Etymologie, Etimología, Étymologie, Etimologia, Etymology US Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika, Estados Unidos de América, États-Unis d'Amérique, Stati Uniti d'America, United States of America Algorithmus (Algorithmentheorie), Algoritmo, Théorie des algorithmes, Algoritmo, Algorithm Theory

N

nist Dictionary of Algorithms and Data Structures

• | a: see inverse Ackermann function | ? | O | ?-approximation algorithm | | T
• | A | absolute performance guarantee | abstract data type | (a,b)-tree | accepting state | Ackermann's function | active data structure | acyclic directed graph: see directed acyclic graph | acyclic graph | adaptive heap sort | adaptive Huffman coding | adaptive k-d tree | adaptive sort | address-calculation sort | adjacency-list representation | adjacency-matrix representation | adjacent | admissible vertex | ADT: see abstract data type | adversary | Aho-Corasick | algorithm | algorithm BSTW | algorithm FGK | algorithmically solvable: see decidable problem | all pairs shortest path | all simple paths | alphabet | Alpha Skip Search algorithm | alternating path | alternating Turing machine | alternation | American flag sort | amortized cost | ancestor | and | ANSI | antichain | antisymmetric | Apostolico-Crochemore | Apostolico-Giancarlo algorithm | approximate string matching: see string matching with errors | approximation algorithm | arborescence | arc: see edge | arithmetic coding | array | array index | array merging | array search | articulation point: see cut vertex | assignment problem | association list: see dictionary | associative | associative array | asymptotically tight bound | asymptotic bound | asymptotic lower bound | asymptotic space complexity | asymptotic time complexity | asymptotic upper bound | augmenting path | automaton | average case | average-case cost | AVL tree | axiomatic semantics
• | B | backtracking | bag | balance | balanced binary search tree | balanced binary tree | balanced k-way merge sort | balanced merge sort | balanced multiway merge | balanced multiway tree: see B-tree | balanced quicksort | balanced tree | balanced two-way merge sort | BANG file | Batcher sort: see bitonic sort | Baum Welch algorithm | BB(a) tree | BBP algorithm | BDD | BD-tree | Bellman-Ford algorithm | | best case | best-case cost | best-first search | biconnected component | biconnected graph | bidirectional bubble sort | big-O notation | binary function | binary GCD | binary heap | binary insertion sort | binary knapsack problem: see knapsack problem | binary priority queue | binary relation | binary search | binary search tree | binary tree | binary tree representation of trees | bingo sort | binomial heap | binomial tree | bin packing problem | bin sort: see bucket sort | bintree | bipartite graph | bipartite matching | bisector | bitonic sort | bit vector | Bk tree | blind sort | blind trie | block | block addressing index | blocking flow | block search: see jump search | Bloom filter | blossom | bogosort | boolean | boolean expression | boolean function | border | Boruvka's algorithm | bottleneck traveling salesman | bottom-up tree automaton | boundary-based representation | bounded error probability in polynomial time: see BPP | bounded queue | bounded stack | Boyer-Moore | Boyer-Moore-Horspool | bozo sort | B+-tree | BPP | branch and bound | breadth-first search | Bresenham's algorithm | brick sort | bridge | British Museum technique | brute force | brute force string search | brute force string search with mismatches | BSP-tree | B*-tree | B-tree | bubble sort | bucket | bucket array | bucketing method | bucket sort | bucket trie | buddy system | buddy tree | build-heap | Burrows-Wheeler transform | busy beaver | BV-tree | BWT: see Burrows-Wheeler transform | Byzantine generals
• | C | cactus stack | Calculus of Communicating Systems | calendar queue | candidate consistency testing | candidate verification | canonical complexity class | capacitated facility location | capacity | capacity constraint | cartesian tree: see randomized binary search tree | cascade merge sort | Caverphone | CCS | cell probe model | cell tree | cellular automaton | centroid | certificate | chain | chaining | child | Chinese postman problem | Chinese remainder theorem | Christofides algorithm | chromatic index | chromatic number | circuit | circuit complexity | circuit value problem | circular list | circular queue | clique | clique problem | clustering | clustering free | coalesced chaining | coarsening | cocktail shaker sort: see bidirectional bubble sort | codeword | coding tree | Collatz problem | collective recursion | collision | collision resolution scheme | Colussi | combination | comb sort | Commentz-Walter | Communicating Sequential Processes | commutative | compact DAWG | compact trie | comparison sort | competitive analysis | competitive ratio | complement | complete binary tree | complete graph | completely connected graph | complete tree | complexity | complexity class | computable | concave function | concurrent flow | concurrent read, concurrent write | concurrent read, exclusive write | confluently persistent data structure | conjunction | connected components | connected graph | constant function | continuous knapsack problem: see fractional knapsack problem | Cook reduction | Cook's theorem | CORDIC | counting sort | covering | CRC: see cyclic redundancy check | CRCW: see concurrent read, concurrent write | CREW: see concurrent read, exclusive write | critical path problem | CSP | CTL | cube root | cuckoo hashing | cut | cutting plane | cutting stock problem | cutting theorem | cut vertex | cycle | cyclic redundancy check
• | D | D-adjacent | DAG: see directed acyclic graph | DAG shortest paths | data structure | DAWG: see directed acyclic word graph | decidable language | decidable problem | decimation: see prune and search | decision problem | decomposable searching problem | degree | dense graph | depoissonization | depth | depth-first search | deque | derangement | descendant | deterministic | deterministic algorithm | deterministic finite automata string search | deterministic finite automaton: see deterministic finite state machine | deterministic finite state machine | deterministic finite tree automaton | deterministic pushdown automaton | deterministic tree automaton | Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm | DFA: see deterministic finite state machine | DFS: see depth-first search | DFS forest | DFTA: see deterministic finite tree automaton | diagonalization | diameter | dichotomic search | dictionary | diet: see discrete interval encoding tree | difference | digital search tree | digital tree | digraph: see directed graph | Dijkstra's algorithm | diminishing increment sort | dining philosophers | direct chaining | directed acyclic graph | directed acyclic word graph | directed graph | discrete interval encoding tree | discrete p-center | disjoint set | disjunction | distributional complexity | distribution sort | distributive partitioning sort | divide and conquer | divide and marriage before conquest | division method | domain | dominance tree sort | don't care | | double-direction bubble sort: see bidirectional bubble sort | double-ended priority queue | double hashing | double left rotation | double metaphone | double right rotation | doubly-chained tree: see binary tree representation of trees | doubly-ended queue: see deque | doubly linked list | DPDA: see deterministic pushdown automaton | D-tree | dual | dual linear program | Dutch national flag | dyadic tree: see binary tree | dynamic | dynamic array | dynamic hashing | dynamic Huffman coding: see adaptive Huffman coding | dynamic programming | dynamization transformation
• | E | easy split, hard merge | edge | edge coloring | edge connectivity | edge crossing | edge-weighted graph: see weighted graph | edit distance: see Levenshtein distance | edit operation | edit script | efficiency | 8 queens | elastic-bucket trie | element uniqueness | end-of-string | enfilade | ERCW: see exclusive read, concurrent write | EREW: see exclusive read, exclusive write | Euclidean algorithm: see Euclid's algorithm | Euclidean distance | Euclidean Steiner tree | Euclidean traveling salesman problem | Euclid's algorithm | Euler cycle | Eulerian graph | Eulerian path: see Euler cycle | exact string matching: see string matching | EXCELL | exchange sort: see bubble sort | exclusive or: see xor | exclusive read, concurrent write | exclusive read, exclusive write | exhaustive search | existential state | expandable hashing | expander graph | exponential | extended binary tree | extended Euclid's algorithm | extended k-d tree | extendible hashing | external chaining: see separate chaining | external index | external memory algorithm | external memory data structure | external merge | external node: see leaf | external quicksort | external radix sort | external sort | extrapolation search: see interpolation search | extremal | extreme point
