Etymologie, Etimología, Étymologie, Etimologia, Etymology
US Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika, Estados Unidos de América, États-Unis d'Amérique, Stati Uniti d'America, United States of America
Geographie, Geografía, Géographie, Geografia, Geography
- Statistics, Lists, & Trivia
- Country Information
- Cultural Geography
- Physical Geography
- Population Statistics
- Test Your Knowledge
- Careers in Geography
- Climate Change and Issues
- Geography of the Earth
- GIS and GPS
- History of Geography
- Locate Places Worldwide
- Photo Galleries
- Study & Teach Geography
What Is Geography?
By Matt Rosenberg, About.com Guide
A exhaustive resource on the discipline of geography. Learn all about geography, its branches, and how to study geography and excel in becoming a geographer.
- Geography 101
- Lists and Superlatives
- Geographic Education
- Becoming a Geographer
- Geography Games and Quizzes
- Country Information
- Population Geography
- Historical Geography and Exploration
- Time and Time Zones
- Places of Interest
- Additional Resources
Overviews of the discipline of geography and its various branches.
Lists and Superlatives
- •Geography 101: An Overview of Geography
- •Free Overview of Geography Course Via Email
- •Earth Facts: Essential Facts You Need to Know About The Planet Earth
- •All About Geography
- •Definitions of Geography
- •Physical Geography Overview
- •Cultural Geography Overview
- •James Michener on the Importance of Geography
- •Branches of Geography
A collection of resources that rank things on our planet - cities, countries, building, continents, and more.
- •Largest Urban Agglomerations on Earth
- •Most Populous Countries
- •Most Populous Countries in 2050
- •Tallest Buildings in the World
- •Largest Continents in Area and Population
- •Largest Countries in Area
- •Tallest Mountains on Earth
- •Lowest Points on Land
- •Deepest Ocean Depths
- •Most Popular World Religions
- •Most Popular World Languages
- •Smallest Countries in the World
- •U.S. State Population
- •Largest Cities in the United States
- •Largest Cities Through History
- •Six or Seven Continents on Earth?
- •Additional Lists and Statistics
Whether you're studying for the National Geographic Bee, AP Geography, A-Levels, an undergraduate degree, a Ph.D., or just want to know more about geography, this is the place to do it. Also discover resources for teaching geography in school.
Geography Games and Quizzes
- •Geographic Illiteracy Slowly Fading
- •The 18 Standards for Geographic Education
- •Typical Requirements for a Degree in Geography
- •Geography for Kids
- •The Four Traditions of Geography
- •Preparing for the National Geographic Bee
- •Advanced Placement Human Geography
- •Geography Awareness Week
- •Five Themes of Geography
- •Geographic Organizations
- •Why Place Name Geography is Important and a Call to Action
- •Additional Geographic Education Resources
Test your knowledge of geography and learn more about geography through various online geography games and quizzes.
- •Geography Quiz: Over Ten Years of Multiple-Choice Geography Quizzes
- •Additional Geography Quizzes and Games
Online resources and information about the countries of the world.
- •Capitals of Every Country
- •Flags of the Countries of the World
- •Geography and Maps of the Countries of the World
- •Official Listing of Countries by Region
- •Number of Countries in the World
- •Newest Countries of the World
- •Additional Information About Countries
The branch of population geography explores demographic information about the world, countries, and smaller regions to determine population growth rates and future population estimates.
Historical Geography and Exploration
- •World Population
- •If The World Were a Village of 100 People
- •U.S. Population
- •China Population
- •China's One Child Law
- •Life Expectancy
- •Population Growth and Growth Rates
- •Negative Population Growth
- •Demographic Transtion
- •Age-Sex Pyramids
- •Population Density
- •Crude Birth Rate and Crude Death Rate
- •Population Decline in Russia
- •Baby Boom
- •Thomas Malthus on Population
- •Additional Population Resources
The development of geography and the exploration of the world are essential components to understanding our planet today. Explore the past with these delightful resources.
Time and Time Zones
- •Timeline of Geographic History
- •History of Geography in the United States
- •Eratosthenes: The Father of Geography
- •Alexander von Humboldt: The Founder of Modern Geography
- •Ptolemy: Roman Geographer
- •Marco Polo: World Explorer
- •Captain James Cook
- •Amerigo Vespucci: The Explorer for Whom America Was Named
- •William Morris Davis: The Father of American Geography
- •Christopher Columbus
- •The Lewis & Clark Expedition
- •Additional Historical and Exploration Resources
The planet is divided up into 24 time zones but it's just not that simple. Add Daylight Saving Time, the International Date Line, and offset time zones and things are really confusing.
Places of Interest
- •Daylight Saving Time
- •Time Zones
- •Offset Time Zones
- •International Date Line
- •The Gregorian Calendar
- •Greenwich Mean Time vs. Coordinated Universal Time
- •Additional Time and Time Zone Resources
Explore the world through these articles about fascinating places around the world.
- •Seven Wonders of the World
- •Amazon River and Basin
- •Beijing - Chinese Capital City
- •Panama Canal
- •Bermuda Triangle
- •The Great Wall of China
- •Dykes of the Netherlands
- •Kaliningrad Exclave
- •Nunavut - Canada's Newest Territory
- •Nile River
- •Northwest Passage
- •Additional Places Around the World
These essential resources will help you to continue to learn, to explore, and to enjoy the amazing field of geography.
- •Geography Glossary
- •Geography FAQ
- •Photo Galleries
By Matt Rosenberg, About.com Guide
The Internet is home to a vast collection of world maps, country maps, state maps, city maps, street maps, road maps, physical maps, political maps, and every type of map possible. This page provides resources for maps along with information to learn how to best use maps and map tools.
- World Maps
- Country Maps
- Road Maps
- Blank and Outline Maps
- Using Maps and Understanding Maps
- GIS & GPS
- More Maps: Historical, Topographic, U.S. Maps
Maps of our planet, showing continents, oceans, countries, physical features, and more.
- •World Map Resources
- •Additional World Map Resources
Maps of every country and territory on the planet.
- •Atlas of the World
- •Additional Country Map Resources
Street and road maps can be found all over the Internet, but how do you know which resources are the best? Here's where you will find those superb resources.
Blank and Outline Maps
- •Google Maps
- •Additional Road Map Resources
Blank maps and outline maps are excellent to use to learn geography. The blank maps and outline maps found on the Internet can be printed out for home or school use.
Using Maps and Understanding Maps
- •Blank Outline Maps of the Countries of the World
- •Blank Outline Maps of the U.S. States
- •Additional Blank Map Resources
Learn about cartography and how to properly use maps.
GIS & GPS
- •Latitude and Longitude
- •Map Reading Basics
- •Map Scale: Measuring Distances on a Map
- •Map Projections
- •Map Colors
- •Map Projections: Peters Projection vs. Mercator Projection
- •Thematic Maps - Colors and Icons
- •Additional Resources on Understanding Maps
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and the Global Positioning System (GPS) are two incredible geographic technologies that have revolutionized map making and understanding our planet. Learn all about GIS and GPS from these resources.
More Maps: Historical, Topographic, U.S. Maps
- •GPS - Global Positioning System
- •GIS - Geographic Information Systems Overview
- •Landsat Satellite Imaging
- •Remoting Sensing Technology
- •Business Geographics
- •Additional Geographic Technology Resources
Additional map resources for finding great maps on the Internet.
