Old English Made Easy
Grammar of Old English
From here you can find both Old to Modern and Modern to Old English Dictionaries. Finished Dictionaries are colored green/blue, and those cross-referenced with Bosworth & Toller are orange.
Welcome to my web site, which describes my books "Forgotten English", "The Word Museum", "Altered English", and now "Informal English", as well as my page-a-day "Forgotten English Calendar". Any of these publications may be ordered through this web site or purchased at chain bookstores, independent booksellers, and in many museum gift shops.
When someone has passed away, the grief therapist receives the client and prepares that loved one, makes arrangements, and soon the dearly departed is interred. Or in a more jaunty mood you might say that someone bought the farm and is soon pushing up daisies.
All this might sound a little circumspect or evasive, when we really mean that when someone has died, the funeral director receives the corpse and sees to it that the dead body is soon buried.
All of us routinely avoid speaking words that have to do with death, but in many other areas we also seem to be reluctant to say something that is too "strong".
ADJECTIVE: Inflected forms: "merrier", "merriest"
1. Full of high-spirited gaiety; jolly.
2. Marked by or offering fun and gaiety; festive: a merry evening.
3. Archaic Delightful; entertaining.
4. Brisk: a merry pace.
ETYMOLOGY: Middle English "merri", from Old English "mirige", "pleasant". See "mregh-u-" in Appendix I.
OTHER FORMS: "merrily" —ADVERB, "merriness" —NOUN
DEFINITION: "Short". Oldest form "*mregh-u-", becoming "*mregh-u-" in centum languages.
I.: Suffixed form "*mregh-wi-". "brief", "brumal" ; "abbreviate", "abridge" , from Latin "brevis", "short".
II.: Zero-grade form "*mrghu-".
1a.: "merry" , from Old English "myrge", "mirige", "pleasant";
b.: "mirth" , from Old English "myrgth", "pleasure", "joy", from Germanic "*murgitho", "pleasantness".
Both a and b from Germanic "*murgja-", "short", also "pleasant", "joyful".
2.: "brachy-"; "amphibrach", "tribrach" , from Greek "brakhus", "short".
3.: "brace", "bracero", "brachium", "brassard", "brassiere", "pretzel" ; "embrace" , from Greek comparative "brakhion", "shorter", hence also "upper arm" (as opposed to the longer forearm). (Pokorny "mreghu-" 750.)
The Merry Gentleman
The Merry Cemetery
Small-town Romanian cemetery filled with darkly humorous gravestones
Outsider Art, Memento Mori, Catacombs, Crypts, & Cemeteries
22 May 2013
Los Angeles, California
Fire Survivors of the Griffith Park Merry-Go-Round
Three vintage horses survived a 1976 inferno and found a home on a sister carousel
Retro-Tech, Disaster Areas
18 Dec 2012
Le Manège de Petit Pierre in La Fabuloserie Museum
A small world of mechanical magic and metal merry-go-rounds in a Outsider art Museum
Outsider Art, Outsider Architecture, Unique Collections
18 Jan 2012
Robert Burns. (1759-1796). Poems and Songs.
The Harvard Classics. 1909-14.
Index to First Lines
O merry hae I been teethin' a heckle
- Cantie, cheerful, lively, jolly, merry.
- Cants, merry stories, canters or sprees or merry doings.
- Rants, merry meetings; rows.
merry, marry, Mary
- Merry Andrew.
- Merry Dancers.
- Merry Dun of Dover.
- Merry Men (My).
- Merry Men of Mey.
- Merry Monarch.
- Merry as a Cricket, or as a Lark, or as a Grig.
The original meaning is not "mirthful", but "active", "famous"; hence gallant soldiers were called "merry men"; favourable weather, "merry weather"; brisk wind, "a merry gale"; London was "merry London"; England, "merry England"; Chaucer speaks of the "merry organ at the mass"; Jane Shore is called by Pennant the "merry concubine of Edward IV." (Anglo-Saxon, "mœra", "illustrious", "great", "mighty", etc.).
