Proto-Indo-European root meaning "cross over, pass through, overcome". - It forms all or part of: "avatar"; "caravanserai"; "nectar"; "nectarine"; "nostril"; "seraglio"; "thrill"; "thorough"; "through"; "tranche"; "trans-"; "transient"; "transom"; "trench"; "truculent"; "truncate"; "trunk". - It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "tirah", Avestan "taro" "through, beyond"; Latin "trans" "beyond"; Old Irish "tre", Welsh "tra" "through"; Old English "urh" "through".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ene (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ene

    "-ene", "-ene - hydrocarbon suffix, from Greek name-forming element "-ene". It has no real meaning in itself; in chemistry terminology probably abstracted from "methylene" (1834). Put in systematic use by Hofmann (1865).


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ent (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ent

    "-ent", "-ent - word-forming element making adjectives from nouns or verbs, from French "-ent" and directly from Latin "-entem" (nominative "-ens"), present participle ending of verbs in "-ere"/"-ire". Old French changed it in many words to "-ant", but after c. 1500 some of these in English were changed back to what was supposed to be correct Latin. See "-ant".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -er (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-er

    "-er", "-er" (2) : comparative suffix, from Old English "-ra" (masc.), "-re" (fem., neuter), from Proto-Germanic "*-izon" (cognates: Gothic "-iza", Old Saxon "-iro", Old Norse "-ri", Old High German "-iro", German "-er"), from PIE "*-yos-", comparative adjective suffix. Originally also with umlaut change in stem, but this was mostly lost in Old English by historical times and has now vanished (except in "better" and "elder"). For most comparatives of one or two syllables, use of "-er" seems to be fading as the oral element in our society relies on "more" before adjectives to express the comparative; thus "prettier" is "more pretty", "cooler" is "more cool" [Barnhart].


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -er (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-er

    "-er", "-er" (1) : English agent noun ending, corresponding to Latin "-or". In native words it represents Old English "-ere" (Old Northumbrian also "-are") "man who has to do with", from Proto-Germanic "*-ari" (cognates: German "-er", Swedish "-are", Danish "-ere"), from Proto-Germanic "*-arjoz". Some believe this root is identical with, and perhaps a borrowing of, Latin "-arius" (see "-ary"). - Generally used with native Germanic words. In words of Latin origin, verbs derived from past participle stems of Latin ones (including most verbs in "-ate") usually take the Latin ending "-or", as do Latin verbs that passed through French (such as "governor"); but there are many exceptions ("eraser", "laborer", "promoter", "deserter"; "sailor", "bachelor"), some of which were conformed from Latin to English in late Middle English. - The use of "-or" and "-ee" in legal language (such as "lessor"/"lessee") to distinguish actors and recipients of action has given the "-or" ending a tinge of professionalism, and this makes it useful in doubling words that have a professional and a non-professional sense (such as advisor/"adviser", "conductor"/conducter, "incubator"/incubater, "elevator"/elevater).


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -er (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-er

    "-er", "-er" (3) : suffix used to make jocular or familiar formations from common or proper names ("soccer" being one), first attested 1860s, English schoolboy slang, "Introduced from Rugby School into Oxford University slang, orig. at University College, in Michaelmas Term, 1875" [OED, with unusual precision].


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -eroo (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-eroo

    "-eroo", "-eroo - "factitious slang suffix" (OED), sometimes affectionate, forming nouns indicating "a humorous or remarkable instance" of what is indicated, in use by 1940s, perhaps from "buckaroo". An earlier suffix in a similar sense is "-erino" (after 1900), apparently from "-er" + Italian suffix "-ino".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ery (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ery

    "-ery", "-ery - word-forming element making nouns meaning "place for, art of, condition of, quantity of", from Middle English "-erie", from Latin "-arius" (see "-ary"). Also sometimes in modern colloquial use "the collectivity of" or "an example of".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -escent (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-escent

    "-escent", "-escent - word-forming element meaning "beginning, becoming, tending to be", from Latin "-escentem" (nominative "-escens"), ending of present participles of verbs in "-escere".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ese (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ese

    "-ese", "-ese - word-forming element, from Old French "-eis" (Modern French "-ois", "-ais"), from Vulgar Latin, from Latin "-ensem", "-ensis" "belonging to" or "originating in".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -esque (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-esque

    "-esque", "-esque - word-forming element meaning "resembling or suggesting the style of", from French "-esque" "like, in the manner of", from Italian "-esco", which, with Medieval Latin "-iscus", is from Frankish or some other Germanic source (compare Old High German "-isc", German "-isch"; see "-ish").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ess (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ess

    "-ess", "-ess - fem. suffix, from French "-esse", from Late Latin "-issa", from Greek "-issa" (cognate with Old English fem. agent suffix "-icge"); rare in classical Greek but more common later, in "diakonissa" "deaconess" and other Church terms picked up by Latin.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -et (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-et

    "-et", "-et - word-forming element, originally a diminutive suffix but not now always felt as one, Middle English, from Old French "-et" (fem. "-ete"; Modern French "-et", "-ette"), from Vulgar Latin "*-ittum"/"*-itta" (source also of Spanish "-eto"/"-eta", Italian "-etto"/"-etta"), of unknown origin. The French forms are reduced to "-et" in English, but later borrowings of French words in "-ette" tend to keep that ending.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ette (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ette

    "-ette", "-ette - diminutive word-forming element, from Old French "-ette" (fem.), used indiscriminately in Old French with masculine form "-et" (see "-et"). As a general rule, older words borrowed from French have "-et" in English, while ones taken in since 17c. have "-ette". In use with native words since late 19c., especially among persons who coin new product names, who tend to give it a sense of "imitation, a sort of" (for example "flannelette" "imitation flannel of cotton", 1876; "leatherette", 1855; "linenette", 1894). Also in such words as "lecturette" (1867), "sermonette", which, OED remarks, "can scarcely be said to be in good use, though often met with in newspapers".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -facient (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-facient

    "-facient", "-facient - word-forming element meaning "a doer, one who or that which does", from Latin "-facientem" (nominative "-faciens"), combining form of present participle of "facere" "to make" (from PIE root "*dhe-" "to set, put").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -faction (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-faction

    "-faction", "-faction - word-forming element making nouns of action from verbs, from Latin "-factionem" (nominative "-factio"), from "facere" "to make" (from PIE root "*dhe-" "to set, put").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -fest (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-fest

    "-fest", "-fest - word-forming element in colloquial compounds ("hen-fest", "gabfest", etc.), from 1889, American English, borrowed from German "Fest" "festival", abstracted from "Volksfest", etc., from Middle High German "vst", from Latin "festum" "festival or holiday", neuter of "festus" "of a feast" (see "feast" (n.)).


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -fic (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-fic

    "-fic", "-fic - adjectival word-forming element meaning "making, creating", from French "-fique" and directly from Latin "-ficus" "making, doing", combining form of "facere" "to make", from PIE root "*dhe-" "to set, put".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -fication (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-fication

    "-fication", "-fication - word-forming element meaning "a making or causing", from Latin "-ficationem" (nominative "-ficatio"), forming nouns of action from verbs in "-ficare" (compare "-fy"), combining form of "facere" "to make", from PIE root "*dhe-" "to set, put".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -fid (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-fid

    "-fid", "-fid - word-forming element meaning "split, divided into parts", from Latin "-fidus", related to "findere" "to split" (from PIE root "*bheid-" "to split").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -fold (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-fold

    "-fold", "-fold - multiplicative word-forming element attached to numerals, from Old English "-feald", Northumbrian "-fald", from Proto-Germanic "*-falthaz" (cognates: Old Saxon "-fald", Old Frisian "-fald", Old Norse "-faldr", Dutch "-voud", German "-falt", Gothic "fals"), combining form of "*falthan", from PIE "*polt-", extended form of root "*pel-" (2) "to fold". - The same root yielded "fold" (v.) and perhaps also Greek "-ploid", "-plos" and Latin "-plus" (see "-plus"). Native words with it have been crowded out by Latinate "double", "triple", etc., but it persists in "manifold", "hundredfold", etc.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -form (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-form

    "-form", "-form - word-forming element meaning "-like, -shaped, in the form of", from French "-forme" and directly from Latin "-formis" "-like, shaped", from "forma" "form" (see "form" (n.)). Properly preceded by an "-i-".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -fuge (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-fuge

    "-fuge", "-fuge - word-forming element meaning "that which drives away or out", from Modern Latin "-fugus", with sense from Latin "fugare" "to put to flight" (see "febrifuge") but form from Latin "fugere" "to flee" (see "fugitive" (adj.)).


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ful (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ful

    "-ful", "-ful - word-forming element attached to nouns (and in modern English to verb stems) and meaning "full of, having, characterized by", also "amount or volume contained" ("handful", "bellyful"); from Old English "-full", "-ful", which is "full" (adj.) become a suffix by being coalesced with a preceding noun, but originally a separate word. Cognate with German "-voll", Old Norse "-fullr", Danish "-fuld". Most English "-ful" adjectives at one time or another had both passive ("full of x") and active ("causing x; full of occasion for x") senses. It is rare in Old English and Middle English, where "full" was much more commonly attached at the head of a word (for example Old English "fulbrecan" "to violate", "fulslean" "to kill outright", "fulripod" "mature"; Middle English had "ful-comen" "attain (a state), realize (a truth)", "ful-lasting" "durability", "ful-thriven" "complete, perfect", etc.).


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -fy (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-fy

    "-fy", "-fy - word-forming element meaning "make, make into", from French "-fier", from Latin "-ficare", combining form of "facere" "to make", from PIE root "*dhe-" "to set, put".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -gamy (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-gamy

    "-gamy", "-gamy - word-forming element meaning "marriage" in anthropology and "fertilization" in biology, from Greek "-gamia", from "gamos" "marriage" (see "gamete").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -gate (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-gate

    "-gate", "-gate - suffix attached to any word to indicate "scandal involving", 1973, abstracted from "Watergate", the Washington, D.C., building complex that was home of the National Headquarters of the Democratic Party when it was burglarized June 17, 1972, by operatives later found to be working for the staff and re-election campaign of U.S. President Richard Nixon.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -gen (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-gen

    "-gen", "-gen - word-forming element technically meaning "something produced", but mainly, in modern use, "thing that produces or causes", from French "-gne" (18c.), from Greek "-genes" "born of, produced by", which is from the same source as "genos" "birth", "genea" "race, family", from PIE root "*gene-" "give birth, beget", with derivatives referring to procreation and familial and tribal groups. First used in late 18th century French chemistry (see "oxygen"), it probably involves a misunderstanding of "-genes", as though it meant "that which produces".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -genesis (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-genesis

    "-genesis", "-genesis - word-forming element meaning "birth, origin, creation", from Greek "genesis", from PIE root "*gene-" "give birth, beget", with derivatives referring to procreation and familial and tribal groups.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -genous (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-genous

    "-genous", "-genous - word-forming element meaning "generating, producing, yielding"; see "-gen" + "-ous". In modern formations, making adjectives corresponding to words in "-gen". In some older words, from Lat Latin "-genus", from Latin "-gena" "born" (for example "indigenous").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -geny (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-geny

    "-geny", "-geny - word-forming element meaning "genesis, origin, mode of production", forming corresponding abstract nouns to words in "-gen", from French "-gnie" and Modern Latin "-genia", from Greek "-geneia", from "-genes" "born, produced", the form in compounds of "genos", from PIE root "*gene-" "give birth, beget", with derivatives referring to procreation and familial and tribal groups.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -grad (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-grad

    "-grad", "-grad - Russian, "city", from Old Church Slavonic "gradu" "town, city, citadel", from PIE "*ghor-dho-", from root "*gher-" (1) "to grasp, enclose", with derivatives referring to enclosure.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -gram (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-gram

    "-gram", "-gram - noun word-forming element, "that which is written or marked", from Greek "gramma" "that which is drawn; a picture, a drawing; that which is written, a character, an alphabet letter, written letter, piece of writing"; in plural, "letters", also "papers, documents of any kind", also "learning", from stem of "graphein" "to draw or write" (see "-graphy"). Some words with it are from Greek compounds, others are modern formations. Alternative "-gramme" is a French form. From "telegram" (1850s) the element was abstracted by 1979 in "Gorillagram", a proprietary name in U.S., and thereafter put to wide use in forming new words, such as "stripagram" (1981). The construction violates Greek grammar, as an adverb could not properly form part of a compound noun. An earlier instance was World War II armed services slang "latrinogram" "latrine rumor, barracks gossip" (1944).