- •Topographic Maps
- •Historic Maps
- •U.S. Maps
Physical Geography and Cultural Geography
By Matt Rosenberg, About.com Guide
This page provides resources for all aspects and branches of geography, encompassed by the main two branches, physical geography and cultural geography.
- Earth Processes
- Water and Ice
- Climate, Weather and Climate Change
- Hazards and Disaster
- Cultural Geography
- Urban, Economic, and Transportation Geography
- Political Geography
- Calendars and Seasons
Erosion, landform development, geological processes, and geomorphology are all part of the process of developing the surface of the earth - all of interest to physical geographers.
Water and Ice
- •Erosion: Agents of Erosion
- •Rock Cycle: Igneous, Sedimentary, and Metamorphic
- •The Four Spheres: Atmosphere, Biosphere, Hydrosphere, Lithosphere
- •Soil - An Overview
- •Soil Size Chart
- •Karst Topography and Sinkholes
- •Additional Physical Geography Resources
Three-quarters of the earth is water. Knowing about water and its solid form, ice, are important to understanding our planet.
Climate, Weather and Climate Change
- •Hydrologic Cycle
- •Measuring Precipitation
- •Rivers - An Overview
- •Names for Water Bodies
- •Oxbow Lakes
- •Intertidal Zone
- •Ocean Waves
- •Additional Water, Ice, and Hydrologic Cycle Resources
The processes of the atmosphere impact human settlement on the land and as climate change continues, the impact on humans will be even more dramatic.
Hazards and Disaster
- •An Overview of Global Warming
- •Advantages and Disadvantages of Global Warming
- •Milankovitch Cycles: Changes in Earth-Sun Interaction
- •Koppen Climate Classification System
- •Temperate, Torrid, and Frigid Zones
- •Layers of the Atmosphere
- •Atmosphere Composition
- •El Nino and La Nina Overview
- •The Mount Pinatubo Eruption that Cooled the Planet
- •Rain Shadows, Orographic Lifting and Orographic Precipitation
- •Trade Winds, Horse Latitudes, and the Doldrums
- •Intertropical Convergence Zone
- •Additional Climate Resources
Catastrophic or significant earth events have major impacts on human settlements and generate intense public interest in the physical geography of the planet.
- •Pacific Ring of Fire
- •Earthquake Overview
- •2009 Hurricane Names
- •Earthquake Magnitude and Frequency
- •Additional Articles About Hazards
Cultural geography, also known as human geography, covers a wide swath of human interaction with the land. Cultural geography includes language, religion, medicine, cities, economics, entertainment, and much more.
Urban, Economic, and Transportation Geography
- •Cultural Geography Overview
- •Geography of Agriculture
- •Culture Hearths and Cultural Diffusion
- •Lingua Franca, Pidgins, and Creole
- •Medical Geography
- •Additional Cultural Geography Articles
Most of the world's population is concentrated in urban areas, where economic activity is concentrated. The world's urban areas are growing at an astonishing rate. The world's economy is a fascinating topic. Learn about urban, economic, and transportation geography from these resources.
- •Largest Cities in the World
- •Defining Urban
- •Sectors of the Economy
- •Busiest Airports of the World
- •Busiest Ports of the World
- •Primate Cities
- •Interstate Highways
- •Edge Cities
- •The New Urbanism
- •The Von Thunen Model of Agricultural Land Use
- •Site and Situation
- •Additional Urbam Econonomic, and Transportation Geography Resources
Political geography covers all aspects of boundaries, country, state, and nation development, international organizations, diplomacy, internal divisions, voting, and so much more. It's a fascinating topic.
Calendars and Seasons
- •Definining an Independent Country
- •The Number of Countries in the World
- •United Nations Security Council
- •Scotland is Not a Country
- •Countries That No Longer Exist
- •Landlocked Countries
- •The Principality of Sealand
- •Is Taiwan a Country?
- •World Cup Teams That Should Not Exist
- •European Union: An Overview
- •Additional Political Geography Resources
The calendar and seasons are representations of earth's interaction with the sun. Discover a great collection of links to help you learn about seasons and calendars around the world.
- •The Four Seasons
- •Our Current Calendar: Gregorian Calendar
- •The Longest Day of the Year
- •Time and Time Zone Resources
A comprehensive glossary of geographic terms and definitions. Learn about geographical concepts and jargon in human, physical, regional and other subdisciplines.
- Geography Glossary - A (22)
- Geography Glossary - B (10)
- Geography Glossary - C (32)
- Geography Glossary - D (10)
- Geography Glossary - E (14)
- Geography Glossary - F (9)
- Geography Glossary - G (17)
- Geography Glossary - H (8)
- Geography Glossary - I (7)
- Geography Glossary - J (1)
- Geography Glossary - K (1)
- Geography Glossary - L (13)
- Geography Glossary - M (23)
- Geography Glossary - N (7)
- Geography Glossary - O (6)
- Geography Glossary - P (16)
- Geography Glossary - Q (2)
- Geography Glossary - R (11)
- Geography Glossary - S (14)
- Geography Glossary - T (9)
- Geography Glossary - U (3)
- Geography Glossary - W (4)
- Geography Glossary - Z (3)
Dictionary of Abbreviations and Acronyms in Geographic Information Systems, Cartography, and Remote Sensing
Fläche von US
Fläche von US - Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika ist 009.809.155 km^2.
Fläche von Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika
This uninhabited island was claimed by the US in 1857 for its guano. Mining took place between 1865 and 1898. The lighthouse, built in 1917, was shut down in 1996 and administration of Navassa Island transferred from the US Coast Guard to the Department of the Interior. A 1998 scientific expedition to the island described it as a unique preserve of Caribbean biodiversity; the following year it became a National Wildlife Refuge and annual scientific expeditions have continued.
The US annexed Wake Island in 1899 for a cable station. An important air and naval base was constructed in 1940-41. In December 1941, the island was captured by the Japanese and held until the end of World War II. In subsequent years, Wake was developed as a stopover and refueling site for military and commercial aircraft transiting the Pacific. Since 1974, the island's airstrip has been used by the US military, as well as for emergency landings. Operations on the island were suspended and all personnel evacuated in 2006 with the approach of super typhoon IOKE (category 5), but resultant damage was comparatively minor. A US Air Force repair team restored full capability to the airfield and facilities, which remains a vital strategic link in the Pacific region.
United States Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges
All of the following US Pacific island territories except Midway Atoll constitute the Pacific Remote Islands National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) Complex and as such are managed by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior. Midway Atoll NWR has been included in a Refuge Complex with the Hawaiian Islands NWR and also designated as part of Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument. These remote refuges are the most widespread collection of marine- and terrestrial-life protected areas on the planet under a single country's jurisdiction. They sustain many endemic species including corals, fish, shellfish, marine mammals, seabirds, water birds, land birds, insects, and vegetation not found elsewhere.
Baker Island: The US took possession of the island in 1857. Its guano deposits were mined by US and British companies during the second half of the 19th century. In 1935, a short-lived attempt at colonization began on this island but was disrupted by World War II and thereafter abandoned. The island was established as a NWR in 1974.
Howland Island: Discovered by the US early in the 19th century, the uninhabited atoll was officially claimed by the US in 1857. Both US and British companies mined for guano deposits until about 1890. In 1935, a short-lived attempt at colonization began on this island, similar to the effort on nearby Baker Island, but was disrupted by World War II and thereafter abandoned. The famed American aviatrix Amelia EARHART disappeared while seeking out Howland Island as a refueling stop during her 1937 round-the-world flight; Earhart Light, a day beacon near the middle of the west coast, was named in her memory. The island was established as a NWR in 1974.