• | F | facility location | factor: see substring | factorial | | fathoming | feasible region | feasible solution | feedback edge set | feedback vertex set | Ferguson-Forcade algorithm | | FIFO: see queue | filial-heir chain: see binary tree representation of trees | Find | find kth least element: see select kth element | finitary tree | finite state automaton: see finite state machine | finite state machine | finite state machine minimization | finite state transducer | first child-next sibling binary tree: see binary tree representation of trees | first come, first served | first-in, first-out | Fisher-Yates shuffle | fixed-grid method | flash sort | flow | flow conservation | flow function | flow network | Floyd-Warshall algorithm | Ford-Bellman: see Bellman-Ford algorithm | Ford-Fulkerson method | forest | forest editing problem | formal language: see language | formal methods | formal verification | forward index | fractional knapsack problem | fractional solution | free edge | free tree | free vertex | frequency count heuristic | full array | full binary tree | full inverted index | fully dynamic graph problem | fully persistent data structure | fully polynomial approximation scheme | function | functional data structure: see active data structure
• | G | Galil-Giancarlo | Galil-Seiferas | gamma function | GBD-tree | GCD: see greatest common divisor | geometric optimization problem | global optimum | gnome sort | graph | graph coloring | graph concentration | graph drawing | graph isomorphism | graph partition | Gray code | greatest common divisor | greedy algorithm | greedy heuristic | grid drawing | grid file | Grover's algorithm
• | H | halting problem | Hamiltonian cycle | Hamiltonian path | Hamming distance | hard split, easy merge | hashbelt | hash function | hash heap | hash table | hash table delete | Hausdorff distance | hB-tree | head | heap | heapify | heap property | heapsort | heaviest common subsequence: see longest common subsequence | height | height-balanced binary search tree | height-balanced tree | heuristic | hidden Markov model | highest common factor: see greatest common divisor | histogram sort | HMM: see hidden Markov model | homeomorphic | horizontal visibility map | Horner's rule | Horspool: see Boyer-Moore-Horspool | hsadelta | Huffman coding | huge sparse array | Hungarian algorithm: see Munkres' assignment algorithm | hybrid algorithm | hyperedge | hypergraph
• | I | ideal merge | ideal random shuffle | implication | implies | inclusion-exclusion principle | inclusive or: see or | incompressible string | incremental hashing: see linear hashing | in-degree | independent set | index file | information theoretic bound | in-order traversal | in-place sort | insertion sort | integer linear program | integer multi-commodity flow | integer polyhedron | interactive proof system | interior-based representation | internal node | internal sort | interpolation search | interpolation-sequential search | interpolation sort: see histogram sort | intersection | interval tree | intractable | introsort: see introspective sort | introspective sort | inverse Ackermann function | inverse suffix array | inverted file index | inverted index | irreflexive | isomorphic | iteration
• | J | Jaro-Winkler | Johnson's algorithm | Johnson-Trotter | JSort | J sort | jump list | jump search
• | K | Karnaugh map | Karp-Rabin | Karp reduction | k-ary heap | k-ary Huffman coding | k-ary tree | k-clustering | k-coloring | k-connected graph | k-d-B-tree | k-dimensional | K-dominant match | k-d tree | key | KMP: see Knuth-Morris-Pratt algorithm | KmpSkip Search | knapsack problem | knight's tour | Knuth-Morris-Pratt algorithm | Königsberg bridges problem: see Euler cycle | Kolmogorov complexity | Kraft's inequality | Kripke structure | Kruskal's algorithm | | kth shortest path | kth smallest element: see select kth element | KV diagram: see Karnaugh map | k-way merge | k-way merge sort | k-way tree: see k-ary tree
• | L | labeled graph | language | last-in, first-out | Las Vegas algorithm | lattice | layered graph | LCM: see least common multiple | LCS | leaf | least common multiple | leftist tree | left rotation | Lempel-Ziv-Welch | level-order traversal | Levenshtein distance | lexicographical order | LIFO: see stack | linear | linear congruential generator | linear hash | linear hashing | linear insertion sort: see insertion sort | linear order: see total order | linear probing | linear probing sort | linear product | linear program | linear quadtree | linear search | link | linked list | list | list contraction | little-o notation | Lm distance | load factor | local alignment | locality-sensitive hashing | local optimum | logarithmic | longest common subsequence | longest common substring | Lotka's law | lower bound | lower triangular matrix | lowest common ancestor | l-reduction | lucky sort | LZW compression: see Lempel-Ziv-Welch M | Malhotra-Kumar-Maheshwari blocking flow | Manhattan distance | many-one reduction | map: see dictionary | Markov chain | Marlena | marriage problem: see assignment problem | Master theorem | matched edge | matched vertex | matching | matrix | matrix-chain multiplication