THE CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF ENGLISH AND AMERICAN LITERATURE
An Encyclopedia in Eighteen Volumes
Volume V: English - THE DRAMA TO 1642 - Part One
Edited by A. W. Ward & A. R. Waller
- Plays not mentioned by Meres: Pericles, The Merry Wives, Measure for Measure, Much Ado about Nothing, As You Like It and Twelfth Night
- The Merry Devill of Edmonton
Samuel Adams Merry Mischief
Weyerbacher Merry Monks
Merry Are the Bells
- A Merry Alphabet
- Merry Alphabet A to Z
- Merry Childhood
- Merry Little People
Dame Twist Goeth to See the Merry Doings at the Fair
The Merry Wiues of Windsor
by William Shakespeare
Free Public Domain Books from the Classic Literature Library
The Merry Devill of Edmonton
by William Shakespeare
Free Public Domain Books from the Classic Literature Library
The Merry Men
by Robert Louis Stevenson
Free Public Domain Books from the Classic Literature Library
Old English "myrge" "pleasing", "agreeable", "pleasant", "sweet"; "pleasantly", "melodiously", from Proto-Germanic "*murgijaz", which probably originally meant "short-lasting", (compare Old High German "murg" "short", Gothic "gamaurgjan" "to shorten"), from PIE "*mreghu-" "short" (see "brief" (adj.)). The only exact cognate for meaning outside English was Middle Dutch mergelijc "joyful".
Connection to "pleasure" is likely via notion of "making time fly", "that which makes the time seem to pass quickly" (compare German "Kurzweil" "pastime", literally "a short time"; Old Norse "skemta" "to amuse", "entertain", "amuse oneself", from "skamt", neuter of "skammr" "short"). There also was a verbal form in Old English, "myrgan" "be merry", "rejoice". For vowel evolution, see "bury" (v.).
Bot vchon enle we wolde were fyf, þe mo þe myryer. [c.1300]
The word had much wider senses in Middle English, such as "pleasant-sounding" (of animal voices), "fine" (of weather), "handsome" (of dress), "pleasant-tasting" (of herbs). "Merry-bout" "an incident of sexual intercourse" was low slang from 1780. "Merry-begot" "illegitimate" (adj.), "bastard" (n.) is from 1785. "Merrie England" (now frequently satirical or ironic) is 14c. "meri ingland", originally in a broader sense of "bountiful", "prosperous". "Merry Monday" was a 16c. term for "the Monday before Shrove Tuesday" ("Mardi Gras").
God Rest Ye, Merry Hippogriffs
Maid Marian and Her Merry Men (GB 1989-1994)
marry vs. merry
- marry - to wed
- merry - cheerful
Maid Marian And Her Merry Men - The Children's TV Comedy
Everyone's heard the story of Robin Hood and his band of merry men who lived in Sherwood Forest and robbed the rich to feed the poor. However, Maid Marian and her Merry Men gave a new twist to the old tale, by making Marian the leader of the gang. In this children's comedy, Robin Hood is a useless, foppish wimp, while Marian bullies the local villagers into joining her against the evil King John.
merry a (supp)
Meriadoc „Merry“ Brandybock (Original: Meriadoc „Merry“ Brandybuck) ist im Legendarium einer der neun Gefährten.