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -graph (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-graph

    "-graph", "-graph - modern word-forming element meaning "instrument for recording; that which writes, marks, or describes; something written", from Greek "-graphos" "-writing, -writer" (as in "autographos" "written with one's own hand"), from "graphe" "writing, the art of writing, a writing", from "graphein" "to write, express by written characters", earlier "to draw, represent by lines drawn" (see "-graphy"). Adopted widely (Dutch "-graaf", German "-graph", French "-graphe", Spanish "-grafo"). Related: "-grapher"; "-graphic"; "-graphical".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -graphy (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-graphy

    "-graphy", "-graphy - word-forming element meaning "process of writing or recording" or "a writing, recording, or description" (in modern use especially in forming names of descriptive sciences), from French or German "-graphie", from Greek "-graphia" "description of", used in abstract nouns from "graphein" "write, express by written characters", earlier "to draw, represent by lines drawn", originally "to scrape, scratch" (on clay tablets with a stylus), from PIE root "*gerbh-" "to scratch, carve" (see "carve").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -happy (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-happy

    "-happy", "-happy - word-forming element used in World War II armed forces slang and after, meaning "crazed or frazzled from stress due to" the thing specified (as in "bomb-happy" (1942), "flak-happy" (1943), "trigger-happy" (1942). The model might have been "slap-happy" in pugilism from 1936 as a slang variant of "punch-drunk".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -head (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-head

    "-head", "-head - word-forming element meaning "state or condition of being", Middle English "-hede", from a variant of Old English "-had", the source of "-hood". The only surviving words with it are "maidenhead" and "godhead".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -hearted (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-hearted

    "-hearted", "-hearted - figurative element in combinations, "at heart", also "having a heart" (of a specified kind), c. 1200, first attested in "hard-hearted"; see "heart" (n.). Related: "-heartedly".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -hood (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-hood

    "-hood", "-hood - word-forming element meaning "state or condition of being", from Old English "-had" "condition, quality, position" (as in "cildhad" "childhood", "preosthad" "priesthood", "werhad" "manhood"), cognate with German "-heit"/"-keit", Dutch "-heid", Old Frisian and Old Saxon "-hed", all from Proto-Germanic "*haidus" "manner, quality", literally "bright appearance", from PIE "(s)kai-" (1) "bright, shining" (Cognates: Sanskrit "ketu" "brightness, appearance"). Originally a free-standing word (see "hade"); in Modern English it survives only in this suffix.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -i (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-i

    "-i", "-i" (2) : plural suffix sometimes preserved in English for words from Latin, it is the Latin plural of nouns of the second declension (such as "focus"/"foci", "radius"/"radii").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -i (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-i

    "-i-", "-i-" : a "connective" element in many words formed with Latin or Greek suffixes, now often felt as part of them (as in "-iac", "-iacal", "-ial", "-ian", "-ify", "-ity", etc.). Properly it forms no proper part of the suffix but is often the stem-vowel of the initial word in the Latin compounds ("genial" from "genius"), or a modified form of it. As such forms were very common, "-i-" was used merely connectively or euphonically in some Latin compounds ("uniformis") and in later words made from Latin components in English or French ("centennial", "editorial"). The Greek equivalent is "-o-", which also became an active connective in English, but they now are used indifferently with elements from either language.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ia (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ia

    "-ia", "-ia - word-forming element in names of countries, diseases, and flowers, from Latin and Greek "-ia", noun ending, in Greek especially used in forming abstract nouns (typically of feminine gender); see "-a" (1). The classical suffix in its usual evolution (via French "-ie") comes to Modern English as "-y" (as in "familia"/"family", also "-logy", "-graphy"). Compare "-cy". In "paraphernalia", "Mammalia", "regalia", etc. it represents Latin or Greek "-a" (see "-a" (2)), plural suffix of nouns in "-ium" (Latin) or "-ion" (Greek), with formative or euphonic "-i-".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ial (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ial

    "-ial", "-ial - adjectival word-forming element, variant of "-al" (1) with connective "-i-". From Latin "-ialis", in which the "-i-" originally was from the stem of the word being attached but later came to be felt as connective.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ian (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ian

    "-ian", "-ian - variant of suffix "-an" (q.v.), with connective "-i-". From Latin "-ianus", in which the "-i-" originally was from the stem of the word being attached but later came to be felt as connective. In Middle English frequently it was "-ien", via French.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -iasis (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-iasis

    "-iasis", "-iasis - medical Latin word-forming element used in naming diseases, from Greek "-asis", abstract noun suffix (often expressing "disease, morbid condition") from the aorist of verbs in "-aein". The "-i-" is connective.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -iatric (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-iatric

    "-iatric", "-iatric - word-forming element, from Latinized form of Greek "iatrikos" "healing", from "iatros" "physician, healer" (related to "iatreun" "treat medically", and "iasthai" "heal, treat"); of uncertain origin, perhaps from "iaomai" "to cure", related to "iaino" "heat, warm, cheer", probably from a root meaning "enliven, animate".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ible (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ible

    "-ible", "-ible - word-forming element making adjectives from verbs, borrowed in Middle English from Old French "-ible" and directly from Latin adjective suffix "-ibilis" (properly "-bilis"); see "-able".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ic (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ic

    "-ic", "-ic - Middle English "-ik", "-ick", word-forming element making adjectives, "having to do with, having the nature of, being, made of, caused by, similar to", from French "-ique" and directly from Latin "-icus" or cognate Greek "-ikos" "in the manner of; pertaining to". From PIE adjective suffix "*-(i)ko", which also yielded Slavic "-isku", adjectival suffix indicating origin, the source of the "-sky" (Russian "-skii") in many surnames. In chemistry, indicating a higher valence than names in "-ous" (first in "benzoic", 1791). Variant forms in "-ick" ("critick", "ethick") survived in English dictionaries until early 19c.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ical (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ical

    "-ical", "-ical - compound adjectival word-forming element, usually interchangeable with "-ic" but sometimes with specialized sense (such as "historic"/"historical", "politic"/"political"), Middle English, from Late Latin "-icalis", from Latin "-icus" + "-alis" (see "-al" (1)). Probably it was needed because the forms in "-ic" often took on a noun sense (for example "physic"). Forms in "-ical" tend to be attested earlier in English than their twins in "-ic".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ics (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ics

    "-ics", "-ics - in the names of sciences or disciplines ("acoustics", "aerobics", "economics", etc.), a 16c. revival of the classical custom of using the neuter plural of adjectives with Greek "-ikos" "pertaining to" (see "-ic") to mean "matters relevant to" and also as the titles of treatises about them. Subject matters that acquired their English names before c. 1500, however, tend to be singular in form ("arithmetic", "logic", "magic", "music", "rhetoric"). The grammatical number of words in "-ics" ("mathematics is"/"mathematics are") is a confused question.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -id (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-id

    "-id", "-id - adjectival word-forming element, especially in zoology, "belonging to, connected with, member of a group or class", in some cases probably via from French "-ide", back-formed from Modern Latin names of zoological classes in "-idae", as "arachnid" "a spider" from the biological class name "arachnidae". This "-idae" is the plural of Latin "-ides", a masculine patronymic (indicating "descent from"), from Greek "-ides" "son of", denoting descent from the person to whose name it is attached (such as "Heraklides"). In astronomy, of meteor showers, "having its radiant in" the constellation named ("Perseid", "Leonid", etc.), it probably represents Latin "-idis", from Greek "-idos", the genitive of the feminine form of the patronymic suffix.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -idae (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-idae

    "-idae", "-idae - word-forming element used to coin family names in zoology (by being suffixed to the name of the genus whence that of the family is derived), from Latin "-idae", plural of noun suffix "-ides" (see "-id").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ide (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ide

    "-ide", "-ide - word-forming element used to coin names for simple compounds of one element with another element or radical; originally abstracted from "oxide", which was the first so classified.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ier (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ier

    "-ier", "-ier - word-forming element indicating "one whose occupation has to do with", from French and Old French "-ier", from Latin "-arius" (see "-ary"). Nativized and used to form English words ("glazier", "hosier", etc.) Also see "-yer", and compare "-eer".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ile (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ile

    "-ile", "-ile - also "-il", word-forming element denoting ability or capacity, from Old French "-il" or directly from Latin adjectival suffix "-ilis". Used in classical and Medieval Latin to form ordinal numbers, which accounts for its use from late 19c. in statistics ("percentile", etc.).


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -in (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-in

    "-in", "-in" (1) : the adverb "in" attached to a verb as a word-forming element, by 1960, abstracted from "sit-in", which is attested from 1941 in reference to protests and 1937 in reference to labor union actions (which probably was influenced by "sit-down strike") but was popularized in reference to civil disobedience protests aimed at segregated lunch counters. As a word-forming element at first of other types of protests, extended by 1965 to any sort of communal gathering (such as "love-in", 1967).


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -in (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-in

    "-in", "-in" (2) : word-forming element in chemistry, usually indicating a neutral substance, antibiotic, vitamin, or hormone; a modification and specialized use of "-ine" (2).


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ina (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ina

    "-ina", "-ina - fem. word- and name-forming element, from Latin "-ina" (see "-ine" (1)), or its identical descendants in Spanish, Portuguese, or Italian. The French form is "-ine". As a suffix in royal titles ("czarina", etc.) it represents an extension from Latin "regina".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ine (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ine

    "-ine", "-ine" (1) : also "-in", adjectival word-forming element, Middle English, from Old French "-in"/"-ine", or directly from Latin suffix "-inus"/"-ina"/"-inum" "of, like", forming adjectives and derived nouns, as in "divinus", "feminus", "caninus"; from PIE adjectival suffix "*-no-" (see "-en" (2)). The Latin suffix is cognate with Greek "-inos"/"-ine"/"-inon", and in some modern scientific words the element is from Greek. Added to names, it meant "of or pertaining to, of the nature of" ("Florentinus"), and so it also was commonly used in forming Roman proper names, originally appellatives ("Augustinus", "Constantinus", "Justinus", etc.) and its descendants in Romanic languages continued active in name-forming. The Latin fem. form, "-ina", was used in forming abstracts ("doctrina", "medicina"). Relics of the attempt to continue a distinction between Latin "-ina" and "-inus" account for the English hesitation in spelling between "-in" and "-ine".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ine (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ine

    "-ine", "-ine" (2) : word-forming element in chemistry, often interchangeable with "-in" (2), though modern use distinguishes them; early 19c., from French "-ine", the suffix commonly used to form words for derived substances, hence its extended use in chemistry. It was applied unsystematically at first (as in "aniline"), but now has more restricted use. The French suffix is from Latin "-ina", fem. form of "-inus", suffix used to form adjectives from nouns, and thus is identical with "-ine" (1).


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ing (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ing

    "-ing", "-ing" (2) : suffix used form the present participle of verbs, and adjectives derived from them, from Old English present participle suffix "-ende", from PIE "*-nt-" (cognates: German "-end", Gothic "-and", Sanskrit "-ant", Greek "-on", Latin "-ans", "-ens"). The vowel weakened in late Old English and the spelling with "-g" began 13c.-14c. among Anglo-Norman scribes who naturally confused it with "-ing" (1).


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ing (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ing

    "-ing", "-ing" (1) : suffix attached to verbs to mean their action, result, product, material, etc., from Old English "-ing", also "-ung", from Proto-Germanic "*-unga-", "*-inga-" (cognates: Old Norse "-ing", Dutch "-ing", German "-ung"). In early use often denoting completed or habitual action; its use has been greatly expanded in Middle and Modern English.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ing (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ing

    "-ing", "-ing" (3) : Old English "-ing", patronymic suffix (denoting common origin); surviving in place names ("Birmingham", "Nottingham") where it denotes "tribe, community".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ino (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ino

    "-ino", "-ino - word-ending in some English words from Spanish and Portuguese ("albino", "casino", etc.), the Spanish and Portuguese form of "-ine" (1), from Latin "-inus"/"-inum".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ion (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ion

    "-ion", "-ion - word-forming element attached to verbs, making nouns of state, condition, or action, from French "-ion" or directly from Latin "-ionem" (nominative "-io", genitive "-ionis"), common suffix forming abstract nouns from verbs.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ish (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ish

    "-ish", "-ish - adjectival word-forming element, Old English "-isc" "of the nativity or country of", in later use "of the nature or character of", from Proto-Germanic suffix "*-iska-" (cognates: Old Saxon "-isk", Old Frisian "-sk", Old Norse "-iskr", Swedish and Danish "-sk", Dutch "-sch", Old High German "-isc", German "-isch", Gothic "-isks"), cognate with Greek diminutive suffix "-iskos". In its oldest forms with altered stem vowel ("French", "Welsh"). The Germanic suffix was borrowed into Italian and Spanish ("-esco") and French ("-esque"). Colloquially attached to hours to denote approximation, 1916. The "-ish" in verbs ("abolish", "establish", "finish", "punish", etc.) is a mere terminal relic from the Old French present participle.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ism (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ism

    "-ism", "-ism - word-forming element making nouns implying a practice, system, doctrine, etc., from French "-isme" or directly from Latin "-isma", "-ismus" (source also of Italian, Spanish "-ismo", Dutch, German "-ismus"), from Greek "-ismos", noun ending signifying the practice or teaching of a thing, from the stem of verbs in "-izein", a verb-forming element denoting the doing of the noun or adjective to which it is attached. For distinction of use, see "-ity". The related Greek suffix "-isma(t)-" affects some forms.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ist (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ist