Jarvis Island: First discovered by the British in 1821, the uninhabited island was annexed by the US in 1858 but abandoned in 1879 after tons of guano had been removed. The UK annexed the island in 1889 but never carried out plans for further exploitation. The US occupied and reclaimed the island in 1935. It was abandoned in 1942 during World War II. The island was established as a NWR in 1974.
Johnston Atoll: Both the US and the Kingdom of Hawaii annexed Johnston Atoll in 1858, but it was the US that mined the guano deposits until the late 1880s. Johnston and Sand Islands were designated wildlife refuges in 1926. The US Navy took over the atoll in 1934. Subsequently, the US Air Force assumed control in 1948. The site was used for high-altitude nuclear tests in the 1950s and 1960s. Until late in 2000 the atoll was maintained as a storage and disposal site for chemical weapons. Munitions destruction, cleanup, and closure of the facility were completed by May 2005. The Fish and Wildlife Service and the US Air Force are currently discussing future management options; in the interim, Johnston Atoll and the three-mile Naval Defensive Sea around it remain under the jurisdiction and administrative control of the US Air Force.
Kingman Reef: The US annexed the reef in 1922. Its sheltered lagoon served as a way station for flying boats on Hawaii-to-American Samoa flights during the late 1930s. There are no terrestrial plants on the reef, which is frequently awash, but it does support abundant and diverse marine fauna and flora. In 2001, the waters surrounding the reef out to 12 nm were designated a US NWR.
Midway Islands: The US took formal possession of the islands in 1867. The laying of the trans-Pacific cable, which passed through the islands, brought the first residents in 1903. Between 1935 and 1947, Midway was used as a refueling stop for trans-Pacific flights. The US naval victory over a Japanese fleet off Midway in 1942 was one of the turning points of World War II. The islands continued to serve as a naval station until closed in 1993. Today the islands are a NWR and are the site of the world's largest Laysan albatross colony.
Geographische Lage von US
Geographische Lage von US - Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika ist "067°W-172°W/024°N-072°N".
Geographische Lage von Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika
histgeo - Geographische Geschichte
Eine gute Site der geographischen Geschichte im Netz;
infoplease - Geography Glossary
- Geography Glossary
- World Geography
- U.S. Geography
- Time Zones
- Everest Almanac
- Highest Mountains
- Oceans & Seas
- Travel Statistics
- More . . .
GeoPedia is a companion to our magazine feature stories. Each GeoPedia entry provides in-depth background material on a given topic, while maintaining National Geographic's vaunted standard of accuracy. It's a research tool with valuable links to the best resources. Ask our experts a question, share a link, or contribute your story ideas.
- Light Pollution: Nighttime lights can block our view of the universe and change the rhythms of life on Earth.
- Crystal Giants: The astonishingly large Naica gypsum crystals lie deep below the Chihuahuan Desert in Mexico.
- Tarahumara: Tarahumara traditions vs. the chabochi way of life—can the two coexist?
- Muskwa-Kechika: This region is one of the most ecologically diverse and distinctive areas in North America.
- Elephant Seals: Male southern elephant seals are the largest pinnipeds in the world, larger even than walrus.
- Borneo: What can be done to save Borneo's disappearing forests?
- Bisphenol A: What are the health effects of Bisphenol A and how do you reduce exposure to this chemical?
- Neanderthals: Scientists use 3-D models of fossils to compare Neanderthals and modern humans.
- Bee-Eaters: This colorful bird feeds on bees without getting stung.
- Ozark Highland Trail: Motor vehicles, bicycles, and horses are banned on this 165-mile hiking route.
- Right Whales: The number of southern right whales has steadily increased over the last century.
- India's Highway: Super highways are changing daily life in India.
- Ancient Egyptian Origins: The science behind Egypt's genetic and cultural history.
- Soil: Only about 11 percent of Earth's land surface is suitable for farming, and demands on that land are increasing.
- Elephants of Samburu: Earth's largest living land mammals, African elephants, need a lot of space and food to survive.
- Sailfish: Read about some surprising uses for their "sails" and how they change their color almost instantly.
- Green Sahara: Two groups lived more than a thousand years apart in what was once a lush region.
- Bolivia's Women Wrestlers: Women are steadily gaining ground in the male dominated wrestling world.
- Ancient Soul of Iran: Archaeological evidence indicates that Iran has been inhabited for approximately 30,000 years.
- Bioko Island: One of Bioko Island's claims to fame is its primates, including six unique subspecies.
- Daisetsuzan: Japan's indigenous Ainu people called Daisetsuzan the "playground of the gods."
- Moscow at Night: Muscovites love their nightlife.The city of 10.5 million people boasts hundreds of packed clubs and bars.
- Target Earth: Rocky asteroids and icy comets have bombarded Earth since its formation 4.5 billion years ago.
- Bolivia and the Altiplano: From varied to geography to a diverse population, Bolivia is a nation full of contrasts.
- Tyrannosaurs: In China’s Junggar Basin, the primitive ancestors of Tyrannosaurus rex are relatively small.
- Wildfires: Wildfires have scorched record acreage across the United States.
- Kingman Reef: Kingman Reef is an uninhabited, mostly submerged atoll reef located nearly one thousand miles south of Hawaii.
- Stonehenge: Construction on Stonehenge, a Neolithic monument on England's Salisbury Plain, began in the third millennium B.C.
- Siberian Oil: Russia is a major oil producer, and western Siberia provides almost 70 percent of the supply.
- World Oil: The world's oil supply is finite. The trillion-dollar question for experts is, When will the supply peak?
- Nudibranchs: Nudibranchs are shell-less marine mollusks. Some 6,000 species live in disparate habitats all over the world.
- Snow Leopard: The snow leopard, uncia uncia, lives a solitary life in remote areas of 12 Central Asian countries.
- Afghan's Treasures: Afghanistan, a nation with a rich history and rare, ancient artifacts, has long been a cultural crossroads.
- Last Colonies: Almost half a century after the UN called for independence for all colonies, 16 places are still ruled by foreign powers.
- China: Everything about China is big—its population, its area, and its labor force.
- The Sahel: Crossing one of the sub-Saharan savanna's unseen lines landed the writer in a Sudanese jail.
- Biomimetics: Burs on a dog's coat led to the invention of Velcro—that's an example of biomimetics.
- India's Rickshaws: The city of Kolkata has a love-hate relationship with its rickshaws.
- Na Pali Coast: Golden beaches and soaring cliffs make this rugged edge of Hawaii a paradise on Earth.
- Almost Human: The Fongoli chimps of Senegal will break off a branch, sharpen it with their teeth, and use it to hunt bush babies.
- Animal Minds: Brainy fellow creatures show that humans have company in the smarts department.
- Iceland's Heated Debate: Land-proud Icelanders struggle to protect their environment while expanding their economy.
- The God Particle: Will Europe's new giant atom smasher crack the physical universe's code?
- Pioneers of the Pacific: How did voyagers colonize the Pacific? Archaeologists are beginning to understand.
- Bhutan's Experiment: The Himalayan kingdom makes a daring move to democracy.
- The American Chestnut: New blight-resistant chestnuts could herald a rebirth of this American giant.
- Black Pharaohs: Nubian kings ruled ancient Egypt for decades, but their achievements are just being recognized.
- Mexico's Southern Border: For Central Americans heading north, crossing the other border can be dangerous.