35. 'God Rest Ye, Merry Gentlemen'
God Rest Ye, Merry Hippogriffs
lead a merry chase lead one a merry dance make merry merry
The Etymology of First Names
"MURIEL" form of "MYRA" or "sea bright" (Celtic) or "merry" (Middle English)
The Merry Gentleman
Phrases that include merry:
- 1. a merry life
- 2. a merry little christmas
- 3. a merry mirthworm christmas
- 4. a merry mix-up
- 5. a merry mix up
- 6. a merry war
- 7. a very merry chipmunk
- 8. a very merry christmas
- 9. a very merry christmas vol. vii
- 10. a very merry christmas vol vii
- 11. a very merry daughter of the bride
- 12. a very merry pooh year
- 13. abdelkrim merry
- 14. abdelkrim merry krimau
- 15. alexei sayle's merry-go-round
- 16. alexei sayles merry go round
- 17. anthony merry
- 18. as merry as a grig
- 19. as merry as the day is long
- 20. band of merry men
- 21. begonia curly merry christmas
- 22. begonia merry-go-round
- 23. begonia merry christmas
- 24. begonia merry go round
- 25. begonia mini merry
- 26. bloody merry
- 27. brian merry
- 28. catherine merry
- 29. cleveland merry go round
- 30. cora merry
- 31. cosby merry christmas
- 32. cosmo the merry martian
- 33. crank that merry-go-round
- 34. crank that merry go round
- 35. curly merry christmas begonia
- 36. cyril merry
- 37. dance of the merry mascots
- 38. dead heat on a merry-go-round
- 39. dead heat on a merry go round
- 40. diana merry
- 41. eat drink and be merry
- 42. eat drink and be merry for tomorrow we die
- 43. emma merry
- 44. falmouth merry-go-round
- 45. falmouth merry go round
- 46. filipino merry-go-round
- 47. filipino merry go round
- 48. frank merry stenton
- 49. go on merry way
- 50. god rest ye merry gentlemen
- 51. god rest you merry gentlemen
- 52. godfrey merry
- 53. goes on merry way
- 54. going merry
- 55. going merry go
- 56. going on merry way
- 57. gone on merry way
- 58. great-uncle merry
- 59. great uncle merry
- 60. hairy merry-go-round
- 61. hairy merry go round
- 62. happy you and merry me
- 63. have yourself a merry little christmas
- 64. holyoke merry-go-round
- 65. holyoke merry go round
- 66. idora park merry-go-round
- 67. idora park merry go round
- 68. in my merry oldsmobile
- 69. it's a very merry muppet christmas movie
- 70. its a very merry muppet christmas movie
- 71. jackson central-merry high school
- 72. jackson central merry high school
- 73. jessie electa merry
- 74. jock the leg and the merry merchant
- 75. katharine merry
- 76. katherine merry
- 77. kresblain the merry magician
- 78. lady paula merry
- 79. lady paula merry mayowa-harrison
- 80. lady paula merry mayowa harrison
- 81. lead a merry dance
- 82. lead on a merry chase
- 83. leading a merry dance
- 84. leads a merry dance
- 85. led a merry dance
- 86. levi merry
- 87. look to the merry-go-sun
- 88. look to the merry go sun
- 89. lost on yer merry way
- 90. made merry
- 91. maid marian and her merry men
- 92. maid marion and her merry men
- 93. make merry
- 94. makes merry
- 95. making merry
- 96. manhattan merry-go-round
- 97. manhattan merry go round
- 98. mary-marry-merry merger
- 99. mary marry merry merger
- 100. maypole of merry mount
- 101. merry
- 102. merry-and-pippin syndrome
- 105. merry-bells
- 106. merry-chri
- 107. merry-eyed
- 108. merry-faced
- 109. merry-go
- 110. merry-go-down
- 111. merry-go-pound
- 112. merry-go-rhyme
- 113. merry-go-round
- 114. merry-go-round begonia
- 115. merry-go-round broke down
- 116. merry-go-round in oz
- 117. merry-go-round of death
- 118. merry-go-round train
- 119. merry-go-round water pump
- 120. merry-go-rounds
- 121. merry-go-sorry
- 122. merry-go round
- 123. merry-hearted
- 124. merry-joseph blondel
- 125. merry-la-vallée
- 126. merry-looking
- 127. merry-maid
- 128. merry-makers
- 129. merry-making
- 130. merry-makings
- 131. merry-meeting
- 132. merry-night
- 133. merry-sec
- 134. merry-sur-yonne
- 135. merry-terri