    "-ist", "-ist - word-forming element meaning "one who does or makes", also used to indicate adherence to a certain doctrine or custom, from French "-iste" and directly from Latin "-ista" (source also of Spanish, Portuguese, Italian "-ista"), from Greek agent-noun ending "-istes", which is from "-is-", ending of the stem of verbs in "-izein", + agential suffix "-tes". Variant "-ister" (as in "chorister", "barrister") is from Old French "-istre", on false analogy of "ministre". Variant "-ista" is from Spanish, popularized in American English 1970s by names of Latin-American revolutionary movements.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -istic (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-istic

    "-istic", "-istic - adjectival word-forming element, from French "-istique" or directly from Latin "-isticus", from Greek "-istikos", a compound of the adjectival suffix "-ikos" (see "-ic") + the noun suffix "-istes" (see "-ist").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ite (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ite

    "-ite", "-ite" (1) : word-forming element indicating origin or derivation from, from French "-ite" and directly from Latin "-ita", from Greek "-ites" (fem. "-itis"), word-forming element making adjectives and nouns meaning "connected with or belonging to". Especially used in classical times to form ethnic and local designations (for example in Septuagint translations of Hebrew names in "-i") and for names of gems and minerals.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -itis (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-itis

    "-itis", "-itis - word-forming element in medicine denoting "diseases characterized by inflammation" (of the specified part), Modern Latin, from Greek "-itis", feminine of adjectival suffix "-ites" "pertaining to". Feminine because it was used with an implied "nosos" "disease", a feminine noun; especially in "arthritis (nosos)" "(disease) of the joints". "Arthritis" (16c.) was one of the earliest appearances of the suffix in English and from it the suffix was abstracted in other uses.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ity (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ity

    "-ity", "-ity - word-forming element making abstract nouns from adjectives and meaning "condition or quality of being ______", from Middle English "-ite", from Old French "-ete" (Modern French "-it") and directly from Latin "-itatem" (nominative "-itas"), suffix denoting state or condition, composed of "-i-" (from the stem or else a connective) + the common abstract suffix "-tas" (see "-ty" (2)). Roughly, the word in "-ity" usually means the quality of being what the adjective describes, or concretely an instance of the quality, or collectively all the instances; & the word in "-ism" means the disposition, or collectively all those who feel it. [Fowler]


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ium (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ium

    "-ium", "-ium - word-forming element in chemistry, used to coin element names, from Latin adjectival suffix "-ium" (neuter of "-ius"), which formed metal names in Latin ("ferrum" "iron", "aurum" "gold", etc.). In late 18c chemists began to pay attention to the naming of their substances with words that indicate their chemical properties. Berzelius in 1811 proposed forming all element names in Modern Latin. As the names of some recently discovered metallic elements already were in Latin form ("uranium", "chromium", "borium", etc.), the pattern of naming metallic elements in "-ium" or "-um" was maintained (in "cadmium", "lithium", "plutonium", etc.; "helium" is an anomaly).


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ive (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ive

    "-ive", "-ive - word-forming element making adjectives from verbs, meaning "pertaining to, tending to; doing, serving to do", in some cases from Old French "-if", but usually directly from Latin adjectival suffix "-ivus" (source also of Italian and Spanish "-ivo"). In some words borrowed from French at an early date it has been reduced to "-y" (as in "hasty", "tardy").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ize (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ize

    "-ize", "-ize - word-forming element used to make verbs, Middle English "-isen", from Old French "-iser", from Late Latin "-izare", from Greek "-izein", a verb-forming element denoting the doing of the noun or adjective to which it is attached. English picked up the French form, but partially reverted to the correct Greek "-z-" spelling from late 16c. In Britain, despite the opposition to it (at least formerly) of OED, "Encyclopaedia Britannica", the "Times of London", and Fowler, "-ise" remains dominant. Fowler thinks this is to avoid the difficulty of remembering the short list of common words not from Greek which must be spelled with an "-s-" (such as "advertise", "devise", "surprise").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -kin (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-kin

    "-kin", "-kin - diminutive suffix, first attested late 12c. in proper names adopted from Flanders and Holland. As it is not found in Old English it probably is from Middle Dutch "-kin", properly a double-diminutive, from "-k" + "-in". Equivalent to German "-chen". Also borrowed in Old French as "-quin", where it usually has a bad sense. This suffix, which is almost barren in French, has been more largely developed in the Picard patois, which uses it for new forms, such as "verquin", a shabby little glass ("verre"); "painequin", a bad little loaf ("pain"); "Pierrequin" poor little "Pierre", &c. ["An Etymological Dictionary of the French Language", transl. G.W. Kitchin, Oxford, 1878] Used in later Middle English with common nouns. In some words it is directly from Dutch or Flemish.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -latry (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-latry

    "-latry", "-latry - word-forming element meaning "worship of", used as an element in native formations from 19c. (such as "bardolatry"), from Greek "-latreia" "worship, service paid to the gods, hired labor", related to "latron" (n.) "pay, hire", "latris" "servant, worshipper", from PIE "*le-" (1) "to get" (see "larceny").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -less (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-less

    "-less", "-less - word-forming element meaning "lacking, cannot be, does not", from Old English "-leas", from "leas" "free (from), devoid (of), false, feigned", from Proto-Germanic "*lausaz" (cognates: Dutch "-loos", German "-los" "-less", Old Norse "lauss" "loose, free, vacant, dissolute", Middle Dutch "los", German "los" "loose, free", Gothic "laus" "empty, vain"), from PIE root "*leu-" "to loosen, divide, cut apart". Related to "loose" and "lease".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -let (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-let

    "-let", "-let - diminutive noun-forming element, Middle English, from Old French "-elet", which often is a double-diminutive. It consists of Old French diminutive "-et", "-ette" (see "-et") added to nouns in "-el", which in many cases represents Latin diminutive "-ellus"; see "-el" (2)). "The formation did not become common until the 18th c". [OED].


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ling (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ling

    "-ling", "-ling - diminutive word-forming element, early 14c., from Old English "-ling" a nominal suffix (not originally diminutive), from Proto-Germanic "*-linga-"; attested in historical Germanic languages as a simple suffix, but probably representing a fusion of two suffixes: 1. that represented by English "-el" (1), as in "thimble", "handle"; and 2. "-ing", suffix indicating "person or thing of a specific kind or origin"; in masculine nouns also "son of" (as in "farthing", "atheling", Old English "horing" "adulterer, fornicator"), from PIE "*-(i)ko-" (see "-ic"). Both these suffixes had occasional diminutive force, but this was only slightly evident in Old English "-ling" and its equivalents in Germanic languages except Norse, where it commonly was used as a diminutive suffix, especially in words designating the young of animals (such as "gslingr" "gosling"). Thus it is possible that the diminutive use that developed in Middle English is from Old Norse.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -lite (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-lite

    "-lite", "-lite - word-forming element meaning "stone", from French "-lite", variant of "-lithe", from Greek "lithos" "stone" (see "litho-"). The form perhaps influenced by chemical word-forming element "-ite" (1).


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -logue (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-logue

    "-logue", "-logue - word-forming element meaning "one who is immersed in or driven by", mostly from French-derived words, ultimately from Greek "-logos", "-logon" (see "-logy"). Now mostly superseded by "-loger", "-logist" except in "ideologue" and a few others. As a combining element meaning "kind of discourse", it is from French "-logue", from Greek "-logos".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -logy (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-logy

    "-logy", "-logy - word-forming element meaning "a speaking, discourse, treatise, doctrine, theory, science", from Greek "-logia" (often via French "-logie" or Medieval Latin "-logia"), from root of "legein" "to speak"; thus, "the character or deportment of one who speaks or treats of (a certain subject)"; from PIE root "*leg-" (1) "to collect, gather", with derivatives meaning "to speak (to 'pick out words')". Often via Medieval Latin "-logia", French "-logie".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ly (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ly

    "-ly", "-ly" (1) : suffix forming adjectives from nouns and meaning "having qualities of, appropriate to, fitting"; irregularly descended from Old English "-lic", from Proto-Germanic "*-liko-" (Old Frisian "-lik", Dutch "-lijk", Old High German "-lih", German "-lich", Old Norse "-ligr"), related to "*likom-" "appearance, form" (Old English "lich" "corpse, body"; see "lich", which is a cognate; see also "like" (adj.), with which it is identical).


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ly (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ly

    "-ly", "-ly" (2) : adverbial suffix, Middle English, from Old English "-lice", from Proto-Germanic "*-liko-" (cognates: Old Frisian "-like", Old Saxon "-liko", Dutch "-lijk", Old High German "-licho", German "-lich", Old Norse "-liga", Gothic "-leiko"); see "-ly" (1). Cognate with "lich", and identical with "like" (adj.). Weekley notes as "curious" that Germanic uses a word essentially meaning "body" for the adverbial formation, while Romanic uses one meaning "mind" (as in French "constamment" from Latin "constanti mente"). The modern English form emerged in late Middle English, probably from influence of Old Norse "-liga".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -lysis (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-lysis

    "-lysis", "-lysis - scientific/medical word-forming element meaning "loosening, dissolving, dissolution", from Greek "lysis" "a loosening, setting free, releasing; dissolution; means of letting loose", from "lyein" "to unfasten, loose, loosen, untie", from PIE root "*leu-" "to loosen, divide, cut apart".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -lytic (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-lytic

    "-lytic", "-lytic - word-forming element used in making adjectives corresponding to nouns in "-lysis", from Greek "-lytikos", from "lytikos" "able to loose, loosing", from "lytos" "loosed", verbal adjective of "lyein" "to unfasten, loose, loosen, untie" (from PIE root "*leu-" "to loosen, divide, cut apart").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -machy (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-machy

    "-machy", "-machy - word-forming element meaning "battle, war, contest", from Latinized form of Greek "-makhia", from "makhe" "a battle, fight", related to "makhesthai" "to fight". Beekes suspects it is from an isolated root, perhaps Pre-Greek: "In the domain of fighting and battle, old inherited expressions can hardly be expected".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -mancy (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-mancy

    "-mancy", "-mancy - word-forming element meaning "divination by means of", from Old French "-mancie", from Late Latin "-mantia", from Greek "manteia" "oracle, divination", from "mantis" "mantis" "one who divines, a seer, prophet; one touched by divine madness", from "mainesthai" "be inspired", which is related to "menos" "passion, spirit", from PIE "*mnyo-", suffixed form of root "*men-" (1) "to think", with derivatives referring to qualities and states of mind or thought. Compare "mania".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ment (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ment

    "-ment", "-ment - suffix forming nouns, originally from French and representing Latin "-mentum", which was added to verb stems sometimes to represent the result or product of the action. French inserts an "-e-" between the verbal root and the suffix (as in "commenc-e-ment" from "commenc-er"; with verbs in "ir", "-i-" is inserted instead (as in "sent-i-ment" from "sentir"). Used with English verb stems from 16c. (for example "amazement", "merriment", which also illustrates the habit of turning "-y" to "-i-" before this suffix).


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -meter (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-meter

    "-meter", "-meter - word-forming element meaning "device or instrument for measuring"; commonly "-ometer", occasionally "-imeter"; from French "-mtre", from Greek "metron" "a measure", from PIE root "*me-" (2) "to measure".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -metry (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-metry

    "-metry", "-metry - word-forming element meaning "process of measuring", Middle English "-metrie", from Middle French "-metrie", from Latin "-metria", from Greek "-metria" "a measuring of", from "-metros" "measurer of", from "metron" "measure", from PIE root "*me-" (2) "to measure".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -most (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-most

    "-most", "-most - superlative suffix of adjectives and adverbs, Middle English alteration (by influence of unrelated "most") of Old English "-mest", a double superlative, from "-mo", "-ma" (cognate with Latin "-mus"; compare Old English "forma" "first", "meduma" "midmost") + superlative ending "-est".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ness (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ness

    "-ness", "-ness - word-forming element denoting action, quality, or state, attached to an adjective or past participle to form an abstract noun, from Old English "-nes(s)", from Proto-Germanic "*in-assu-" (cognates: Old Saxon "-nissi", Middle Dutch "-nisse", Dutch "-nis", Old High German "-nissa", German "-nis", Gothic "-inassus"), from "*-in-", noun stem, + "*-assu-", abstract noun suffix, probably from the same root as Latin "-tudo" (see "-tude").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -nik (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-nik

    "-nik", "-nik - as in "beatnik", etc., suffix used in word formation from c. 1945, from Yiddish "-nik" (as in "nudnik" "a bore"), from Russian "-nik", common personal suffix meaning "person or thing associated with or involved in" (compare "nudnik"; "kolkhoznik" "member of a "kolkhoz""). Rocketed to popularity with "sputnik" (q.v.).