- Philippine Eagles: With their habitat disappearing, can these exquisite raptors be saved?
- Drying of the West: A population boom and drought means water is in short supply.
- Outsiders in Afghanistan: Why the Hazaras are treated as the country's odd man—and woman—out.
- Basho's Trail: Following the path of Japan's haiku master brings his poetry to life.
- Extreme Weather: With global warming, old weather patterns are changing and anything can happen.
- Volcano Culture: Indonesia's fiery peaks dominate more than just the landscape.
- High-Tech Trash: The laptop you tossed might wind up overseas, toxic parts and all.
- Lowland Gorilla Family: For these Congo Basin gorillas, the search for food shapes family dynamics.
- Himalaya Winter Climb: Polish climbers take on Pakistan's deadly Nanga Parbat under the harshest conditions.
- India's Ancient Art: A gifted photographer brings fifth-century cave paintings to light.
- Emptied Prairie: North Dakota's ghost towns tell a story of migration and decline.
- The Politics of Adoption: The international map of adoption is being redrawn as the U.S. becomes a full participant in the Hague Conventin.
- Bizarre Dinosaurs: Sickle-shaped toenails? Domed skulls? Fossils reveal dinosaurs' evolutionary secrets.
- Bethlehem 2007 A.D.: Jesus' birthplace is today one of the most contentious sites on Earth.
- Wings of the Albatross: With the longest wingspan of any bird, the albatross is built to fly.
- 21st-Century Cowboys: What makes these men and women feel at home on the range?
- Permafrost: Millennia-old permafrost formations may not last forever. Time and temperature will tell.
- The Geography of Religion: A regional look at the world's major religions.
- Memory: Aging isn't the only factor responsible for memory loss. Why does memory fail—and how to preserve it?
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On the evening of January 13, 1888, thirty-three men traveled on foot, horseback, and in horsedrawn carriages through the streets of Washington to the Cosmos Club, then on Lafayette Square across from the White House. They convened around a large mahogany table to discuss “the advisability of organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge.” The entity they were about to create would become the largest nonprofit scientific and educational institution in the world.
The group included geographers, explorers, teachers, lawyers, cartographers, military officers, and financiers—all learned, well-traveled men distinguished by a love of knowledge and a thirst for discovery and achievement. As one of them pointed out, they were the “first explorers of the Grand Canyon and the Yellowstone, those who had carried the American flag farthest north, who had measured the altitude of our famous mountains, traced the windings of our coasts and rivers, determined the distribution of flora and fauna, enlightened us in the customs of the aborigines, and marked out the path of storm and flood.”
The men embodied an era that was marked by exploration, discovery, invention, and change. Massive industrial expansion and immigration were altering the face of the country, infusing people with new ideas and values. Americans were energetic, ambitious, optimistic, and curious for new information about the world around them. It was clear to the men assembled at the Cosmos Club that a vehicle was needed to satisfy that desire for knowledge.
They readily approved a resolution that the Society be organized “on as broad and liberal a basis in regard to qualifications for membership as is consistent with its own well-being and the dignity of the science it represents.” Over the next two weeks a constitution and plan of organization were prepared, and on January 27, 1888, the "National Geographic Society" was officially incorporated.
Its first president was Gardiner Greene Hubbard, a lawyer, financier, and philanthropist who helped found a school for the deaf and promoted the experiments of his son-in-law, Alexander Graham Bell. Acknowledging in his introductory address that he was neither “a scientific man, nor...a geographer,” Hubbard stated, “By my election you notify the public that the membership of our Society will not be confined to professional geographers, but will include that large number who, like myself, desire to promote special researches by others, and to diffuse the knowledge so gained, among men, so that we may all know more of the world upon which we live.”
Nine months after the Society was founded, the first "NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC magazine" was published. A studious, scientific journal with a nondescript, dull-brown cover, it bore no resemblance to the color-illustrated periodical it would come to be. On its first two pages, however, was an announcement stating the mission that was to guide the Society and its magazine for the next century and beyond:
“The ‘National Geographic Society’ has been organized ‘to increase and diffuse geographic knowledge,’ and the publication of a Magazine has been determined upon as one means of accomplishing these purposes. As it is not intended to be simply the organ of the Society, its pages will be open to all persons interested in geography, in the hope that it may become a channel of intercommunication, stimulate geographic investigation and prove an acceptable medium for the publication of results.”
After more than a century the National Geographic Society today is propelled by new concerns: the alarming lack of geographic knowledge among our nation’s young people and the pressing need to protect the planet’s natural resources. As our mission grows in urgency and scope, the Society continues to develop new and exciting vehicles for broadening our reach and enhancing our legendary ability to bring the world to our millions of members.
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- Inside National Geographic: Every two weeks you'll get the best of National Geographic—new discoveries, wallpapers, magazine previews, quick quizzes, eye-opening photos, and more. Best Online Newsletter, 2006 Codie Awards
- National Geographic Online Store: Receive special offers and new product notices from our online store.
- The Green Guide To Go: Each week you'll get the latest information from The Green Guide, the consumer's go-to source for green home tips, eco-product reviews, environmental health information and green living advice.
- Travel, Maps, and Adventure
- Places to Explore: Once a month you'll get stunning landscape photos, travel tips, maps, hot spots in the news, and our exclusive travel-photo quiz.
- National Geographic Expeditions: Find out how you can travel with National Geographic photographers and experts. Receive monthly updates on new trips, special offers, and expedition reports.
- National Geographic Traveler's A*List: The Best of Travel: You will receive Traveler magazine's biweekly newsletter packed with tried-and-true travel tips, exclusive travel deals, book excerpts and discounts, and more!
- Adventure Magazine: Plan your next trip today! Get great discounts on adventure-travel trips and cool new gear from the pages of Adventure.
- Photography: Focus on Photography: Once a month you'll get our best new photos and tips —wallpapers, photo quizzes, expert tips, and more.
- National Geographic Magazine: Receive National Geographic magazine's Photo of the Month newsletter, featuring photos from the current issue, desktop wallpapers, and more.
- National Geographic WildCams: Don't miss a minute of the animal action! Get news about current and upcoming WildCams, the best Cam photos, "Tech Talk," and more in National Geographic's Live From the Wild! newsletter.
- National Geographic Channel: Monthly Channel Highlights: Once a month you'll receive program highlights, alerts on upcoming specials, interactive features, and more.
- NG Channel This Week: Every week you'll get our prime-time program highlights.
- Entertainment: National Geographic Home Entertainment: Receive the latest news about National Geographic films, DVD promotions, DVD rentals, and more.
- National Geographic World Music: Once a month National Geographic offers you an update on all the latest news, tour info, album releases and more from your favorite artists from around the globe.
- Education: Education Update: Once a month, the newsletter of National Geographic's Education Network brings you time-saving tools—lesson plans, quick quizzes, news reports, and exclusive EdNet resources and opportunities.
- My Wonderful World: Make sure your kids are learning all they can about our world! Get tips and tools, ideas for family activities, links to great games, and more.
- The Genographic Project: Maps
- The Genographic Project: Receive the latest news on field research, Genographic stories, and highlights from the Genographic Project Web site.
- National Geographic Maps Store: Every other month you'll get updates about our newest maps, Map Store promotions, MapMachine features, and more.
- All Roads Film project: National Geographic All Roads Film Project showcases breakthrough film and still photography from indigenous and under represented minority cultures around the globe.
Das Archiv reicht zurück bis December 1997.