- 136. merry-thought
- 137. merry-totter
- 138. merry-trotter
- 139. merry-willson
- 140. merry adventures of robin hood
- 141. merry and pippin
- 142. merry and pippin syndrome
- 143. merry anders
- 144. merry andrew
- 145. merry andrews
- 146. merry as a cricket
- 147. merry as a grig
- 148. merry as the day is long
- 149. merry band of brothers
- 150. merry bells
- 151. merry berry holly
- 152. merry blues
- 153. merry bone
- 154. merry brandybuck
- 155. merry cardinal del val
- 156. merry cemetery
- 157. merry chickens
- 158. merry chri
- 159. merry christmas
- 160. merry christmas...have a nice life
- 161. merry christmas 1975
- 162. merry christmas and a happy new year
- 163. merry christmas baby
- 164. merry christmas begonia
- 165. merry christmas charlie manson
- 166. merry christmas darling
- 167. merry christmas drake & josh
- 168. merry christmas drake and josh
- 169. merry christmas everybody
- 170. merry christmas everyone
- 171. merry christmas for you
- 172. merry christmas from boa
- 173. merry christmas from harmony ranch
- 174. merry christmas from london
- 175. merry christmas from the brady bunch
- 176. merry christmas from the family
- 177. merry christmas from the morse family
- 178. merry christmas improved
- 179. merry christmas jake boy
- 180. merry christmas jakey boy
- 181. merry christmas mr. baxter
- 182. merry christmas mr. lawrence
- 183. merry christmas mr baxter
- 184. merry christmas mr lawrence
- 185. merry christmas strait to you
- 186. merry christmas to you
- 187. merry christmas tulip
- 188. merry christmas wherever you are
- 189. merry christmas with love
- 190. merry christmashave a nice life
- 191. merry city
- 192. merry clayton
- 193. merry crisis
- 194. merry cristmyass
- 195. merry damage
- 196. merry dancers
- 197. merry deception
- 198. merry del val rafael
- 199. merry devil of edmonton
- 200. merry dis mass
- 201. merry dissmas
- 202. merry dun of dover
- 203. merry england
- 204. merry eyed
- 205. merry f %$in' christmas
- 206. merry f %$in christmas
- 207. merry faced
- 208. merry fishes to all
- 209. merry fistmas
- 210. merry fuckin' christmas
- 211. merry fuckin christmas
- 212. merry fucking christmas
- 213. merry gamgee
- 214. merry gardner
- 215. merry garwood
- 216. merry gentleman
- 217. merry gentry
- 218. merry go
- 219. merry go down
- 220. merry go pound
- 221. merry go rhyme
- 222. merry go round
- 223. merry go round begonia
- 224. merry go round broke down
- 225. merry go round fuchsia
- 226. merry go round in oz
- 227. merry go round of death
- 228. merry go round train
- 229. merry go round water pump
- 230. merry go rounds
- 231. merry go sorry
- 232. merry happy
- 233. merry happy chrismahannukwanzaka
- 234. merry heart
- 235. merry hearted
- 236. merry hell
- 237. merry hill
- 238. merry hill centre
- 239. merry hill monorail
- 240. merry hill shopping centre
- 241. merry institute of tricksters
- 242. merry jewmas
- 243. merry joseph blondel
- 244. merry karnowsky
- 245. merry karnowsky gallery
- 246. merry kelly
- 247. merry kerpitchian
- 248. merry krimau
- 249. merry kwanzonica
- 250. merry la vallée
- 251. merry lea
- 252. merry lea environmental center
- 253. merry little christian
- 254. merry little christmas
- 255. merry looking
- 256. merry macs
- 257. merry madgical
- 258. merry maid
- 259. merry maidens
- 260. merry maids
- 261. merry mailman
- 262. merry makers
- 263. merry making
- 264. merry makings
- 265. merry man
- 266. merry marvel marching society
- 267. merry mary fuchsia
- 268. merry mavericks
- 269. merry meet
- 270. merry meeting
- 271. merry melodies
- 272. merry melodys
- 273. merry men
- 274. merry men and other tales and fables
- 275. merry men of mey
- 276. merry men of want
- 277. merry merry merry frickin' christmas
- 278. merry merry merry frickin christmas
- 279. merry miller
- 280. merry mirthful