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -oid (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-oid

    "-oid", "-oid - word-forming element meaning "like, like that of, thing like a ______", from Latinized form of Greek "-oeides", from "eidos" "form", related to "idein" "to see", "eidenai" "to know"; literally "to see", from PIE "*weid-es-", from root "*weid-" "to see". The "-o-" is connective or a stem vowel from the previous element.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ology (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ology

    "-ology", "-ology - word-forming element indicating "branch of knowledge, science", now the usual form of "-logy". Originally used c. 1800 in nonce formations ("commonsensology", etc.), it gained legitimacy by influence of the proper formation in "geology", "mythology", etc., where the "-o-" is a stem vowel in the previous element.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -oma (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-oma

    "-oma", "-oma - word-forming element, from Greek "-oma", with lengthened stem vowel + "-ma", suffix forming neuter nouns and nouns that indicate result of verbal action (equivalent of Latin "-men"); especially taken in medical use as "morbid growth, tumor", based on "sarcoma", "carcinoma".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -one (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-one

    "-one", "-one - chemical suffix, from Greek "-one", female patronymic (as in "anemone", "daughter of the wind", from "anemos"); in chemical use denoting a "weaker" derivative. Its use in forming "acetone" (1830s) gave rise to the specialized chemical sense.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -oon (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-oon

    "-oon", "-oon - spelling conventional in 15c.-17c. English to add emphasis to borrowed French nouns ending in stressed "-on"; also used to represent Italian "-one", Spanish "n"; all from Latin "-onem". Used in rare cases to form English words, such as "spittoon", "octoroon".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -or (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-or

    "-or", "-or - word-forming element making nouns of quality, state, or condition, from Middle English "-our", from Old French "-our" (Modern French "-eur"), from Latin "-orem" (nominative "-or"), a suffix added to past participle verbal stems. Also in some cases from Latin "-atorem" (nominative "-ator"). In U.S., via Noah Webster, "-or" is nearly universal (but not in "glamour", "curious", "generous"), while in Britain "-our" is used in most cases (but with many exceptions: "author, error, senator, ancestor, horror" etc.). The "-our" form predominated after c. 1300, but Mencken reports that the first three folios of Shakespeare's plays used both spellings indiscriminately and with equal frequency; only in the Fourth Folio of 1685 does "-our" become consistent. A partial revival of "-or" on the Latin model took place from 16c. ("governour" began to lose its "-u-" 16c. and it was gone by 19c.), and also among phonetic spellers in both England and America (John Wesley wrote that "-or" was "a fashionable impropriety" in England in 1791). Webster criticized the habit of deleting "-u-" in "-our" words in his first speller ("A Grammatical Institute of the English Language", commonly called the Blue-Black Speller) in 1783. His own deletion of the "-u-" began with the revision of 1804, and was enshrined in the influential "Comprehensive Dictionary of the English Language" (1806), which also established in the U.S. "-ic" for British "-ick" and "-er" for "-re", along with many other attempts at reformed spelling which never caught on (such as "masheen" for "machine"). His attempt to justify them on the grounds of etymology and the custom of great writers does not hold up. Fowler notes the British drop the "-u-" when forming adjectives ending in "-orous" ("humorous") and derivatives in "-ation" and "-ize", in which cases the Latin origin is respected (such as "vaporize"). When the Americans began to consistently spell it one way, however, the British reflexively hardened their insistence on the other. "The American abolition of "-our" in such words as "honour" and "favour" has probably retarded rather than quickened English progress in the same direction". [Fowler]


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ory (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ory

    "-ory", "-ory - adjective and noun suffix, "having to do with, characterized by, tending to, place for", from Middle English "-orie", from Old North French "-ory", "-orie" (Old French "-oir", "-oire"), from Latin "-orius", "-oria", "-orium". Latin adjectives in "-orius", according to "An Etymological Dictionary of the French Language", tended to "indicate a quality proper to the action accomplished by the agent; as "oratorius" from "orator"; "laudatorius" from "laudator". The neuter of these adjectives was early employed as a substantive, and usually denoted the place of residence of the agent or the instrument that he uses; as "praetorium" from "praetor"; "dormitorium" from "dormitor"; "auditorium", "dolatorium". "These newer words, already frequent under the Empire, became exceedingly numerous at a later time, especially in ecclesiastical and scholastic Latin; as "purgatorium", "refectorium", "laboratorium", "observatorium", &c". [transl. G.W. Kitchin, Oxford, 1878]


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ose (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ose

    "-ose", "-ose" (2) : standard ending in chemical names of sugars, originally simply a noun-forming suffix, taken up by French chemists mid-19c.; it has no etymological connection with sugar. It appears around the same time in two chemical names, "cellulose", which would owe it to the French suffix, and "glucose", where it would be a natural result from the Greek original. Flood favors origin from "glucose".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ose (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ose

    "-ose", "-ose" (1) : word-forming element used to make adjectives from nouns, with the meaning "full of, abounding in, having qualities of", from Latin "-osus" (see "-ous").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -osis (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-osis

    "-osis", "-osis - word-forming element expressing state or condition, in medical terminology denoting "a state of disease", from Latin "-osis" and directly from Greek "-osis", formed from the aorist of verbs ending in "-o". It corresponds to Latin "-atio".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -osity (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-osity

    "-osity", "-osity - word-forming element making nouns from adjectives in "-ous", "-ose" (1); from French "-osit", from Latin "-ositatem" (nominative "-ositas"), properly "-ose" + "-ity".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ous (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ous

    "-ous", "-ous - word-forming element making adjectives from nouns, meaning "having, full of, having to do with, doing, inclined to", from Old French "-ous", "-eux", from Latin "-osus" (compare "-ose" (1)). In chemistry, "having a lower valence than forms expressed in "-ic"".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -parous (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-parous

    "-parous", "-parous - word-forming element meaning "bearing, producing", from Latin "-parus" (as in "viviparus" "bringing forth young alive"), from "parire" "to produce, bring forth" (from PIE root "*pere-" (1) "to produce, procure").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -path (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-path

    "-path", "-path - word-forming element used in modern formations to mean "one suffering from" (a disease or condition), from Greek "pathos" "suffering" (from PIE root "*kwent(h)-" "to suffer"). Also "one versed in" (a certain type of treatment), in which cases it is a back-formation from "-pathy" in the related sense.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -pathic (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-pathic

    "-pathic", "-pathic - word-forming element from Latin "pathicus", from Greek "pathikos" "suffering, remaining passive", from "pathein" "to suffer" (from PIE root "*kwent(h)-" "to suffer").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -pathy (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-pathy

    "-pathy", "-pathy - word-forming element meaning "feeling, suffering, emotion; disorder, disease", from Latin "-pathia", from Greek "-patheia" "act of suffering, feeling" (from PIE root "*kwent(h)-" "to suffer"). Meaning "system of treatment of disease" is abstracted from "homeopathy" (q.v.).


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -phage (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-phage

    "-phage", "-phage - word-forming element meaning "eater", from stem of Greek "phagein" "to eat", from PIE root "*bhag-" "to share out, apportion; to get a share".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -phagous (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-phagous

    "-phagous", "-phagous - word-forming element meaning "eating, feeding on", from Latin "-phagus", from Greek "-phagos" "eater of", from "phagein" "to eat", literally "to have a share of food", from PIE root "*bhag-" "to share out, apportion; to get a share".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -phane (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-phane

    "-phane", "-phane - word-forming element meaning "having the appearance of", from Greek "-phanes", from "phainein" "bring to light, cause to appear, show", "phainesthai" "to appear", from PIE root "*bha-" (1) "to shine".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -phemia (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-phemia

    "-phemia", "-phemia - word-forming element meaning "speech", from Greek "-phemia", from "pheme" "speech", from stem of "phemi" "I speak", cognate with Latin "fari" "to speak", "fama" "report, reputation", from PIE root "*bha-" (2) "to speak, tell, say".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -phile (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-phile

    "-phile", "-phile - also "-phil", word-forming element meaning "one that loves, likes, or is attracted to", via French "-phile" and Medieval Latin "-philus" in this sense, from Greek "-philos", common suffix in personal names (such as "Theophilos"), from "philos" "loving, friendly, dear; related, own", related to "philein" "to love", which is of unknown origin. According to Beekes, the original meaning was "own, accompanying" rather than "beloved".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -philia (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-philia

    "-philia", "-philia - word-forming element meaning "friendship, fondness, tendency toward", and in recent use "abnormal attraction to", from Greek "philia" "affection", from "philos" "loving", which is of uncertain origin. Related: "-philic".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -phobe (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-phobe

    "-phobe", "-phobe - word-forming element meaning "one who fears or hates", from French "-phobe", from Latin "-phobus", from Greek "-phobos" "fearing", from "phobos" "fear, panic, flight", "phobein" "put to flight, frighten" (see "phobia").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -phobia (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-phobia

    "-phobia", "-phobia - word-forming element meaning "excessive or irrational fear of", from Latin "-phobia" and directly from Greek "-phobia" "panic fear of", from "phobos" "fear" (see "phobia"). In widespread popular use with native words from c. 1800. Related: "-phobic".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -phone (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-phone

    "-phone", "-phone - word-forming element meaning "voice, sound", also "speaker of", from Greek "phone" "voice, sound", from PIE root "*bha-" (2) "to speak, say, tell" (source also of Latin "for", "fari" "to speak", "fama" "talk, report").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -plasia (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-plasia

    "-plasia", "-plasia - word-forming element in biology and medicine denoting "formation, growth, development", from Modern Latin "-plasia", from Greek "plasis" "molding, formation", from "plassein" "to mold" (see "plasma").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -plasm (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-plasm

    "-plasm", "-plasm - word-forming element meaning "a growth, a development; something molded", from Greek "-plasma", from "plasma" "something molded or created" (see "plasma").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -plast (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-plast

    "-plast", "-plast - word-forming element denoting "something made", from Greek "plastos" "formed, molded", verbal adjective from "plassein" "to mold" (see "plasma"). Used to form names of small particles of living matter.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -plasty (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-plasty

    "-plasty", "-plasty - word-forming element meaning "act or process of forming", also "plastic surgery" applied to a specific part, from Greek "-plastia", from "plastos" "molded, formed", verbal adjective from "plassein" "to mold" (see "plasma").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -plex (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-plex

    "-plex", "-plex - word-forming element, from Latin "-plex", from PIE root "*plek-" "to plait". De Vaan writes, "Probably, "duplex" was the archetype of this category of compounds".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -plus (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-plus

    "-plus", "-plus - word-forming element, Latin "-plus" "-fold". Watkins derives it from "*-plo-", combining form of PIE root "*pel-" (2) "to fold" and makes it cognate with Old English "-feald", Greek "-paltos", "-plos". But de Vaan connects it to PIE root "*pele-" (1) that yielded words meaning "much, many, more" and is the source of "poly-".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -poietic (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-poietic

    "-poietic", "-poietic - word-forming element meaning "making, producing", from Latinized form of Greek "poietikos" "capable of making, creative, productive", from "poiein" "to make, create" (see "poet").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -rama (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-rama

    "-rama", "-rama - noun suffix meaning "sight, view, spectacular display or instance of", 1824, abstracted from "panorama" (q.v.), ultimately from Greek "horama" "sight, spectacle, that which is seen".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -re (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-re

    "-re", "-re - word-ending that sometimes distinguish British from American English. In the U.S., the change from "-re" to "-er" (to match pronunciation) in words such as "fibre", "centre", "theatre" began late 18c.; under urging of Noah Webster (1804 edition of his speller, and especially the 1806 dictionary), it was established over the next 25 years. The "-re" spelling, like "-our", however, had the authority of Johnson's dictionary behind it and remained in Britain, where it came to be a point of national pride, contra the Yankees. Despite Webster's efforts, "-re" was retained in words with "-c-" or "-g-" (such as "ogre", "acre", the latter of which Webster insisted to the end of his days ought to be "aker", and it was so printed in editions of the dictionary during his lifetime). The "-re" spelling generally is more justified by conservative etymology, based on French antecedents. It is met today in the U.S. only in "Theatre" as an element in the proper names of entertainment showplaces, where it is perhaps felt to inspire a perception of "bon ton".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -rel (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-rel

    "-rel", "-rel - also "-erel", diminutive or deprecatory word-forming element, in some cases from Old French "-erel" (Modern French "-ereau") or "-erelle", but mostly used with native stems.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -s (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-s

    "-s", "-s" (1) : suffix forming almost all Modern English plural nouns, gradually extended in Middle English from Old English "-as", the nominative plural and accusative plural ending of certain "strong" masculine nouns (such as "dg" "day", nominative/accusative plural "dagas" "days"). The commonest Germanic declension, traceable back to the original PIE inflection system, it is also the source of the Dutch "-s" plurals and (by rhotacism) Scandinavian "-r" plurals (such as Swedish "dagar"). Much more uniform today than originally; Old English also had a numerous category of "weak" nouns that formed their plurals in "-an", and other strong nouns that formed plurals with "-u". Quirk and Wrenn, in their Old English grammar, estimate that 45 percent of the nouns a student will encounter will be masculine, nearly four-fifths of them with genitive singular "-es" and nominative/accusative plural in "-as". Less than half, but still the largest chunk. The triumphs of "-'s" possessives and "-s" plurals represent common patterns in language: using only a handful of suffixes to do many jobs (such as "-ing"), and the most common variant squeezing out the competition. To further muddy the waters, it's been extended in slang since 1936 to singulars (such as "ducks, sweets, babes") as an affectionate or diminutive suffix. Old English single-syllable collectives ("sheep", "folk") as well as weights, measures, and units of time did not use "-s". The use of it in these cases began in Middle English, but the older custom is preserved in many traditional dialects ("ten pound of butter"; "more than seven year ago"; etc.).