Adventure and Exploration Index
SUBJECT GUIDE: Adventure and Exploration Home Page | News Stories on Adventure and Exploration | Search Our Publications | Adventure Magazine | Current Online Issue | Customer Service | Previous Issues | Subscriptions | Expert Advice | Ask the Expert: Climbing | Ask the Expert: Trail Sports | The Adventurer's Handbook | Expeditions Online | Andes Expedition and Mummy "Autopsy" | Ballard and The Black Sea: The Search for Noah's Flood | Blue Frontier: The Sustainable Seas Expeditions | Congo Trek: A Journey Through the Heart of Central Africa | DinoQuest: Sahara | Everest: Measure of a Mountain | Jannu: A Himalayan First Ascent | Kayaking Alaska's Aleutian Chain | Kayaking Vietnam's Dragon Coast | Outpost: In Search of Human Origins | Return to Midway | Special Features | Exploring Space Special-Issue Preview | At the Tomb of Tutankhamen | California Trails | Chiquibul: Colossal Cave in 360° | Exploring the Chesapeake: Then and Now | Megatransect—Congo Trek Across Africa | Pathways to Achievement | Polar Bears | The Open Road | The River Wild: Running the Selway | Trekking Nepal | Volvo Ocean Race | Photo Galleries | Amazon: The Yanomami | Bhutan: Trail to Shangri-La | Four Corners of Australia | Outbreak—Ebola | Sahara Crossing | The Rockies by Bike | Utah Mountain Biking | Yellowstone Backcountry | National Geographic Emerging Explorers | Andrew Zolli, Futurist | Cheryl Knott, Biological Anthropologist | Constance Adams, Space Architect | Constanza Ceruti, Anthropologist, Archaeologist | Elizabeth Lonsdorf, Primatologist | Jenny Daltry, Herpetologist | Jimmy Chin, Climber, Photographer | Kira Salek, Writer, Adventurer | Mark Olson, Plant Biologist | Spencer Wells, Geneticist, Anthropologist | Tierney Thys, Marine Biologist, Filmmaker | Tim Samaras, Severe Storms Researcher | Tyrone Hayes, Biologist, Herpetologist | Zeb Hogan, Ecologist, Photographer | Zeray Alemseged, Paleontologist | National Geographic Explorers-in-Residence | Johan Reinhard, High-Altitude Archaeologist | Meave and Louise Leakey, Paleoanthropologists | Paul Sereno, Paleontologist | Robert Ballard, Ocean Explorer | Sylvia Earle, Marine Biologist | Wade Davis, Anthropologist and Ethnobotanist | Zahi Hawass, Archaeologist | Adventurer Profiles | Conrad Anker, Everest Climber | David Quammen, Grand Canyon Kayaker | Doug Peacock, Grizzly Warrior | Eric Simonson, Everest Sleuth | Johan Reinhard, Andes Ironman | Michael Fay, Africa Explorer | Reinhold Messner, Yeti Hunter | Robert Young Pelton, Colombian Hostage | Robert Young Pelton, Inside Afghanistan | Robert Zubrin, Mars Pathfinder | Sebastian Junger, Under Fire | Tim Cahill, Lewis and Clark Tracker | Tom Clynes, Ebola Hunter
SUBJECT GUIDE: Animals and Nature Home Page | Animals Photos and Wallpapers | News Stories on Animals and Nature | Search Our Publications | U.S. Local Wildlife Guides | Amphibians and Reptiles (Crocodiles, Frogs, and Snakes) | Crocodile—Chasing Down the Cuban Crocodile | Crocodile—Croc and Roll | Crocodiles—Nile Crocodiles | Crocodilians—Interactive Map and More | Frogs | Snake—Borneo's Wild Gliders | Snake—Snake Island | SuperCroc | Turtle—Crittercam Chronicles | Turtle—Sea Turtles (Kids) | Birds | Attwater's Prairie-Chickens (Texas) | Eagles—Bald Eagles | New Zealand's Flightless Birds | Penguins—Emperor Penguins (Kids) | Dinosaurs | DinoQuest Sahara | Dinosaur Eggs | SuperCroc | Environment (Habitats, Plants, and More) | Amazon Forests Animals | Amazon River Animals | Habitats: The Growth of a Forest | Himalayan Forests Animals | Interactive Map: Southeast U.S. Rivers | Madagascar Forests Animals | Mesoamerican Reef Animals | Monterey Bay | Sulu-Sulawesi Seas Animals | Virtual Columbia River (Dam Impacts) | Virtual Rain Forest: Borneo by Night | Fish (Sharks and More) | Fish—Triggerfish | Shark Surfari Game | Shark—Crittercam Chronicles | Shark—Great White Shark | Shark—Tiger Shark |
| For Kids | Amazing Animals—True Stories | Creature Feature Animal Profiles | Cuban Crocodiles | Cyber Tiger Game | Print 'n' Go Animal Pictures | Shark Surfari Game | Travel Bookings | Wildlife/Nature Trips With Our Experts | Animal Logo Gear | Mammals (Bats, Monkeys, Predators, Whales, and More) | Bats—Vampire Bats | Bears—Brown Bears | Camels | Caribou | Cats—Plans for Perfection | Cheetah—Creature Feature | Cheetah—Okavango Match the Tracks | Chimpanzees (Kids) | Coyotes (Kids) | Dolphins—Bottlenose Dolphins (Kids) | Elephants—African Elephants (Kids) | Giraffes (Kids) | Gorillas—Mountain Gorillas (Kids) | Guanacos (Kids) | Hedgehogs (Kids) | Hippopotamus—Okavango Sketchbook | Jaguars | Koalas (Kids) | Lemurs—Ring-Tailed Lemurs | Lion—Asia's Last Lions | Lions (Kids) | Meerkats | Monkeys—Gelada Monkeys | Orangutans (Kids) | Orcas (Killer Whales) | Otter—River Otters (Kids) | Otters | Pandas (Kids) | Polar Bears | Prairie Dogs—Underdogs: Prairie Dogs At Home | Rhinoceros—Black Rhinos (Kids) | Sea Lions—Steller Sea Lions | Seal—Crittercam Chronicles | Tiger—Cyber Tiger Game | Tiger—Eyes on Tiger | Tiger—Nick Nichols on Assignment | Tigers (Kids) | Warthogs (Kids) | Whale—Humpback Whales | Wolf—Geoguide: Wolves
Archaeology and Paleontology Index
News Stories on Archaeology and Paleontology | Search for Noah's Flood | Search Our Publications | Dinosaurs | DinoQuest: Sahara | Dinosaur Eggs | SuperCroc | Egypt | Mysteries of Egypt Movie Preview | At the Tomb of King Tutankhamen | How to Make a Mummy | King Tut Cartoon Factory (Kids) | Make Model Tomb (Kids) | Mummies Unmasked (Kids) | Mummy Road Show (TV) | Pyramids—Time Line, Cutaways, More | Quiz Game: Daily Life in Ancient Egypt (Kids) | Saqqara—Death on the Nile | Secrets of an Ancient World | Three Queens of Egypt | Inca | Ice Maiden Expedition and Virtual Autopsy | Ice Treasures of the Inca | Inca Mummies—Photos, News. More | Inca Mummy Rescue | Quiz Game: Inca Civilization (Kids) | Unwrap an Inca Mummy Bundle | Maya | Game: Secret of the Maya Glyphs (Kids) | Travel Bookings | Archaeology/History Trips With Our Experts | Into the Great Pyramid DVD | Other | Archaeology: Finding, Dating, and Interpreting Objects | In Search of Human Origins
SUBJECT GUIDE: Education Home Page | Search for Lesson Plans | Search Our Publications | National Geographic Explorer Classroom Magazine | Current Online Issue | Customer Service | Previous Issues | Subscriptions/Renewals | Geography Resources | Country and State Flags and Facts | MapMachine (Dynamic Maps) | Printer-Friendly Outline Maps | Xpeditions: Standards-Based Geography Site | Activities | Interactive Learning Museum | Lesson Plans | Printer-Friendly Outline Maps | Teacher Forum | U.S. Geography Standards | Activities and Games | National Geographic Explorer Magazine Games | National Geographic Kids Magazine Games | Continents Game | Education Outreach: Geography Action | GeoBee Quiz | GeoSpy Game | Kids Activities and Experiments Index | Kids E-Mail Postcards | Kids Games Index | Teacher Community | Educator E-Newsletter | Educators' Forum | Grants | Teacher Feature (Profiles of Educators) | U.S. Geography-Teacher Alliances | More Educational Resources | Geography Survey 2002 | Homework Help | Kids News | National Geographic Bee | National Geographic News