problem | max-heap property | maximal independent set | maximally connected component | Maximal Shift | maximum bipartite matching: see bipartite matching | maximum-flow problem | MAX-SNP | MBB: see minimum bounding box | Mealy machine | mean | median | meld | memoization | merge | merge sort | metaheuristic | metaphone | midrange | Miller-Rabin | min-heap property | minimal perfect hashing | minimax | minimum bounding box | minimum cut | minimum path cover | minimum spanning tree | minimum vertex cut | Minkowski distance: see Lm distance | mixed integer linear program | mode | model checking | model of computation | moderately exponential | MODIFIND | monotone priority queue | monotonically decreasing | monotonically increasing | Monte Carlo algorithm | Moore machine | Morris-Pratt algorithm | move: see transition | move-to-front heuristic | move-to-root heuristic | MST: see minimum spanning tree | multi-commodity flow | multigraph | multikey Quicksort | multilayer grid file | multiplication method | multiprefix | multiprocessor model | multi-set: see bag | multi suffix tree | multiway decision | multiway merge | multiway search tree | multiway tree | Munkres' assignment algorithm
• | N | naive string search: see brute force string search | nand | n-ary function | NC many-one reducibility | nearest neighbor | negation | network flow: see flow function | network flow problem: see maximum-flow problem | next state | NFA: see nondeterministic finite state machine | NFTA: see nondeterministic finite tree automaton | NIST | node | nonbalanced merge | nonbalanced merge sort | nondeterministic | nondeterministic algorithm | nondeterministic finite automaton: see nondeterministic finite state machine | nondeterministic finite state machine | nondeterministic finite tree automaton | nondeterministic polynomial time: see NP | nondeterministic tree automaton | nondeterministic Turing machine | nonterminal node: see internal node | nor | not | Not So Naive | NP | NP-complete | NP-complete language | NP-hard | n queens | nullary function: see 0-ary function | null tree | NYSIIS
• | O | O: see big-O notation | OBDD | | oblivious algorithm | occurrence | octree | off-line algorithm | offset | omega | omicron | one-based indexing | one-dimensional | on-line algorithm | open addressing | optimal | optimal cost: see best-case cost | optimal hashing: see perfect hashing | optimal merge | optimal mismatch | optimal polygon triangulation problem | optimal polyphase merge | optimal polyphase merge sort | optimal solution | optimal triangulation problem | optimal value | optimization problem | or | oracle set | oracle tape | oracle Turing machine | order | ordered array | ordered binary decision diagram: see OBDD | ordered linked list | ordered tree | order-preserving hash: see linear hash | order-preserving Huffman coding | order-preserving minimal perfect hashing | oriented acyclic graph: see directed acyclic graph | oriented graph: see directed graph | oriented tree: see rooted tree | orthogonal drawing | orthogonal lists | orthogonally convex rectilinear polygon | | out-degree
• | P | P | packing | padding argument | pagoda | pairing heap | PAM: see point access method | parallel computation thesis | parallel prefix computation | parallel random-access machine | parametric searching | parent | partial function | partially decidable problem | partially dynamic graph problem | partially ordered set: see poset | partially persistent data structure | partial order | partial recursive function | partition | passive data structure | path | path cover | path system problem | Patricia tree | | P-complete | PCP: see Post's correspondence problem | PDA: see pushdown automaton | Pearson's hash | perfect binary tree | perfect hashing | perfect k-ary tree | perfect matching | perfect shuffle | performance guarantee | performance ratio: see relative performance guarantee | permutation | persistent data structure | phonetic coding | pigeonhole sort | pile | pipelined divide and conquer | planar graph | planarization | planar straight-line graph | PLOP-hashing | point access method | pointer jumping | pointer machine | poissonization | polychotomy | polyhedron | polylogarithmic | polynomial | polynomial approximation scheme | polynomial hierarchy | polynomial time | polynomial-time reduction | polyphase merge | polyphase merge sort | polytope | poset | postfix traversal: see postorder traversal | Post machine | postman's sort | postorder traversal | Post's correspondence problem | potential function | PRAM: see parallel random-access machine | predicate | prefix | prefix code | prefix computation | prefix sums: see scan | prefix traversal: see preorder traversal | preorder traversal | primary clustering | primitive recursive | Prim-Jarnik algorithm | principle of optimality | priority queue | prisoner's dilemma | PRNG: see pseudo-random number generator | probabilistic algorithm | probabilistically checkable proof | probabilistic Turing machine | probe sequence | procedure | process algebra | proper | proper binary tree: see full binary tree | proper coloring | proper subset | property list: see dictionary | prune and search | pseudo-random number generator | PTAS: see polynomial approximation scheme | P-tree | purely functional language | pushdown automaton | pushdown transducer | p-way merge sort: see k-way merge sort