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -s (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-s

    "-s", "-s" (2) : third person singular present indicative suffix of verbs, it represents Old English "-es, -as", which began to replace "-e" in Northumbrian 10c., and gradually spread south until by Shakespeare's time it had emerged from colloquialism and "-eth" began to be limited to more dignified speeches.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -saurus (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-saurus

    "-saurus", "-saurus - element used in forming dinosaur names, from Latinized form of Greek "sauros" "lizard", a word of unknown origin; possibly related to "saulos" "twisting, wavering".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -sch- (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-sch-

    "-sch-", "-sch-" : this letter group can represent five distinct sounds in English; it first was used by Middle English writers to render Old English "sc-", the pronunciation of which then simplified to "-sh-" (an evolution that also took place in Middle Dutch and Middle High German). Sometimes it was miswritten for "-ch-". It also was taken in from German ("schnapps") and Yiddish ("schlemiel"). In words derived from classical languages, it represents Latin "sch-", Greek "skh-" but in some of these words (such as "schism") the English spelling is a restoration and the pronunciation does not follow it.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -scope (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-scope

    "-scope", "-scope - word-forming element indicating "an instrument for seeing", from Late Latin "-scopium", from Greek "-skopion", from "skopein" "to look at, examine" (from PIE root "*spek-" "to observe").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -scopy (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-scopy

    "-scopy", "-scopy - word-forming element meaning "viewing, examining, observing", from Modern Latin "-scopium", from Greek "-skopion", from "skopein" "to look at, examine" (from PIE root "*spek-" "to observe").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ship (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ship

    "-ship", "-ship - word-forming element meaning "quality, condition; act, power, skill; office, position; relation between", Middle English "-schipe", from Old English "-sciepe", Anglian "-scip" "state, condition of being", from Proto-Germanic "*-skapaz" (cognates: Old Norse "-skapr", Danish "-skab", Old Frisian "-skip", Dutch "-schap", German "-schaft"), from "*skap-" "to create, ordain, appoint", from PIE root "*kep-, *skep-", forming words meaning "to cut, scrape, hack" (see "shape" (v.)).


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -sis (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-sis

    "-sis", "-sis - suffix in Greek-derived nouns denoting action, process, state, condition, from Greek "-sis", which is identical in meaning with Latin "-entia", English "-ing" (1).


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -sk (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-sk

    "-sk", "-sk - reflexive suffix in words of Danish origin (such as "bask", literally "to bathe oneself"), contracted from Old Norse "sik", reflexive pronoun corresponding to Gothic "sik", Old High German "sih", German "sich" "himself, herself, itself", from PIE root "*s(w)e-" (source of Latin "se" "himself"; see "idiom").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -some (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-some

    "-some", "-some" (1) : word-forming element used in making adjectives from nouns or adjectives (and sometimes verbs) and meaning "tending to; causing; to a considerable degree", from Old English "-sum", identical with "some", from PIE root "*sem-" (1) "one; as one, together with". Cognate with Old Frisian "-sum", German "-sam", Old Norse "-samr"; also related to "same".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -some (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-some

    "-some", "-some" (2) : suffix added to numerals meaning "a group of (that number)", as in "twosome", from pronoun use of Old English "sum" "some" (see "some"). Originally a separate word used with the genitive plural (as in "sixa sum" "six-some"); the inflection disappeared in Middle English and the pronoun was absorbed. Use of "some" with a number meaning "approximately" also was in Old English.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -sophy (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-sophy

    "-sophy", "-sophy - word-forming element meaning "knowledge", from Old French "-sophie", from Latin "-sophia", from Greek "-sophia", from "sophia" "skill, wisdom, knowledge" (see "Sophia").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -stan (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-stan

    "-stan", "-stan - place-name element in "Afghanistan", "Pakistan", etc., from Persian "-stan" "country", from Indo-Iranian "*stanam" "place", literally "where one stands", from PIE "*sta-no-", suffixed form of root "*sta-" "to stand, make or be firm".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -stat (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-stat

    "-stat", "-stat - word-forming element used in making names of devices for stabilizing or regulating (such as "thermostat"), from Greek "statos" "standing, stationary", from PIE "*ste-to-", suffixed form of root "*sta-" "to stand, make or be firm". First used in "heliostat" "an instrument for causing the sun to appear stationary" (1742). Related: "-static".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ster (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ster

    "-ster", "-ster - Old English "-istre", from Proto-Germanic "*-istrijon", feminine agent suffix used as the equivalent of masculine "-ere" (see "-er" (1)). Also used in Middle English to form nouns of action (meaning "a person who ..".) without regard for gender. - The genderless agent noun use apparently was a broader application of the original feminine suffix, beginning in the north of England, but linguists disagree over whether this indicates female domination of weaving and baking trades, as represented in surnames such as "Webster", "Baxter", "Brewster", etc. (though "spinster" probably carries an originally female ending). Also "whitester" "one who bleaches cloth"; "kempster" (c. 1400; Halliwell has it as "kembster") "woman who cleans wool". Chaucer ("Merchant's Tale") has "chidester" "an angry woman". In Modern English, the suffix has been productive in forming derivative nouns ("gamester", "punster", etc.).


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -teen (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-teen

    "-teen", "-teen - word-forming element making cardinal numbers from 13 to 19, meaning "ten more than", from Old English "-tene, -tiene", from Proto-Germanic "*tekhuniz" (cognates: Old Saxon "-tein", Dutch "-tien", Old High German "-zehan", German "-zehn", Gothic "-taihun"), an inflected form of the root of "ten"; cognate with Latin "-decim" (source of Italian "-dici", Spanish "-ce", French "-ze").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -teenth (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-teenth

    "-teenth", "-teenth - word-forming element making ordinal numbers from 13 to 19, from "-teen" + "-th" (1), displacing Old English "-teoa", "-teoe" (West Saxon), related to "teogoa" (Anglian) "tenth".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -th (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-th

    "-th", "-th" (1) : word-forming element making ordinal numbers ("fourth", "tenth", etc.), Old English "-a", from Proto-Germanic "*-tha-" (cognates: Gothic "-da", "-ta", Old High German "-do", "-to", Old Norse "-di", "-ti"), from PIE "*-to-", also "*-eto-", "*-oto-", suffix forming adjectives "marking the accomplishment of the notion of the base" [Watkins]. Cognate with Sanskrit "thah", Greek "-tos", Latin "-tus"; Sanskrit "ta-", Lithuanian and Old Church Slavonic "to", Greek "to" "the", Latin "talis" "such"; Greek "telikos" "so old", Old Church Slavonic "toli" "so", "toliku" "so much", Russian "toliko" "only"; also see "-ed".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -th (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-th

    "-th", "-th" (2) : suffix forming nouns of action, state, or quality from verbs or adjectives (such as "depth", "strength", "truth"), from Old English "-u", "-", from Proto-Germanic "*-itho" (cognates: Old Norse "-", Old High German "-ida", Gothic "-ia"), abstract noun suffix, from PIE "*-ita" (cognates: Sanskrit "-tati-"; Greek "-tet-"; Latin "-tati-", as in "libertatem" "liberty" from "liber" "free"). Sometimes in English reduced to "-t", especially after "-h-" (as in "height").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -theism (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-theism

    "-theism", "-theism - word-forming element meaning "belief (of a specified kind) in God, a god, or gods", from Greek "theos" "god" (from PIE root "*dhes-", forming words for religious concepts) + "-ism".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -tion (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-tion

    "-tion", "-tion - syllable formed when the word-forming element "-ion" (from Latin "-io") is fixed to a base or to another suffix ending in "-t" or "-te". In Middle English, in words via Old French, it often was "-cion" (in "coercion" and "suspicion", however, the "-c-" belongs to the root).


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -tomy (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-tomy

    "-tomy", "-tomy - word-forming element meaning "a cutting" (especially a surgical incision or removal), from Greek "-tomia" "a cutting of", from "tome" "a cutting, section" (from PIE root "*tem-" "to cut").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -tron (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-tron

    "-tron", "-tron - word-forming element in compounds coined in physics, "having to do with electrons or subatomic particles", 1939, abstracted unetymologically from "electron" (Greek "-tron" was an instrumentive suffix).


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -trophy (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-trophy

    "-trophy", "-trophy - word-forming element meaning "food, nourishment", from Greek "-trophia", from "trophe" "food, nourishment", related to "trephein" "make thrive, nourish, rear; to make solid, congeal, thicken".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -try (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-try

    "-try", "-try - extended form of "-ry" sometimes used in forming modern abstract nouns, often for humorous effect, based on the many "-try" words where the "-t-" is part of the Latin stem ("geometry", "idolatry", "industry", "pedantry", etc.).


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -tude (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-tude

    "-tude", "-tude - syllable formed when the word-forming element "-ude", making abstract nouns from adjectives and participles, is fixed to a base or to another suffix ending in "-t" or "-te"; from French "-ude", from Latin "-udo" (stem "-udin-"). The equivalent of native "-ness".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ty (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ty

    "-ty", "-ty" (2) : suffix used in forming abstract nouns from adjectives (such as "safety", "surety"), Middle English "-tie", "-te", from Old French "-te" (Modern French "-t"), from Latin "-tatem" (nominative "-tas", genitive "-tatis"), cognate with Greek "-tes", Sanskrit "-tati-". Also see "-ity".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ty (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ty

    "-ty", "-ty" (1) : suffix representing "ten" in cardinal numbers that are multiples of 10 ("sixty", "seventy", etc.), from Old English "-tig", from a Germanic root (cognates: Old Saxon, Dutch "-tig", Old Frisian "-tich", Old Norse "-tigr", Old High German "-zug", German "-zig") that existed as a distinct word in Gothic ("tigjus") and Old Norse ("tigir") meaning "tens, decades". Compare "tithe" (n.). English, like many other Germanic languages, retains traces of a base-12 number system. The most obvious instance is "eleven" and "twelve" which ought to be the first two numbers of the "teens" series. Their Old English forms, "enleofan" and "twel(eo)f(an)", are more transparent: "leave one" and "leave two". Old English also had "hund endleofantig" for "110" and "hund twelftig" for "120". "One hundred" was "hund teantig". The "-tig" formation ran through 12 cycles, and could have bequeathed us numbers "*eleventy" ("110") and "*twelfty" ("120") had it endured, but already during the Anglo-Saxon period it was being obscured. Old Norse used "hundra" for "120" and "usend" for "1,200". "Tvauhundra" was "240" and "riuhundra" was "360". Older Germanic legal texts distinguished a "common hundred" (100) from a "great hundred" (120). This duodecimal system is "perhaps due to contact with Babylonia" [Lass, "Old English"].


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ule (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ule

    "-ule", "-ule - word-forming element meaning "small, little" (in "capsule", "module", etc.), from French "-ule", from Latin diminutive suffix "-ulus" (fem. "-ula", neuter "-ulum"), from PIE "*-(o)lo-", from "*-lo-", secondary suffix forming diminutives, which also is the source of the first element in native diminutive suffix "-ling".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ure (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ure

    "-ure", "-ure - suffix forming abstract nouns of action, from Old French "-ure", from Latin "-ura", an ending of fem. nouns denoting employment or result.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ville (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ville

    "-ville", "-ville - suffix sporadically in vogue since c. 1840 in U.S. colloquial word formation (such as "dullsville", "palookaville"), abstracted from the "-ville" in place names ("Louisville", "Greenville", etc.), from Old French "ville" "town", from Latin "villa" (see "villa").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -ward (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-ward

    "-ward", "-ward - adverbial suffix expressing direction, Old English "-weard" "toward", literally "turned toward", sometimes "-weardes", with genitive singular ending of neuter adjectives, from Proto-Germanic "*werth-" (cognates: Old Saxon, Old Frisian "-ward", Old Norse "-verr"), variant of PIE "*wert-" "to turn, wind", from root "*wer-" (2) "to turn, bend". The original notion is of "turned toward".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -xion (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-xion

    "-xion", "-xion - ending favored in British English for certain words that in U.S. typically end in "-ction", such as "connexion", "complexion", "inflexion", as being more true to the Latin rules.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -y (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-y

    "-y", "-y" (2) : adjective suffix, "full of or characterized by", from Old English "-ig", from Proto-Germanic "*-iga-" (source also of Dutch, Danish, German "-ig", Gothic "-egs"), from PIE "-(i)ko-", adjectival suffix, cognate with elements in Greek "-ikos", Latin "-icus" (see "-ic"). Originally added to nouns in Old English; used from 13c. with verbs, and by 15c. even with other adjectives (for example "crispy").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -y (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-y

    "-y", "-y" (3) : suffix in pet proper names (such as "Johnny", "Kitty"), first recorded in Scottish c. 1400; according to OED it became frequent in English 15c.-16c. Extension to surnames seems to date from c. 1940. Use with common nouns seems to have begun in Scottish with "laddie" (1546) and become popular in English due to Burns' poems, but the same formation appears to be represented much earlier in "baby" and "puppy".


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -y (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-y

    "-y", "-y" (1) : noun suffix, in "army", "city", "country", etc., from Old French "-e", Latin "-atus", "-atum", past participle suffix of certain verbs, which in French came to be used to indicate "employment, office, dignity" (as in "duch", "clergi").