SUBJECT GUIDE: History and Culture Home Page | Search Our Publications | U.S. History | Alaska: The Great Land | Book Preview: Saving America's Treasures | Exploring the Chesapeake: Then and Now | Go West With Lewis and Clark (Kids) |
| Lewis & Clark: Great Journey West | Pirates of the Whydah | Salem Witch Trials Interactive Experience | The Way West: The California Trails | Underground Railroad Interactive Experience |
| Historic Maps Online | Country and State Facts and Flags | MapMachine (Historical Maps) | Military History | Breaking the Sound Barrier (Chuck Yeager) | D-Day: Untold Stories | Hot Spot: Iraq—Maps, News, More | K-19 and Other Subs in Peril | Naval and Military Map of the U.S. (1862) | PT-109: JFK in World War II | World War II's Battle of Midway | World History | Andes Expedition and Inca Mummy "Autopsy" | At the Tomb of Tutankhamun | Egypt: Secrets of an Ancient World | European Union—The New Europe? | Expedition: Ancient Egypt | Game: Medieval Castle Ghosts (Kids) | Game: Pirates (Kids) | Genghis Khan | Ice Treasures of the Inca (Mummies) | Inca Mummy Bundle | Marco Polo | Mummy Road Show (TV) | Search for Noah's Flood | Search for the “Afghan Girl” | Silver Bank: Sunken Spanish Galleon
International Web Sites Index
National Geographic Channel | Asia | Australia & New Zealand | Brazil | Canada | Denmark | Europe | France | Germany | Hong Kong | Hungary | India | Italy | Japan | Korea | Latin America | National Geographic International Channel | Netherlands | Norway | Poland | Romania | Russia | Singapore | South Africa | Taiwan | United Kingdom | United States | National Geographic Magazine | Chinese | Chinese Traditional Characters | Croatian | Czech | Danish | Dutch (Belgium) | Dutch (Netherlands) | English | Finnish | French | German | Greek | Hungarian | Italian | Japanese | Korean | Norwegian | Polish | Portuguese—Brazil | Portuguese—Portugal | Romanian | Russian | Slovenian | Spanish (U.S. and Latin America) | Swedish | Turkish
SUBJECT GUIDE: Kids Home Page | Search Our Publications | National Geographic Kids Magazine | Current Online Issue | Customer Service | Previous Issues | Subscriptions | National Geographic Explorer Classroom Magazine | Current Online Issue | Customer Service | Previous Issues | Subscriptions/Renewals | Homework/Project Resources | Animal Drawings |
| Homework Help | Kids News | MapMachine | Printable Maps | Games and Interactive | National Geographic Explorer Magazine Games | National Geographic Kids Magazine Games | Asteroids | Columbia River Virtual World | Cyber Tiger | Full Games Index | GeoBee Challenge Quiz | GeoSpy Game | Go West With Lewis and Clark | Monterey Bay Kelp Forest Virtual Dive | Pirates | Rain Forest at Night Virtual World | Secret of the Maya Glyphs | Shark Surfari | Underground Railroad | Activities | Bookmark Factory | Cartoon Factory | E-Mail Postcards | Full Activities and Experiments Index | Geoguides: Digital Field Trips | Print 'n' Go Coloring Book | For Parents | Education Guide | Animal Features | A-Z Full List | Bears, Brown | Black Rhinoceroses | Cheetahs | Chimpanzees | Coyotes | Crocodiles | Dolphins | Elephants | Giraffes | Gorillas | Great White Shark | Guanacos | Hedgehogs | Hippopotamuses | Koalas | Lions | Orangutans | Orcas (Killer Whales) | Pandas | Penguins | Polar Bears | Przewalski's Horses | Red-Eyed Tree Frog | Ring-Tailed Lemurs | River Otters | Tigers | Vampire Bats | Warthogs
Magazines and Books Index
Search Our Publications | National Geographic Magazine | Current Online Issue | Customer Service | Previous Issues | Subscriptions | Traveler Magazine | Current Online Issue | Customer Service | Previous Issues | Subscriptions | Adventure Magazine | Current Online Issue | Customer Service | Previous Issues | Subscriptions | National Geographic Little Kids Magazine | Current Online Issue | Customer Service | Subscriptions | National Geographic Kids Magazine (formerly World) | Current Online Issue | Customer Service | Previous Issues | Subscriptions | National Geographic Explorer Classroom Magazine(formerly National Geographic for Kids) | Current Online Issue | Customer Service | Previous Issues | Subscriptions/Renewals | Books | Descriptions of Current Titles | Online Bookstore
Maps and Geography Index
SUBJECT GUIDE: Maps and Geography Home Page | MapMachine Online Atlas | Easy-Print Black-and-White Maps | Geography Survey 2002 | MapMachine Online Atlas | Projections: Making Maps | Search Our Publications | Topographic Maps | Atlas of the World | Online Pages | Places in the News | Afghanistan: Land in Crisis | Country and State Facts | Iraq—Maps, News, More | Historical Maps | Lewis and Clark Journey | New York Underground | Astronomy Maps | Mars Map | Star Chart: Map of the Heavens | Virtual Solar System | Conservation Maps | Amazon Forests Ecoregion | Amazon River Ecoregion | Himalayan Forests Ecoregion | Madagascar Forests Ecoregion | Mesoamerican Reef Ecoregion | Southeastern U.S. Rivers Ecoregion | Sulu-Sulawesi Seas Ecoregion | Wild World Conservation Atlas | World of the Crocodilians | Games | Continents Game | GeoBee Challenge (Daily Trivia Quiz) | GeoSpy Game | For Educators | Geography Action Activities, Lesson Plans | Geography Awareness Week | Geography Standards-Based Activities | Geography Standards-Based Lesson Plans | Geography Teaching Alliances | National Geographic Bee | National Geography Standards
Nature and Conservation Index
Animals Index | News About Animals | News About Nature and Conservation | Search Our Publications | Habitats | Amazon Forests Ecoregion | Amazon River |
| Cuban Reefs | Exploring the Chesapeake: Then and Now | Habitats: The Growth of a Forest | Himalayan Forests Ecoregion | Interactive Map: Southeast U.S. Rivers | Madagascar Forests Ecoregion | Mesoamerican Reef Ecoregion | Monterey Bay | New Zealand | Sulu-Sulawesi Seas Ecoregion | U.S. National Marine Sanctuaries | Virtual "Smart Growth" Suburb (Impacts of Sprawl) | Virtual Columbia River (Dam Impacts) | Virtual Rain Forest: Borneo by Night | Conservation | Congo Trek: A Year in Untamed Africa | Donations for Conservation | Floods and Dams | Geoguide: Dams | Ozone and Pollution | Sustainable Tourism Resource Center | Wild World Conservation Atlas | Games | Fantastic Forest | For Educators | Geography Action: Conservation | Geography Action: Habitats | Geography Action: Public Lands | Geography Action: Rivers