- 281. merry mix up
- 282. merry monarch
- 283. merry monday
- 284. merry month of may
- 285. merry mount
- 286. merry mount suite
- 287. merry night
- 288. merry noelmas
- 289. merry old land of oz
- 290. merry pelvismas
- 292. merry perry christmas
- 293. merry poppings
- 294. merry poppins
- 295. merry prankster
- 296. merry pranksters
- 297. merry rainbow
- 298. merry ruler
- 299. merry santa time
- 300. merry sec
- 301. merry sherwood
- 302. merry sisters of fate
- 303. merry sovereign
- 304. merry sur yonne
- 305. merry terri
- 306. merry thanksgivoween
- 307. merry thizzmas
- 308. merry thought
- 309. merry thoughts
- 310. merry totter
- 311. merry trotter
- 312. merry war
- 318. merry willson
- 319. merry wives
- 323. merry wright
- 324. merry x-mas
- 325. merry x-mas everybody
- 326. merry x mas
- 327. merry x mas everybody
- 328. merry xmas song
- 329. mickey's very merry christmas party
- 330. mickeys very merry christmas party
- 331. mini merry begonia
- 332. miss merry christmas
- 333. mormon merry go round
- 334. musical merry-go-round
- 335. musical merry go round
- 336. mustafa merry
- 337. mustapha merry
- 338. nick merry
- 339. nicole merry
- 340. ol' merry eyes
- 341. ol merry eyes
- 342. on our big fat merry-go-round
- 343. on our big fat merry go round
- 344. on our merry way
- 345. otto the merry
- 347. pauline merry
- 348. philippa merry cuny mansur
- 349. play merry-hell
- 350. play merry hell
- 351. rafael cardinal merry del val
- 352. rafael merry del val
- 353. raphael cardinal merry del val
- 354. red neck merry-go-round
- 355. red neck merry go round
- 356. robin food and his merry men
- 357. saint-merry
- 358. saint merry
- 359. the maypole of merry mount
- 360. the merry-go-round
- 361. the merry-go-round broke down
- 362. the merry adventures of robin hood
- 363. the merry dancers
- 364. the merry deception
- 365. the merry devil of edmonton
- 366. the merry gentleman
- 367. the merry go round
- 368. the merry go round broke down
- 369. the merry heart
- 370. the merry karnowsky gallery
- 371. the merry macs
- 372. the merry maidens
- 373. the merry mailman
- 374. the merry men
- 375. the merry men and other tales and fables
- 376. the merry month of may
- 377. the merry old land of oz
- 378. the merry pranksters
- 379. the merry sisters of fate
- 380. the merry thoughts
- 381. the merry war
- 385. the merry xmas song
- 386. tilden park merry-go-round
- 387. tilden park merry go round
- 388. till eulenspiegel's merry pranks
- 389. till eulenspiegels merry pranks
- 390. to make merry
- 391. to wish you a merry christmas
- 392. tom merry
- 393. travel merry hill
- 394. two merry monarchs
- 395. vanilla merry-go-round
- 396. vanilla merry go round
- 397. very merry maggie
- 398. washington merry-go-round
- 399. washington merry go round
- 400. we wish you a merry christmas
- 401. went on merry way
- 402. westfield merry hill
- 403. william davis merry howard
- 404. william walter merry
Eat drink and be merry
Proto-Germanic: "*murgi-", "*murgian-" vb.
Meaning: "short", "slow"
Avestan: "merezu-jiti-", "merezu-jva-" = "brakhübios"
Old Greek: "brakhü-" "kurz", pl. "brákhea" n. "seichte Stellen"
Germanic: "*murg-i-" adj., "*murg-ia-" vb.
Latin: "brevis", "brevise" "kurz", "klein", "gering", "schmal", "flach", "seicht"
Russ. meaning: "???"
References: WP II 314
Root: "mreghu-", "mrghu-"
English meaning: "short"
German meaning: "kurz"
Material: Prakr. "múhu-", av. "merezu-jiti-", "merezu-jva-" "???", sogd. "murzak" "kurz";
griech. "???" "kurz", "???" "seichte Stellen"; dazu "???" "Oberarm", Komparativ neben "???";
lat. "brevis" (zunächst aus dem Fem. "*brexui" "kurz", "bruma" "Wintersonnenwende", "Winter", "Kälte" ("*brevi-ma", "*breu-ma" "Zeit der kürzesten Tage");
got. "gamaúrgjan" "verkürzen", ahd. "murg", "murgi" "kurz", "murgfari" "zerbrechlich", ags. "myrge" "angenehm", engl. "merry".