• | Q | qm sort | q sort | quadratic probing | quadtree | quadtree complexity theorem | quad trie | quantum computation | queue | quick search | quicksort
• | R | Rabin-Karp: see Karp-Rabin | radix sort | radix tree: see Patricia tree | ragged matrix | Raita | random access machine | randomization | randomized algorithm | randomized binary search tree | randomized complexity | randomized polynomial time: see RP | randomized rounding | randomized search tree | Randomized-Select | random number generator | random sampling | random search | range | range sort | rank | rapid sort | Ratcliff/Obershelp pattern recognition | RBST: see randomized binary search tree | reachable | rebalance | recognizer | rectangular matrix | rectilinear | rectilinear Steiner tree | recurrence equations: see recurrence relation | recurrence relation | recursion | recursion termination | recursion tree | recursive | recursive data structure | recursive doubling: see pointer jumping | recursive language: see decidable language | recursively enumerable language | recursively solvable: see decidable problem | red-black tree | reduced basis | reduced digraph | reduced ordered binary decision diagram | reduction | reflexive | regular decomposition | rehashing: see double hashing | relation | relational structure | relative performance guarantee | relaxation | relaxed balance | repeated squaring | rescalable | reservoir sampling | restricted universe sort | result cache | Reverse Colussi | Reverse Factor | R-file | Rice's method | right rotation | right-threaded tree | RNG: see random number generator | ROBDD: see reduced ordered binary decision diagram | Robin Hood hashing | root | root balance: see balance | rooted tree | rotate left: see left rotation | rotate right: see right rotation | rotation | rough graph | RP | R+-tree | R*-tree | R-tree | run time
• | S | saguaro stack: see cactus stack | SAM: see spatial access method | saturated edge | SBB tree | scan | scapegoat tree | scatter storage: see hash table | Schorr-Waite graph marking algorithm | search | search tree | search tree property | secant search | secondary clustering | segment | Select | select and partition | selection problem: see select kth element | selection sort | select kth element | select mode | self-loop | self-organizing heuristic | self-organizing list | self-organizing sequential search: see transpose sequential search | semidefinite programming | separate chaining | separation theorem | sequential search: see linear search | set | set cover | set packing | shadow heap | shadow merge | shadow merge insert | shaker sort: see bidirectional bubble sort | Shannon-Fano coding | shared memory | Shell sort | Shift-Or | Shor's algorithm | shortcutting: see pointer jumping | shortest common supersequence | shortest common superstring | shortest path | shortest spanning tree: see minimum spanning tree | shuffle: see permutation | shuffle sort | sibling | sieve of Eratosthenes | sift up | signature | Simon's algorithm | simple merge | simple path | simple uniform hashing | simplex | simulated annealing | simulation theorem | single-destination shortest-path problem | single-pair shortest-path problem: see shortest path | single program multiple data | single-source shortest-path problem | singly linked list: see linked list | singularity analysis | sink | sinking sort: see bubble sort | skd-tree | skew symmetry | skip list | skip search | slope selection | Smith algorithm | Smith-Waterman algorithm | smoothsort | solvable | sort | sorted array | sorted list | sort in place: see in-place sort | soundex | source | space-constructible function | space ordering method | spanning tree | sparse graph | sparse matrix | sparsification | sparsity | spatial access method | spiral storage | splay tree | SPMD: see single program multiple data | square matrix | square root | SST: see minimum spanning tree | stable | stack | stack tree | star encoding | star-shaped polygon | start state | state | state machine | state transition: see transition | static | static Huffman coding: see Huffman coding | s-t cut | st-digraph | Steiner point | Steiner ratio | Steiner tree | Steiner vertex | Steinhaus-Johnson-Trotter: see Johnson-Trotter | Stirling's approximation | Stirling's formula | stooge sort | straight-line drawing | strand sort | strictly decreasing | strictly increasing | strictly lower triangular matrix | strictly upper triangular matrix | string | string editing problem | string matching | string matching on ordered alphabets | string matching with errors | string matching with mismatches | string searching: see string matching | strip packing | strongly connected component | strongly connected graph | strongly NP-hard | stupid sort | subadditive ergodic theorem | subgraph | subgraph isomorphism | sublinear time algorithm | subsequence | subset | substring | subtree | suffix | suffix array | suffix automaton | suffix tree | superimposed code | superset | supersink | supersource | symmetric | symmetrically linked list: see doubly linked list | symmetric binary B-tree: see red-black tree | symmetric set difference | symmetry breaking
• | T | taco sort | tail | tail recursion | target | temporal logic | terminal | terminal node: see leaf | ternary search tree | text | text searching: see string matching | theta: see T | threaded binary tree | threaded tree | three-dimensional | three-way merge sort | three-way radix quicksort: see multikey Quicksort | time-constructible function | time/space complexity | top-down radix sort | top-down tree automaton | topological order | topological sort | topology tree | total function | totally decidable language: see decidable language | totally decidable problem: see decidable problem | totally undecidable problem | total order | tour: see Hamiltonian cycle | tournament | tournament sort | towers of Hanoi | tractable | transition | transition function | transitive | transitive closure | transitive reduction | transpose sequential search | traveling salesman | treap | tree | tree automaton | tree contraction | tree editing problem | treesort (1) | treesort (2) | tree traversal | triangle inequality | triconnected graph | trie | trinary function | tripartition | TSP: see traveling salesman | TST: see ternary search tree | Turbo-BM | Turbo Reverse Factor | Turing machine | Turing reduction | Turing transducer | twin grid file | 2-choice hashing | two-dimensional | 2-left hashing | two-level grid file | 2-3-4 tree | 2-3 tree | Two Way algorithm | two-way linked list: see doubly linked list | two-way merge sort
• | U | UB-tree | UKP: see unbounded knapsack problem | unary function | unbounded knapsack problem | uncomputable function | uncomputable problem | undecidable language | undecidable problem | undirected graph | uniform circuit complexity | uniform circuit family | uniform hashing | uniform matrix | union | union of automata | universal B-tree | universal hashing | universal state | universal Turing machine | universe | unlimited branching tree | UnShuffle sort | unsolvable problem | unsorted list | upper triangular matrix
• | V | van Emde-Boas priority queue | vehicle routing problem | Veitch diagram: see Karnaugh map | vertex | vertex coloring | vertex connectivity | vertex cover | vertical visibility map | virtual hashing | visibility map | visible | Viterbi algorithm | Vitter's algorithm | VRP: see vehicle routing problem
• | W | walk | weak-heap | weak-heap sort | weight-balanced tree: see BB(a) tree | weighted, directed graph | weighted graph | window | witness | work | work-depth model | work-efficient | work-preserving | worst case | worst-case cost | worst-case minimum access
• | X | xor
• | Y | Yule distribution: see Zipfian distribution
• | Z | Zeller's congruence | 0-ary function | 0-based indexing | 0-1 knapsack problem: see knapsack problem | Zhu-Takaoka | Zipfian distribution | Zipf's law | zipper | ZPP

(E?)(L?) http://www.translationdirectory.com/glossaries/glossary272.php

Algorithms and Data Structures Glossary

Erstellt: 2011-05

S

sorting-algorithms.com Sorting Algorithm Animations

(E?)(L1) http://www.sorting-algorithms.com/

• Problem Size: 20 · 30 · 40 · 50
• Magnification: 1x · 2x · 3x
• Algorithm: Insertion · Selection · Bubble · Shell · Merge · Heap · Quick · Quick3
• Initial Condition: Random · Nearly Sorted · Reversed · Few Unique
Discussion

These pages show 8 different sorting algorithms on 4 different initial conditions. These visualizations are intended to:
• Show how each algorithm operates.
• Show that there is no best sorting algorithm.
• Show that worse-case asymptotic behavior is not always the deciding factor in choosing an algorithm.
• Show that the initial condition (input order and key distribution) affects performance as much as the algorithm choice.
...

Erstellt: 2015-01