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -y (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-y

    "-y", "-y" (4) : suffix indicating state, condition, or quality; also activity or the result of it (as in "victory", "history", etc.), via Anglo-French and Old French "", from Latin "-ia", Greek "-ia", from PIE "*-a-", suffix forming abstract or collective nouns. It is etymologically identical with "-ia" and the second element in "-cy", "-ery", "-logy", etc.


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    -yl (W3)

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-yl

    "-yl", "-yl - chemical suffix used in forming names of radicals, from French "-yle", from Greek "hyle" "wood", also "building stuff, raw material" (from which something is made), of unknown origin. The use in chemistry traces to the latter sense (except in "methylene", where it means "wood").

    It was introduced into chemical nomenclature by Liebig and Wohler when, in 1832, they used the term "benzoyle" for the radical which appeared to be the "essential material" of benzoic acid and related compounds. [Flood]


    Erstellt: 2018-03

    (E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/search?q=*&type=4

    prefix


    en- (1) word-forming element meaning "in; into," from French and Old French en-, from Latin in- "in, into" (from PIE root *en "in"). Typically assimilated before -p-, -b-, -m-, -l-, and -r-. Latin in- became en- in French, Spanish, Portuguese, but remained in- in Italian. Also used with native and imported elements to form verbs from nouns and adjectives, with a sense "put in or on" (encircle), also "cause to be, make into" (endear), and used as an intensive (enclose). Spelling variants in French that were brought over into Middle English account for parallels such as ensure/insure, and most en- words in English had at one time or another a variant in in-, and vice versa. Related entries & more Advertisement entre- in words from French, corresponds to English enter-, which is itself from French entre "between, among" (11c.), from Latin inter (see inter-). Related entries & more theco- before vowels thec-, word-forming element used in botany and zoology with the sense "case, capsule," from Latinized combining form of Greek theke "case, receptacle," from PIE *dhek-, suffixed form of root *dhe- "to set, put." Related entries & more ana- before vowels an-, word-forming element meaning: 1. "upward, up in place or time," 2. "back, backward, against," 3. "again, anew," from Greek ana (prep.) "up, on, upon; up to, toward; throughout; back, backwards; again, anew," from an extended form of PIE root *an- (1) "on, upon, above" (see on, which is the English cognate). In old medical prescriptions, ana by itself meant "an equal quantity of each." Related entries & more anthropo- before a vowel, anthrop-, word-forming element meaning "pertaining to man or human beings," from Greek anthropos "man; human being" (including women), as opposed to the gods, from andra (genitive andros), Attic form of Greek aner "man" (as opposed to a woman, a god, or a boy), from PIE root *ner- (2) "man," also "vigorous, vital, strong." Anthropos sometimes is explained as a compound of aner and ops (genitive opos) "eye, face;" so literally "he who has the face of a man." The change of -d- to -th- is difficult to explain; perhaps it is from some lost dialectal variant, or the mistaken belief that there was an aspiration sign over the vowel in the second element (as though *-dhropo-), which mistake might have come about by influence of common verbs such as horao "to see." But Beekes writes, "As no IE explanation has been found, the word is probably of substrate origin." Related entries & more Advertisement apo- before vowels ap-, word-forming element meaning "of, from, away from; separate, apart from, free from," from Greek apo "from, away from; after; in descent from," in compounds, "asunder, off; finishing, completing; back again," of time, "after," of origin, "sprung from, descended from; because of," from PIE root *apo- "off, away" (source also of Sanskrit apa "away from," Avestan apa "away from," Latin ab "away from, from," Gothic af, Old English of "away from," Modern English of, off). Related entries & more hypo- word-forming element meaning "under, beneath; less, less than" (in chemistry, indicating a lesser oxidation), from Greek hypo (prep. and adverb) "under, beneath; up from under; toward and under (i.e. into)," from PIE root *upo "under." Related entries & more mis- (2) word-forming element of Latin origin (in mischief, miscreant, misadventure, misnomer, etc.), from Old French mes- "bad, badly, wrong, wrongly," from Vulgar Latin *minus-, from Latin minus "less" (from suffixed form of PIE root *mei- (2) "small"), which was not used as a prefix in Latin but in the Romanic languages was affixed to words as a depreciative or negative element. The form in French perhaps was influenced in Old French by *miss-, the Frankish (Germanic) form of mis- (1). Related entries & more bryo- word-forming element meaning "moss" in scientific compounds, from Greek bryos, bryon "moss." Related entries & more brachy- word-forming element meaning "short," from Latinized combining form of Greek brakhys "short," from PIE root *mregh-u- "short." Related entries & more ker- U.S. slang prefix, by 1836 as che-, 1843 as ker-, possibly from influence of German or Dutch ge-, past participial prefixes; or ultimately echoic of the sound of the fall of some heavy body. Related entries & more Advertisement cata- word-forming element meaning "down, downward," but also "through, on, against, concerning," etc., from Latinized form of Greek kata-, before vowels kat-, from kata "down, downward, down from, down to," from PIE *kmt- "down, with, along" (source also of Hittite kattan (adv.) "below, underneath," katta "along with"). Occasionally in Greek it had senses of "against" (catapult) or "wrongly" (catachresis), also "along, through, over, across, concerning." Also sometimes used as an intensive or with a sense of completion of action (catalogue). Very active in ancient Greek, this prefix is found in English mostly in words borrowed through Latin after c. 1500. Related entries & more desmo- before vowels desm-, word-forming element used in scientific compounds and meaning "band, bond, ligament," from Greek desmos "bond, fastening, chain," related to dein "to bind," from PIE root *de- "to bind." Related entries & more em- word-forming element meaning "put in or into, bring to a certain state," sometimes intensive, from French assimilation of en- "in, into" (see en- (1)) to following labial stop (-b-, -p-, and often -m-), or from the same development in later Latin in- (to im-). "This rule was not fully established in spelling before the 17th c." [OED], but it is likely the pronunciation shift was in Old French and Middle English and spelling was slow to conform. Also a living prefix in English used to form verbs from adjectives and nouns (embitter, embody). In words such as emancipate, emerge, emit, emotion the e- is a reduced form of Latin ex- (see ex-) before -m-. Related entries & more -emia word-forming element in pathology meaning "condition of the blood," Modern Latin combining form of Greek haima (genitive haimatos) "blood," a word of no established etymology (replacing the usual IE word, represented in Greek by ear; possibly from uncertain PIE root *sei- "to drip" (compare Old High German seim "virgin honey," Welsh hufen), but according to Beekes this proposal "cannot explain the Greek vocalism." Related entries & more Advertisement mal- word-forming element of Latin origin meaning "bad, badly, ill, poorly, wrong, wrongly," from French mal (adv.), from Old French mal (adj., adv.) "evil, ill, wrong, wrongly" (9c.), from Latin male (adv.) "badly," or malus (adj.) "bad, evil" (fem. mala, neuter malum), from Proto-Italic *malo-, from PIE *mol-o-, probably from PIE root *mel- (3) "false, bad, wrong." Most Modern English words with this element are 19c. coinages. It generally implies imperfection or deficiency, but often it is simply negative (as in malfeasance, malcontent). It is equivalent to dys- and caco- of Greek origin and Germanic mis- (1). Related entries & more omni- word-forming element meaning "all," from Latin omni-, combining form of omnis "all, every, the whole, of every kind," a word of unknown origin, perhaps literally "abundant," from *op-ni-, from PIE root *op- "to work, produce in abundance." Related entries & more ecto- word-forming element generally meaning "outside, external," before vowels ect-, from Latinized form of Greek adverb ektos "outside, out of; free from; exempt" (opposed to entos), used to form compounds in Greek (such as ektome "a cutting out"); related to Greek ek, ex "out," from PIE *eghs "out" (see ex-). Related entries & more wh- respelling of Old English hw- attested from 11c., but not the common form until after c. 1400. It represents PIE *kw-; in German reduced to simple w-, in Scandinavian as hv-, kv-, or v-. It also was added unetymologically to some borrowed words (whisk, whiskey) and some native words formerly spelled with simple w- or h- (whole, whore). In the 15c. flowering of its use it also threatened to change the spelling of hot, home and many more. In northern English 16c.-18c., sometimes altered to quh- (see Q). Proper pronunciation has been much in dispute in educated speech. Related entries & more photo- word-forming element meaning "light" or "photographic" or "photoelectric," from Greek photo-, combining form of phos (genitive photos) "light" (from PIE root *bha- (1) "to shine"). Related entries & more micro- word-forming element meaning "small in size or extent, microscopic; magnifying;" in science indicating a unit one millionth of the unit it is prefixed to; from Latinized form of mikros, Attic form of Greek smikros "small, little, petty, trivial, slight," perhaps from PIE *smika, from root *smik- "small" (source also of Old High German smahi "littleness"), but Beekes thinks it a Pre-Greek word. Related entries & more Advertisement pico- word-forming element used in making names for very small units of measure, 1915 (formally adopted as a scientific prefix meaning "one trillionth" by the International System of Units, 1960), from Spanish pico "a little over, a small balance," literally "sharp point, beak," a word of Celtic origin (compare Gaulish beccus "beak"). Related entries & more sub- word-forming element meaning "under, beneath; behind; from under; resulting from further division," from Latin preposition sub "under, below, beneath, at the foot of," also "close to, up to, towards;" of time, "within, during;" figuratively "subject to, in the power of;" also "a little, somewhat" (as in sub-horridus "somewhat rough"), from PIE *(s)up- (perhaps representing *ex-upo-), a variant form of the root *upo "under," also "up from under." The Latin word also was used as a prefix and in various combinations. In Latin assimilated to following -c-, -f-, -g-, -p-, and often -r- and -m-. In Old French the prefix appears in the full Latin form only "in learned adoptions of old Latin compounds" [OED], and in popular use it was represented by sous-, sou-; as in French souvenir from Latin subvenire, souscrire (Old French souzescrire) from subscribere, etc. The original meaning is now obscured in many words from Latin (suggest, suspect, subject, etc.). The prefix is active in Modern English, sometimes meaning "subordinate" (as in subcontractor); "inferior" (17c., as in subhuman); "smaller" (18c.); "a part or division of" (c. 1800, as in subcontinent). Related entries & more super- word-forming element meaning "above, over, beyond," from Latin super (adverb and preposition) "above, over, on the top (of), beyond, besides, in addition to," from *(s)uper-, variant form of PIE root *uper "over." In English words from Old French, it appears as sur-. The primary sense seems to have shifted over time from usually meaning "beyond" to usually meaning "very much," which can be contradictory. E.g. supersexual, which is attested from 1895 as "transcending sexuality," from 1968 as "very sexual." Related entries & more schm- substituted for the initial sound of a word and reduplicated with it to convey derision (as in "Oedipus schmoedipus" in the punchline of the old joke about the Jewish mother and the psychiatrist), 1929, from the numerous Yiddish words that begin with this sound. Related entries & more Advertisement dys- word-forming element meaning "bad, ill; hard, difficult; abnormal, imperfect," from Greek dys-, inseparable prefix "destroying the good sense of a word or increasing its bad sense" [Liddell & Scott], hence "bad, hard, unlucky," from PIE root (and prefix) *dus- "bad, ill, evil" (source also of Sanskrit dus-, Old Persian du- "ill," Old English to-, Old High German zur-, Gothic tuz- "un-"), a derivative of the root *deu- (1) "to lack, be wanting" (source of Greek dein "to lack, want"). Very productive in ancient Greek, where it could attach even to proper names (such as dysparis "unhappy Paris"); its entries take up nine columns in Liddell & Scott. Among the words formed from it were some English might covet: dysouristos "fatally favorable, driven by a too-favorable wind;" dysadelphos "unhappy in one's brothers;" dysagres "unlucky in fishing;" dysantiblepos "hard to look in the face." Related entries & more bis- word-forming element meaning "twice," from Latin bis "twice, in two ways, doubly," from Old Latin dvis, cognate with Sanskrit dvih, Avestan bish, Greek dis, Middle High German zwis "twice," from PIE root *dwo- "two." Also the form of bi- used before -s-, -c-, or a vowel. Related entries & more deci- in the metric system, word-forming element denoting one-tenth of the standard unit of measure, 1801, from French deci-, taken arbitrarily from Latin decimus "tenth," from decem "ten" (from PIE root *dekm- "ten"). Related entries & more osteo- before vowels oste-, word-forming element meaning "bone, bones," from Greek osteon "bone," from PIE root *ost- "bone." Related entries & more botryo- before vowels botry-, word-forming element meaning "cluster, cluster-like," from Greek botrys "cluster of grapes," which is of unknown origin. Related entries & more eo- word-forming element, used from mid-19c. (first in Eocene) in compound words formed by earth-scientists, and meaning "characterized by the earliest appearance