News Home Page—Top Stories | Press Room | Search Our Publications | News Archive by Subject | Adventure and Exploration | Animals and Nature | Archaeology and Paleontology | Environment | Kids News | People and Culture | Science and Technology | Travel | Special Series | Emerging Explorers | Out There: Explorers and Adventurers in the Field | Research, Conservation, and Exploration | Travel Watch
Peoples and Cultures Index
SUBJECT GUIDE: History and Culture Home Page | Search Our Publications | News | Archaeology and Paleontology News Stories | People and Culture News Stories | People and Cultures of Today | The Story of the Weeping Camel | Afghanistan: Sebastian Junger Inside the Northern Alliance | Alaska: The Great Land | Bushmen: Southern Africa's First People | Contact! In the Amazon: Korubo Expedition | Daily Sound Portraits (Pulse of the Planet) | Gypsies: The Outsiders | Indonesia—Living Dangerously | | Nenets: Reindeer Herders of Siberia | Overpopulation | Refugees and War | Russia Rising | Tattoos, Piercings, and Body Markings |
| Ancient People and Cultures | Andes Expeditions: Searching for Inca Secrets | Egypt: At the Tomb of Tutankhamen | Genghis Khan | Ice Treasures of the Inca | Inca Mummy Bundle | Maya: Looted Treasures | Pirates of the Whydah | In Focus | At Novica | Handcrafts From Around the World | Travel Bookings | People/Culture Trips With Our Experts
SUBJECT GUIDE: Photography Home Page | Photo Gallery Index | Photo of the Day (Includes Wallpaper) | Photo of the Day Archive (Includes Wallpapers) | Photographer FAQ | Search Our Publications | National Geographic Magazine | Current Online Issue | Customer Service | Previous Issues | Subscriptions | For Kids | Funny Photos: Fill in the Blanks | Try This! Make Your Own Picture Frame | What in the World? Mystery Photo Game | Professional Photo Services | Photo Licensing (Image Collection) | Photographic and Digital Imaging Lab | In Focus | Travel Booking | Photography Trips With Our Experts
Science and Space Index
Asteroids: Deadly Impact | News on Space and Science | Search Our Publications | Science in Nature | Fire and Iceland: Volcano Research | Genetically Modified Food | Geoguide: Dams | Ozone and Pollution | Power of Light | The Power of Light | Volcanoes | Technology | Breaking the Sound Barrier | History of Satellites | Measuring Everest | New York Underground | Space | Exploring Space Special-Issue Preview | A Mars Never Dreamed Of | Asteroids: Deadly Impact | Mars Exploration | Mars Map | Return to Mars: 1997 Pathfinder Mission | Star Chart and Hubble Images | Virtual Solar System | Encyclopedia of Space
National Geographic Store | Books and Calendars | CD-ROMs | Clothing and Accessories | Educational Toys | Home and Garden Products | Magazines | Maps, Globes and Atlases | Sale Items | Science Tools | Toys for Kids | Travel and Outdoors | Videos and DVDs | Customer Service | Customer Service | Request a Print Catalog | Novica: Handcrafts Around the World | Art | Clothing | Furniture | Gifts | Home Decor | Jewelry | Masks | Musical Instruments | Paintings | Rugs | Sculptures | Vases | Travel Bookings | Trips With Our Experts | Adventure Trips | Archaeology Trips | Family Trips | Historical Trips | National Park Trips | People/Culture Trips | Photography Trips | Private Jet Trips | Small-Ship Expeditions | Wildlife/Nature Trips | Shop the National Geographic Store! | Books and Calendars | Maps, Globes, and Atlases | Educational Toys | Best-Sellers | Gift Finder | National Geographic's net proceeds support vital exploration, conservation, research, and education programs.
Television and Film Index
National Geographic Channel | United States: | Home Page | Program Previews | TV Schedule | Worldwide: | Asia | Australia/New Zealand | Brazil | Canada | Denmark | Europe | France | Germany | Hong Kong | Hungary | India | Italy | Japan | Latin America | National Geographic International Channel | Netherlands | Norway | Poland | Romania | Russia | Singapore | South Africa | Taiwan | United Kingdom | Past Specials on PBS and Fox | Air Force One (Check Local Listings) | Ambassador: Under Fire Overseas (Check Local Listings) | Egypt Eternal: The Quest for Lost Tombs (Check Local Listings) | In Search of the Jaguar (Check Local Listings) |
| Return of the Wolf (Check Local Listings) | Skin (Check Local Listings) | National Geographic Beyond the Movie | Large-Format Films (Distributed by Destination Cinema) | Forces of Nature | Lewis & Clark: Great Journey West | Mysteries of Egypt | Feature Films | The Story of the Weeping Camel | K-19 and Other Subs in Peril | Film Festivals and Screenings | All Roads Film Festival | National Geographic Live | Is the U.S. National Geographic Channel Available in Your Area? | Inside the Secret Service DVD
SUBJECT GUIDE: Travel Home Page | Search Our Publications | Travel News | Traveler Magazine | Back Issues | Current Online Issue | Customer Service | Subscriptions | Travel Bookings | Trips With Our Experts | Adventure Trips | Archaeology Trips | Family Trips | Historical Trips | National Park Trips | People/Culture Trips | Photography Trips | Private Jet Trips | Small-Ship Expeditions | Wildlife/Nature Trips | Travel Tools Online | Country and State Facts and Flags | MapMachine | Sustainable Tourism Resource Center | U.S. and Canada Trip Planners | Destination Guides | 10 Summer Sport Meccas | 100 Best U.S. Adventures | 25 Greatest Adventures (2000) | 25 Greatest Adventures (2001) | 6 Kid Friendly Resorts | Alaska Dogsledding | Alaska: The Great Land | Best of New Zealand | Bolivia on the Cheap | Fifty Places of a Lifetime | Historic U.S. Hikes | Lake Tahoe Rim Trail | Las Vegas Rocks | Spanish Peaks | The Open Road | TravelWise Guides: Links for Savvy Travelers | Trekking Nepal | U.S. and Canada Destination Guides | At Novica | Novica: Handcrafts from Around the World | National Geographic Country Guides
Weather and Natural Forces Index
Search Our Publications | Weather | Annual Precipitation, World | Annual Temperature, World | El Niño/La Niña | Ozone and Pollution | Snow Cover, World | Natural Forces | Earthquakes | Fallout: Eye on the Montserrat Volcano | Fire Call: A Wildland Firefighter Speaks | Fire and Iceland: Volcano Research | Floods and Dams | Volcanoes | Wildfires | Forces of Nature DVD
pa - Glossary of Mining Terms
with clear definitions (Browsable alphabetically)
Richter scale, Richterskala (W3)
Die "Richterskala", engl. "Richter scale", wurde von "Charles Francis Richter" und Beno Gutenberg am Technischen Institut von Kalifornien 1935 als mathematisches Hilfsmittel zum Vergleich der Stärke von Erdbeben entwickelt und anfänglich als "ML-Skala" ("Magnitude Local-Skala") bezeichnet.