References: WP. II 314, WH. I 115.
Gothic: "*ga-morgjan" wk. "shorten"
Old English: "myrge" "leisurily"
Old High German: "murg", "murgi" "kurz", "murg-fari" "zerbrechlich"
Middle High German: "murc" "morsch", "mürbe", "welk", "faul"; "morastig"; "schadhaft"
15. How do you pronounce Mary/merry/marry?
- merry arse Christian
- merry bit
- merry bout
- merry legs
- Merry Magdalene
- merry-arsed Christian
- visiting Merry Palmer
Eat, drink and be merry
- Cosmo the Merry Martian
- Merry, Girl of 1,000 Gimmicks
- Merry Menagerie
Maid Marian and Her Merry Men
- merry and pippin
- Merry Band of Brothers
- merry chickens
- Merry Christmas
- Merry Christmiscarriage
- Merry Comeovermas
- Merry Cristmyass
- Merry Cycle
- merry damage
- Merry Dis Mass
- Merry Dissmas
- merry fistmas
- Merry Fuckin Christmas
- Merry Fucking Christmas
- Merry Gentry
- Merry Go Brown
- Merry Happy Chrismahannukwanzaka
- Merry happy!
- Merry Hill
- Merry Jewmas
- Merry Kwanzonica
- Merry lunch limbo
- merry madgical
- Merry Men of Want
- merry monday
- Merry New Hanukkah
- Merry Noelmas
- merry pelvismas
- merry perry christmas
- merry poopins
- merry pranksters
- merry santa time
- merry shitmas
- merry textmas
- Merry Thanksgivoween
- merry thizzmas
- Merry Wright
- Merry-and-Pippin syndrome
- merry-go-round of death
- merry-go-round spanking
- Merry-Happy Birthsmas
- Merrylands road
God Rest you Merry, Gentlemen
- "merrily": in a joyous manner
- "Merrimac": an ironclad vessel built by the Confederate forces in the hope of breaking the blockade imposed by the North
- "Merrimack": a river that rises in south central New Hampshire and flows through Concord and Manchester into Massachusetts and empties into the Atlantic Ocean
- "Merrimack River": a river that rises in south central New Hampshire and flows through Concord and Manchester into Massachusetts and empties into the Atlantic Ocean
- "merriment": activities that are enjoyable or amusing
- "merriness": the trait of merry joking
- "merry": full of or showing high-spirited merriment
- "merry": bells any of various plants of the genus Uvularia having yellowish drooping bell-shaped flowers
- "merry-go-round": a large, rotating machine with seats for children to ride or amusement
- "merrymaker": a celebrant who shares in a noisy party
- Why this website? | Website summary | SUMMARY
- Who is? | Authors
- Linguistic evidence | Language: | How easy to change? | Social pressure | Language evolution | Celt: etymology | Gaul: etymology | Celtic culture | The closest language | Language borders | The place-name problem | Vindolanda / Lincoln | Thames / London | Bath by Gildas | Dialect problems (1) | Dialect problems (2)
- Adventus Saxonum | Considering migrations | Limited quantities | Why North-Germans? | North-German mentality | Preliminary conclusions | Late Roman Britain | What happened before | Constantine III the usurper | Letter to Honorius | Honorius answer | Ascention of Vortigern | Vortigern acts | Trouble in the council | causes civil war | Anglo-Saxon rebellion (1) | Anglo-Saxon rebellion (2) | The outcome | Note on Gildas | Timeline 5th century
- Genetic evidence | Genetic Origin of the British | More confirmations
- The origin of English | Continental origins | 2 British languages | Spread of agriculture | Migrations (summary)
- Diverse articles | Cities and populations | Franks: the name | Origin disputed (1) | Origin disputed (2) | Franks: the real origin (1) | Franks: the real origin (2) | Nervians: German? | Nervians: Etymology | Ligurian Conjecture | Oak mystery | Place Names in Kent | Etymology of Dover
- Your reactions | Positive reactions | Negative reactions
- F.A.Q. & Politics | F.A.Q. & Politics
English was not imported by the Anglo-Saxons
This is how the events of the 5th century AD and the origin of the English language are declared in every history book, in every schoolbook, worldwide :
The Anglo-Saxons imported the English language in the 5th century into Britain. The Anglo-Saxons were initially invited as mercenaries. When their wages could not be paid, they rebelled and took over the east of Britain. The Britons reacted by fighting bravely, but their efforts were hampered by treachery and unlawful collaboration with the enemy by some of their most high ranking members. Eventually the Anglo-Saxons managed to subdue the eastern population. They imposed their culture and language. A major part of the population fled west where the British resistance proved to be successful for a while.