of," from Greek eos "dawn, morning, daybreak," also the name of the goddess of the morning, from PIE root *aus- (1) "to shine," especially of the dawn. Piltdown Man, before exposed as a fraud, was known as Eoanthropus. Related entries & more Advertisement giga- word-forming element meaning "billion" (U.S.) in the metric system, 1947, formed arbitrarily from Greek gigas "giant" (see giant). Related entries & more permeation (n.) "act of permeating; state of being permeated," 1620s, noun of action from Latin permeare "to pass through" (see permeate). Related entries & more col- assimilated form of com- "with, together" before stems beginning in -l-. In early Latin, com- was assimilated to these as con-, but col- later also was used. Latin words in coll- became col- in Old French and thus in early Middle English but were altered back to coll- with the revival of learning. Related entries & more pogon- word-forming element from Greek pogon "the beard," which is of unexplained origin. Used in Pogonophile (by 1961); pogonophobia (1852). Related entries & more Advertisement pyelo- before vowels pyel-, medical word-forming element used from mid-19c. in forming medical terms, from Greek pyelos "oblong trough, bathing-tub," a word of uncertain etymology, taken in modern scientific use for "pelvis." Related entries & more dermat- word-forming element meaning "of or pertaining to skin," from Greek dermat-, from derma "(flayed) skin, leather," from PIE root *der- "to split, flay, peel," with derivatives referring to skin and leather. The shortened form derm- was used from mid-19c. but is considered incorrect. Related entries & more aero- word-forming element meaning "air, atmosphere; gases," in 20c. use with reference to aircraft or aviation, from Greek aer (genitive aeros) "air, lower atmosphere" (see air (n.1)). Related entries & more Afro- word-forming element meaning "African," from Latin Afr-, stem of Afer, Afri "African" (noun and adjective; see Africa), or directly from African. Related entries & more glotto- word-forming element meaning "language," from Attic Greek glotto-, from glotta, variant of glossa "tongue; language" (see gloss (n.2)). Related entries & more Greco- see Graeco-. Related entries & more Advertisement gyro- word-forming element meaning "gyrating" or "gyroscope," from Greek gyros "a ring, circle" (see gyre (n.)). Related entries & more anomalo- word-forming element meaning "deviating from the usual, abnormal," from Greek anomalos "uneven, irregular" (see anomaly). Related entries & more arterio- word-forming element meaning "arterial," from Latinized form of Greek arteria "windpipe; artery" (see artery). Related entries & more arthro- before vowels arth-, word-forming element meaning "pertaining to the joints," from Greek arthron "joint," from PIE *ar(?)-dhro-, suffixed form of root *ar- "to fit together." Related entries & more Advertisement haplo- before vowels hapl-, word-forming element meaning "simple, single; simply, once," from Greek haploos, haplous "single, simple" (as opposed to "compound"); "natural, plain," from PIE compound *sm-plo-, from root *sem- (1) "one; as one, together with" + *-plo- "-fold" (from PIE root *pel- (2) "to fold"). Compare simple, which represents the same compound in Latin. Related entries & more Austro- combining form meaning "Austrian;" see Austria. Related entries & more hyalo- word-forming element in scientific compounds meaning "of glass; glass-like, transparent," from Greek hyalos "glass, clear alabaster, crystal lens used as a burning glass," apparently a non-Greek word, said to be of Egyptian origin (glass was first made in Egypt). Related entries & more hylo- word-forming element meaning "wood, forest," also "matter," from Greek hylos "a wood, a forest, woodland; wood, firewood, timber; stuff, material," used by Aristotle for "matter" in the philosophical sense; a word of unknown origin. Related entries & more keno- before vowels, ken-, word-forming element meaning "empty," from Greek kenos "empty," from PIE *ken- "empty." Related entries & more align (v.) early 15c., "to copulate" (of wolves, dogs), literally "to range (things) in a line," from Old French alignier "set, lay in line" (Modern French aligner), from "to" (see ad-) + lignier "to line," from Latin lineare "reduce to a straight line," from linea (see line (n.)). Transitive or reflexive sense of "to fall into line" is from 1853. International political sense is attested from 1934. The French spelling with -g- is unetymological, and aline was an early form in English. Related: Aligned; aligning. Related entries & more Advertisement alike (adj.) "like one another, very similar," c. 1300, aliche, ylike, ilike, from Old English anlig, onlic "similar, resembling;" from Old English an, on (see a- (1) + like (adj.), which is related to Old English lic "body, corpse." The notion is "having a corresponding form (body)." The more usual Germanic compound is represented by Old English gelic, from Proto-Germanic *galikam "associated form" (source also of Old Frisian gelik, Dutch gelijk, German gleich, Gothic galeiks, Old Norse glikr). As an adverb, late Old English onlice, gelice. Related entries & more allay (v.) Middle English alegen, from Old English alecgan "to put, place, put down; remit, give up, suppress, abolish; diminish, lessen," from a- "down, aside" (see a- (1)) + lecgan "to lay" (see lay (v.)). A common Germanic compound (cognates: Gothic uslagjan "lay down," Old High German irleccan, German erlegen "to bring down"). Early Middle English pronunciations of -y- and -g- were not always distinct, and the word was confused in Middle English with various senses of Romanic-derived alloy (v.) and especially a now-obsolete verb allege "to alleviate, lighten" (from Latin alleviare, from ad "to" + levis "light" in weight; from PIE root *legwh- "not heavy, having little weight"). Amid the overlapping of meanings that thus arose, there was developed a perplexing network of uses of allay and allege, that belong entirely to no one of the original vbs., but combine the senses of two or more of them. [OED] Hence senses "lighten, alleviate; mix, temper, weaken." The confusion with the Latin words probably also accounts for the unetymological double -l-, attested from 17c. Related: Allayed; allaying. Related entries & more allegiance (n.) "ties or obligations of a citizen or subject to a government or sovereign," late 14c., formed in English from Anglo-French legaunce "loyalty of a liege-man to his lord," from Old French legeance, from liege (see liege (adj.)). Corrupted in spelling by confusion with the now-obsolete legal term allegeance "alleviation, mitigation" (for which see allay (v.)). General figurative sense of "recognition of claims to respect or duty, observance of obligation" is attested from 1732. French allgeance in this sense is said to be from English. Related entries & more allemande (n.) name for a German dance in 3/4 time, 1775, from French Allemande, fem. of allemand "German" (see Alemanni). As a piece of music in a suite, 1680s. As a figure in country or square dancing, from 1808. Related entries & more Advertisement allude (v.) 1530s, "to mock" (transitive, now obsolete), from French alluder or directly from Latin alludere "to play, make fun of, joke, jest," also of waves lapping the shore, from assimilated form of ad "to" (see ad-) + ludere "to play" (see ludicrous). Meaning "make an indirect reference, point in passing" is from 1530s. Related: Alluded; alluding. Related entries & more allusion (n.) 1540s, "metaphor, parable" (a sense now obsolete); 1550s, "word-play, joke;" 1610s as "passing or casual reference," from Latin allusionem (nominative allusio) "a playing with, a reference to," noun of action from past-participle stem of alludere "to play, jest, make fun of," from ad "to" (see ad-) + ludere "to play" (see ludicrous). An allusion is never an outright or explicit mention of the person or thing the speaker seems to have in mind. Related entries & more beach (n.) 1530s, "loose, water-worn pebbles of the seashore," probably from a dialectal survival of Old English bece, bece "stream," from Proto-Germanic *bakiz. Extended to loose, pebbly shores (1590s), and in dialect around Sussex and Kent beach still has the meaning "pebbles worn by the waves." French grve shows the same evolution. Beach ball first recorded 1940; beach bum first recorded 1950. Related entries & more beagle (n.) late 15c., begel, small type of hound formerly kept to hunt hares, of unknown origin, possibly from French becguele "noisy person," literally "gaping throat," from bayer "open wide" (see bay (n.2)) + gueule "mouth" (see gullet). Related entries & more beak (n.) mid-13c., "bird's bill," from Old French bec "beak," figuratively "mouth," also "tip or point of a nose, a lance, a ship, a shoe," from Late Latin beccus (source also of Italian becco, Spanish pico), by the Romans said to be of Gaulish origin, perhaps from Gaulish beccus, possibly related to Celtic stem *bacc- "hook." Or there may be a link in Old English becca "pickax, sharp end." Modern jocular sense of "human nose" is from 1854 (the word was used mid-15c. in the same sense). Related entries & more beaker (n.) "open large-mouthed vessel," mid-14c., from Old Norse bikarr or Middle Dutch beker "goblet," probably (with Old Saxon bikeri, Old High German behhari, German Becher) from Medieval Latin bicarium, which is probably a diminutive of Greek bikos "earthenware jug, wine jar, vase with handles," also a measure, of uncertain origin. Sometimes said to be a Semitic word, perhaps a borrowing from Syrian buqa "a two-handed vase or jug," or from Egyptian b:k.t "oil flask." Form assimilated in English to beak. Originally a drinking vessel; the word is used from 1877 in reference to a similar glass vessel used in scientific laboratories. O for a beaker full of the warm South, Full of the true, the blushful Hippocrene, With beaded bubbles winking at the brim, And purple-stained mouth; That I might drink, and leave the world unseen, And with thee fade away into the forest dim: [Keats, from "Ode to a Nightingale"] Related entries & more Advertisement bearing (n.) mid-13c., "a carrying of oneself, deportment," verbal noun from bear (v.). Meaning "direction or point of the compass in which an object is seen or is moving" is from 1630s; to take (one's) bearings is from 1711. Mechanical sense of "part of a machine that 'bears' the friction" is from 1791. Related entries & more beatitude (n.) early 15c., "supreme happiness," from French batitude (15c.) and directly from Latin beatitudinem (nominative beatitudo) "state of blessedness," from past participle stem of beare "make happy" (see Beatrice). Attested from 1520s as "a declaration of blessedness" (usually plural, beatitudes, especially in reference to the Sermon on the Mount). Related entries & more beau (n.) "attendant suitor of a lady," 1720, from French beau "the beautiful," noun use of an adjective, from Old French bel "beautiful, handsome, fair, genuine, real" (11c.), from Latin bellus "handsome, fine, pretty, agreeable" (see belle). Meaning "man who attends excessively to dress, etiquette, etc.; a fop; a dandy" is from 1680s, short for French beau garon "pretty boy" (1660s). Plural is beaus or beaux. Beau Brummel, arbiter of men's fashion in Regency London, was George B. Brummel, gentleman (1778-1840). Related entries & more because (conj.) late 14c., from phrase bi cause, introducing a subordinate clause or phrase, "by cause, for the reason that," from by (prep.) + cause (n.). Modeled on French par cause. Originally often followed by that or why. As an adverb, "by reason, on account" (with of), from late 14c. Clipped form cause (sometimes 'cause) is attested in writing by mid-15c. Related entries & more Advertisement become (v.) Old English becuman "happen, come about, befall," also "meet with, fall in with; arrive, approach, enter," from Proto-Germanic *bikweman (source also of Dutch bekomen, Old High German biqueman "obtain," German bekommen, Gothic biquiman). A compound of the sources of be- and come. Meaning "change from one state of existence to another" is from 12c. Older sense preserved in what has become of it? It drove out Old English weoran "to befall." Meaning "to look well, suit or be suitable to" is early 14c., from earlier sense of "to agree with, be fitting or proper" (early 13c.). Related entries & more bedlam (n.) "scene of mad confusion," 1660s, from colloquial pronunciation of "Hospital of Saint Mary of Bethlehem" in London, founded 1247 as a priory, mentioned as a hospital 1330 and as a lunatic hospital 1402; it was converted to a civic lunatic asylum on dissolution of the monasteries in 1547. It was spelled Bedlem in a will from 1418, and Betleem is recorded as a spelling of Bethlehem in Judea from 971. The proper name might be caught in transition in the title of John Davies' 1617 publication of humorous poetry, "Wits bedlam where is had, whipping-cheer, to cure the mad." Related entries & more Bedouin (n.) "an Arab of the desert, one of the tribes of nomadic Arabs," c. 1400, from Old French bedin (12c., Modern French bdouin), from colloquial Arabic badawin "desert-dwellers," plural of badawi, from badw "desert, camp." The Arabic plural suffix was mistaken for part of the word. A word from the Crusades, it probably was lost in English and then reborrowed from French c. 1600. As an adjective from 1844. Related entries & more beech (n.) type of large forest tree noted for its smooth, silvery bark and its mast, which serves as food for animals, Old English bece "beech," earlier boece, from Proto-Germanic *bokjon (source also of Old Norse bok, Dutch beuk, Flemish boek, Old High German buohha, German Buche, Middle Dutch boeke "beech"), from PIE root *bhago- "beech tree" (cognate with Greek phegos "oak," Latin fagus "beech;" see fagus). Formerly with adjectival form beechen. Also see book (n.). Related entries & more beef (n.) c. 1300, "an ox, bull, or cow," also the flesh of one when killed, used as food, from Old French buef "ox; beef; ox hide" (11c., Modern French boeuf), from Latin bovem (nominative bos, genitive bovis) "ox, cow," from PIE root *gwou- "ox, bull, cow." Original plural in the animal sense was beeves. Related entries & more Beelzebub Old English Belzebub, Philistine god worshipped at Ekron (II Kings i.2), from Latin, used in Vulgate for New Testament Greek beelzeboub, from Hebrew