United States and Territories
U.S. Board on Geographic Names
Geographic Names Data Base
The U.S. Board on Geographic Names is a Federal body created in 1890 and established in its present form by Public Law in 1947 to maintain uniform geographic name usage throughout the Federal Government. The Board comprises representatives of Federal agencies concerned with geographic information, population, ecology, and management of public lands. Sharing its responsibilities with the Secretary of the Interior, the Board promulgates official geographic feature names with locative attributes as well as principles, policies, and procedures governing the use of domestic names, foreign names, Antarctic names, and undersea feature names.
- Domestic Names: Search GNIS (includes FIPS55) | Download GNIS (includes FIPS55) | Principles, Policies, and Procedures | Minutes | Quarterly Review List | Propose or Change a Name | Compilation Status Map | FAQs
- Foreign Names
- Antarctic Names: Search | Antarctic Policy | Name Proposal Form
- Undersea Features
- Member Directory
- Council of Geographic Names Authorities
- Geographic Names of Individual U.S. States
- Alabama Place Names Research Center
- Alaska Community Database
- Arizona State Board on Geographic and Historic Names
- California Advisory Committee On Geographic Names
- Colorado Place Names by County
- Connecticut State Library - Unique Connecticut Place Names
- The Delaware Geographic Names Committee
- Georgia Place Names
- Hawaii Board on Geographical Names
- Idaho GenWeb: Idaho Place Names Origins
- Iowa GenWeb: Iowa Place Names
- Kansas State Historical Society
- Kentucky Atlas & Gazetteer
- thecajuns.com: Louisiana History: Old and New Place Names
- Michigans Place Names
- Minnesota Place Names
- The Mississippi 1885 Atlas and Gazetteer
- Montana History: Place Names
- University of Nebraska: Nebraska Place Names
- Nevada State Board on Geographic Names
- The State of New Jersey Localities
- The New Mexico Geographic Names Information System
- New York State Library Genealogy
- Ohio Historical and Changed Name Locations
- Oklahoma Town Names
- Oregon Geographic Names
- Tennessee Place Names and Post Offices
- Texas: Borderlands Information Center Geographic Names
- Utah Committee On Geographic Names
- Virginia Geographic Names Information System
- Washington Place Names Database
- Place Names in West Virginia
- Wisconsin Geographic Names Council
- Wyoming Board of Geographic Names
- SCAR - Composite Gazetteer
- Australia - Antarctic Names and Gazetteer
- Bulgaria - Bulgarian Antarctic Gazetteer
- Germany - Geographical names of the Antarctic
- New Zealand - Frameworks of the New Zealand Geographic Board (pg_37)
- Norway - Norwegian Polar Institute
- United Kingdom - Antarctic Place-Names Committee
- Australian Surveying and Land Information Group (AUSLIG) Gazetteer of Australia
- Australian National Placenames Survey
- Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying and Mapping
- Geographical Names Board of NSW (New South Wales)
- Place Names in the Northern Territory
- Vicnames - Geographic Place Name Authentication (Victoria)
- Names and Places in Western Australia
- South Australian State Gazetteer
- Queensland Department of Natural Resources
- BELGIUM-ROOTS Project
- Canadian Geographical Names Data Base: English, French
- Friends of Geographical Names of Alberta
- BC Geographical Names (British Columbia)
- Manitoba Geographical Names Program
- Place Names Database - PWNHC (Northwest Territories)
- Nova Scotia's Geographical Names
- Ontario Geographic Names Board Act
- Nunavut Planning Commission
- Commission de toponymie du Quebec (French only)
- Chinese Historical Placenames
- Place Name in Denmark
- Place Names Board of Estonia
- The LOCUS Project
- New Zealand
- New Zealand Geographic Place-Names Database
- United Kingdom
- The Permanent Committee on Geographical Names for British Official Use
- Gazetteer of British Place Names
- Ordnance Survey
- Gazetteer for Scotland
- Fuzzy Gazetteer
- National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) GEOnet Names Server (GNS)
- Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
- International Astronomical Union Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature
- Other Related Federal Information Servers
- U.S. Census Bureau U.S. Gazetteer
- U.S. Census Bureau U.S. Census Bureau's Mapping and Cartographic Resources
- Environmental Protection Agency Surf Your Watershed | Locate Your Watershed |
- Miscellaneous Geographic Name Sites
- American Name Society
- Alexandria Digital Library
- Arizona State University Place Name Servers on the Internet
- Coeur d'Alene Native Names Project
- Columbia Gazetteer
- GeoNative - To Preserve Native and Minority placenames
- Latin Place Names - Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University
- Toponymy Interest Group (PLANSUS)
Places & Geography
Maps & Projections
Geodesy & Navigation
- generate maps of a specified country Argentina map
- generate a world map colored according to a given statistic life expectancy
- draw a map using a specified projection world Winkel Tripel projection
- locate a point on Earth using latitude-longitude coordinates 55 deg 45' N, 37 deg 37' E
- compute the great-circle distance between points on the globe 23.5S 46.4W to 56.8N 60.6E
- find the coordinates of a city Algiers coordinates
- locate a ZIP code ZIP 60637
- locate an airport and get information about it Midway Airport
- look up your IP address and estimate your location Where am I?
- get information about a country France
- request a class of information about a country Peru geography
- rank countries 5 largest countries by area
Metro & Urban Areas
- get information about a city Buenos Aires
- compare several cities New York, London, Tokyo
- do computations with city and country properties population Madrid / population Spain
- get information about a metropolitan area Wichita metro area
- look up particular facts for an urban area population of the New York City urban area
- get information about a US state Connecticut
- do computations with state properties (land area MA+CT+RI) / (land area NY state)
US Congressional Districts
- get information about a US county Cook County, Illinois
- compare several counties Orange County California, Orange County Florida
- get information about a congressional district CA district 8
- find a district with geographic features US congressional district with largest water area fraction
- locate a ZIP code ZIP 60637
- compare ZIP codes ZIP 84101 vs ZIP 84105
- find the elevation of a city elevation Chicago
- get elevation data near specified coordinates elevation around 46N 7E
- find minimum/maximum elevations for a country Russia lowest point
- get information about an ocean Atlantic Ocean
- do computation with ocean properties area Pacific Ocean / Atlantic Ocean
- get current tide information tides Seattle
- get information about an undersea feature Maro Reef
- compare several features Mariana Trench vs Kermadec Trench
- get information about a lake Loch Ness
- compare several lakes Great Salt Lake, Lake Winnipeg
- do computations with lake properties surface area Lake Erie + Lake Huron + Lake Ontario
- get information about a river Mississippi River
- compare several rivers Tigris, Euphrates
- do computations with river properties length Amazon / Nile
- get information about a waterfall Bambarakanda Falls
- compare several waterfalls Niagara Falls, Yosemite Falls, Colonial Creek Falls
- do computations with waterfall properties width Victoria Falls / Iguacu Falls
- get information about an island Hispaniola
- get information about a group of islands Galapagos Islands
- do computations with island properties area Martha's Vineyard / Nantucket
- get information about a mountain Mt Hood
- do computations with mountain properties height Mt Timpanogos / Mt McKinley
- get information about a volcano Irruputuncu
- compare volcanoes Krakatau, Tambora
- get information about a desert Gobi Desert
- do computations using desert properties area Gibson desert / Australia
- compare parks Yellowstone National Park, Yosemite National Park