ba'al-z'bub "lord of the flies," from ba'al "lord" (see Baal) + z'bhubh "fly." Said to have been worshipped as having the power to drive away troublesome flies. By later Christian writers often taken as another name for "Satan," though Milton made him one of the fallen angels. Baal being originally a title, it was applied by the Hebrews to neighboring divinities based on their attributes; other examples include Baal-berith "the covenant lord," god of the Shechemites; Baal-peor "lord of the opening," a god of Moab and Midian. Related entries & more Advertisement beer (n.) alcoholic drink made from grain, generally barley, infused with hops and boiled and fermented, Old English beor "strong drink, beer, mead," cognate with Old Frisian biar, Middle Dutch and Dutch bier, Old High German bior, German Bier; a West Germanic word of much-disputed and ambiguous origin. Probably a 6c. West Germanic monastic borrowing of Vulgar Latin biber "a drink, beverage" (from Latin infinitive bibere "to drink," from PIE root *po(i)- "to drink"). Another suggestion is that it comes from Proto-Germanic *beuwoz-, from *beuwo- "barley." The native Germanic word for the beverage was the one that yielded ale (q.v.). "The word occurs in OE., but its use is rare, except in poetry, and it seems to have become common only in the 16th c. as the name of a hopped malt liquor." [OED] They did have words for it, however. Greek brytos, used in reference to Thracian or Phrygian brews, was related to Old English breowan "brew;" Latin zythum is from Greek zythos, first used of Egyptian beer and treated as an Egyptian word but perhaps truly Greek and related to zyme "leaven." Spanish cerveza is from Latin cervesia "beer." Old Church Slavonic pivo, source of the general Slavic word for "beer," is originally "a drink" (compare Old Church Slavonic piti "drink"). French bire is a 16c. borrowing from German. U.S. slang beer goggles, through which every potential romantic partner looks desirable, is from 1986. Beer was a common drink among most of the European peoples, as well as in Egypt and Mesopotamia, but was known to the Greeks and Romans only as an exotic product. [Buck] Related entries & more befall (v.) Old English befeallan "to deprive of; fall to, occur to, be assigned to," from be- "by, about" + feallan (see fall). Compare Old Frisian bifalla, Old Saxon, Old High German bifallan, German befallen. Intransitive sense of "to happen, come to pass" is from c. 1300. Related: Befell; befalling. Related entries & more befriend (v.) "act as a friend to," 1550s, from be- + friend (n.). Related: Befriended; befriending. Related entries & more beg (v.) "to ask alms," especially to do so habitually as one's way of life, c. 1200, of uncertain origin. Perhaps from the rare Old English bedecian "to beg," from Proto-Germanic *beth-. Or from Anglo-French begger, a back-formation from Old French noun begart (see beggar (n.)) and ultimately from Beguine, which OED considers "perhaps the most likely derivation." The Old English word for "beg" was wdlian, from wdl "poverty." Related: Begged; begging. Meaning "ask for" (a favor, etc.) is by 1520s. As a courteous mode of asking (beg pardon, etc.), attested by c. 1600. Of dogs, 1762. To beg the question (1580s) translates Latin petitio principii, and means "to assume something that hasn't been proven as a basis of one's argument," thus "asking" one's opponent to give something unearned, though more of the nature of taking it for granted without warrant. To beg off (something) "obtain release from by entreaty" is from 1741. Related entries & more Advertisement beguile (v.) "delude by artifice," early 13c., from be- + guile (v.). Meaning "entertain with passtimes" is by 1580s (compare the sense evolution of amuse). Related: Beguiled; beguiling. Related entries & more behemoth (n.) late 14c., huge biblical beast (Job xl.15), from Latin behemoth, from Hebrew b'hemoth, usually taken as plural of intensity of b'hemah "beast." But the Hebrew word is perhaps a folk etymology of Egyptian pehemau, literally "water-ox," the name for the hippopotamus. Used in modern English for any huge beast. Long before Jumbo was dreamed of, a hippo was exhibited by George K. Bailey, who invented the tank on wheels now used so generally in the circuses. The beast was advertised as "the blood sweating Behemoth of Holy Writ," and he made several men rich. [Isaac F. Marcosson, "Sawdust and Gold Dust," in The Bookman, June 1910] Related entries & more behold (v.) Old English bihaldan (West Saxon behealdan) "give regard to, hold in view," also "keep hold of; belong to," from be- + haldan, healdan (see hold (v.)). Related: Beheld; beholding. A common West Germanic compound, compare Old Saxon bihaldan "hold, keep," Old Frisian bihalda "hold, possess, keep, protect, save," Old High German bihaltan, German behalten, but "[t]he application to watching, looking, is confined to English" [OED]. Related: Beholding. Related entries & more behoove (v.) Old English behofian "to have need of, have use for," verbal form of the ancient compound word represented by behoof (q.v.). From c. 1200 as "be fit or meet for, be necessary for," now used only in the third person, with it as subject. Related: Behooved; behooving. Historically, it rimes with move, prove, but being now mainly a literary word, it is generally made to rime with rove, grove, by those who know it only in books. [OED] Related entries & more beige (n.) 1858, "fine woolen fabric," from dialectal French beige "yellowish-gray, brownish-gray," from Old French bege "the natural color of wool and cotton; raw, not dyed" (13c.), of obscure origin. According to Gamillscheg, the French word was especially associated with the Burgundy and Franche-Comt regions. As a shade of color, it is attested in English from 1891. As an adjective, "having the natural color of undyed wool," by 1875. Related entries & more belabor (v.) 1590s, "to exert one's strength upon" (obsolete), from be- + labor (v.). But the figurative sense of "assail with words" is attested somewhat earlier (1590s); and belabored is attested from mid-15c. with a sense of "tilled, cultivated." Related: Belaboring. Related entries & more Advertisement belladonna (n.) 1590s, "deadly nightshade" (Atropa belladonna), from Italian, literally "fair lady" (see belle + Donna); the plant so called supposedly because women made cosmetic eye-drops from its juice (a mid-18c. explanation; atropic acid, found in the plant, has a well-known property of dilating the pupils) or because it was used to poison beautiful women (a mid-19c. explanation). Perhaps a folk etymology alteration; Gamillscheg suggests it is ultimately of Gaulish origin. Related entries & more Bellerophon local hero of Corinth, who slew the Chimera, from Latin form of Greek Bellerophontes, probably literally "killer of (the demon) Bellerus," with -phontes "killer of." Related entries & more belligerent (adj.) 1570s, "waging war, engaged in hostilities," from Latin belligerantem (nominative belligerans), past participle of belligerare "to wage war," from bellum "war" (see bellicose) + gerere "to bear, to carry" (see gest). The noun meaning "party or nation at war" is from 1811. Related: Belligerently. Related entries & more bel paese (n.) proprietary name of a type of mild, creamy cheese, 1935, Italian literally "beautiful country or region." Related entries & more Advertisement Belshazzar last Chaldean king of Babylon (Daniel v), from Hebrew Belshatztzar, a contraction of Akkadian Bel-shar-usur, literally "Bel-protect-the-king" (see Bel). Related entries & more beluga (n.) 1590s, from Russian beluga, literally "great white," from belo- "white" (from PIE *bhel-o-, suffixed form of root *bhel- (1) "to shine, flash, burn," also "shining white") + augmentative suffix -uga. Originally the great white sturgeon, found in the Caspian and Black seas; later (1817) the popular name for the small white whale (Delphinapterus leucas) found in northern seas. Related entries & more belvedere (n.) "raised turret or open story atop a house," 1590s, from Italian belvedere, literally "a fair sight," from bel, bello "beautiful" (from Latin bellus "beautiful, fair;" see belle) + vedere "a view, sight" (from PIE root *weid- "to see"). Pronunciation perhaps influenced by the French form of the word. So called because it was used for viewing the grounds. Related entries & more caveat (n.) "warning, hint of caution," 1550s, Latin, literally "let him beware," 3rd person singular present subjunctive of cavere "to beware, take heed, watch, guard against," from PIE root *keu- "to see, observe, perceive." Legal sense "public warning preventing some action" is from 1650s. Related entries & more cayenne (n.) "pungent dried pepper," 1756, from Tupi (Brazil) kyynha "capsicum," a word mistakenly associated with the town of Cayenne in French Guyana. The town name is the French form of Guyana. Related entries & more cedilla (n.) "mark placed under the letter -c- in certain situations," 1590s, from Spanish cedilla, zedilla, literally "little z," from a Latin-like diminutive of Greek zeta "the letter 'z'" (see zed). The mark, mainly used in French and Portuguese (formerly also used in Spanish), was derived from that letter and indicates a "soft" sound in letters in positions where normally they have a "hard" sound. Sometimes the word is used as though it means the entire character . Related entries & more Advertisement celery (n.) umbelliferous European plant long cultivated as food, 1660s, sellery, from French cleri (17c., originally sceleri d'Italie), said by French sources to be from Italian (Lombard dialect) seleri (singular selero), from Late Latin selinon, from Greek selinon "parsley" (in Medieval Greek "celery"), a word of uncertain origin. The c- spelling, attested by 1719 in English, is from French. Middle English words for "wild celery" were acheand selinum. [O]ne day, in a weak and hungry moment, my roommate and I succumbed to a bit of larceny. A greengrocer's truck had parked down the street and was left unattended. We grabbed the first crate we could off the back. It turned out to be celery. For two days we ate nothing but celery and used up more calories chewing than we realized in energy. "Damn it," I said to my roommate, "What're we going to do? We can't starve." "That's funny," he replied. "I thought we could." [Chuck Jones, "Chuck Amuck," 1989] Related entries & more celestial (adj.) late 14c., "pertaining to the sky or the visible heavens; pertaining to the Christian or pagan heaven," from Old French celestial "celestial, heavenly, sky-blue," from Latin caelestis "heavenly, pertaining to the sky," from caelum "heaven, sky; abode of the gods; climate," which is of uncertain origin; perhaps from PIE *kaid-slo-, perhaps from a root also found in Germanic and Baltic meaning "bright, clear" (compare Lithuanian skaidrus "shining, clear;" Old English hador, German heiter "clear, shining, cloudless," Old Norse hei "clear sky"). The Latin word is the source of the usual word for "sky" in most of the Romance languages, such as French ciel, Spanish cielo, Italian cielo, Portuguese cu. Transferred sense of "heavenly, very delightful" in English is from early 15c. Celestial Empire "China" is from 1808, translating native names. Related entries & more cellophane (n.) 1912, trademark name for a flexible, transparent product made from regenerated cellulose, coined by the inventor, Swiss chemist Jacques E. Brandenberger (1872-1954), probably from cellulose + connective o + -phane. Related entries & more censure (n.) late 14c., "judicial sentence," originally ecclesiastical, from Latin censura "judgment, opinion," also "office of a censor," from census, past participle of censere "appraise, estimate, assess" (see censor (n.)). General sense of "a finding of fault and an expression of condemnation" is from c. 1600. Related entries & more Advertisement centenary (adj.) 1640s, "relation to or consisting of 100 years," from Latin centenarius "of a hundred, relating to a hundred," from centenai "a hundred each," from centum "hundred" (see hundred). As a noun, c. 1600 as "period of 100 years;" 1788 as "a hundredth anniversary, commemoration or celebration of a hundredth anniversary." The usual British word in this sense for the American centennial. Related entries & more center (n.) late 14c., "middle point of a circle; point round which something revolves," from Old French centre (14c.), from Latin centrum "center," originally the fixed point of the two points of a drafting compass (hence "the center of a circle"), from Greek kentron "sharp point, goad, sting of a wasp," from kentein "stitch," from PIE root *kent- "to prick" (source also of Breton kentr "a spur," Welsh cethr "nail," Old High German hantag "sharp, pointed"). The spelling with -re was popularized in Britain by Johnson's dictionary (following Bailey's), though -er is older and was used by Shakespeare, Milton, and Pope. Meaning "the middle of anything" attested from 1590s. Figuratively, "point of concentration" (of power, etc.) is from 1680s. Political use, originally in reference to France, "representatives of moderate views" (between left and right) is from 1837. Center of gravity is recorded from 1650s. Center of attention is from 1868. Related entries & more centimeter (n.) also centimetre, metric measure of length, "one hundredth of a meter," 1801, from French centimtre (18c.), coined from Latin centum "hundred" (see hundred) + French mtre (see meter (n.2)). Related entries & more cereal (n.) 1832, "grass yielding edible grain and cultivated for food," originally an adjective (1818) "having to do with edible grain," from French crale (16c., "of Ceres;" 18c. in grain sense), from Latin Cerealis "of grain," originally "of Ceres," from Ceres, Italic goddess of agriculture, from PIE *ker-es-, from root *ker- (2) "to grow." The application to breakfast food cereal made from grain is American English, 1899. Related entries & more cervix (n.) early 15c., "ligament in the neck," from Latin cervix "the neck, nape of the neck," from PIE *kerw-o-, from root *ker- (1) "horn; head." Applied to various neck-like structures of the body, especially that of the uterus (by 1702), where it is shortened from medical Latin cervix uteri (17c.). Sometimes in medical writing 18c.-19c. cervix of the uterus to distinguish it from the neck sense. Related entries & more

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