So far for the official story.
But official history has several major inconsistencies:
The Wendere Old English/Modern English Dictionary is an Access database (Microsoft Access 2002). Putting the dictionary in a database allows the dictionary to be used as an OE-to-MdnE or MdnE-to-OE dictionary. It also allows sorts on grammar. These capabilities, along with the largest number of entries (over 28,000) of any OE dictionary on the internet, make it the best quick-reference dictionary available on the internet.
Tibarg - Hier war die Thingstätte
"Tibarg" - Mit der Tide oder Tiebreak hat der Tibarg nichts zu tun. Der Name der Straße im Stadtteil Niendorf kommt von dem germanischen Ausdruck "Thingstätte": Er bezeichnet einen Versammlungsort oder einen Richtplatz. Die Niendorfer Straße wurde 1948 so benannt. Obwohl der Vokal "i" üblicherweise lang gesprochen als "ie" geschrieben wird, ist - wegen der Abstammung des Wortes von "Thingstätte" - die Schreibweise Tibarg mit einfachem "i" geblieben. (hsm)
"thing" (n.) Old English "þing" - "meeting, assembly," later "entity, being, matter" (subject of deliberation in an assembly), also "act, deed, event, material object, body, being," from P.Gmc. "*thengan" - "appointed time" (cf. Old Frisian "thing" - "assembly, council, suit, matter, thing," Middle Dutch "dinc" - "court-day, suit, plea, concern, affair, thing," Dutch "ding" - "thing," Old High German "ding" - "public assembly for judgment and business, lawsuit," German "ding" - "affair, matter, thing," Old Norse "þing" - "public assembly"). Some suggest an ultimate connection to PIE root "*ten-" - "stretch," perhaps on notion of "stretch of time for a meeting or assembly."
For sense evolution, cf. French "chose", Spanish "cosa" - "thing," from Latin "causa" - "judicial process, lawsuit, case;" Latin "res" - "affair, thing," also "case at law, cause." Old sense is preserved in second element of hustings and in Icelandic "Althing", the nation's general assembly.
Used colloquially since c.1600 to indicate things the speaker can't name at the moment, often with various meaningless suffixes, e.g. "thingumbob" (1751), "thingamajig" (1824). Southern U.S. pronunciation "thang" attested from 1937. The "thing" - "what's stylish or fashionable" is recorded from 1762. Phrase "do your thing" - "follow your particular predilection," though associated with hippie-speak of 1960s is attested from 1841.
"Pretty Little Thing"
Miniature. Deep pink. Mild fragrance. Medium, double (17-25 petals), exhibition bloom form. Blooms in flushes throughout the season. USDA zone 6b and warmer. Height of 16" (40 cm). Judy G. Bell (2000).
Wild Thing (miniature, Bennett 1993)
Miniature. Brilliant orange . Sweetheart like blooms hold their incredible color from bud to full open flower.. Fruity fragrance. Double (17-25 petals), exhibition bloom form. Blooms in flushes throughout the season. USDA zone 6b through 10a. Height of 2' to 3' (60 to 90 cm). Cecilia L. (Dee) Bennett (1993).
Wild Thing (shrub, Zary 2007)
Shrub. Ultimate Rose ™ [J&P]. Deep pink. Carmine buds, coral pink blooms. Mild fragrance. Medium, semi-double (9-16 petals), cluster-flowered, in large clusters, flat bloom form. Prolific, blooms in flushes throughout the season. USDA zone 6b through 9b (default). Height of up to 42" (up to 105 cm). Dr. Keith W. Zary (2007).
About things magazine
things magazine was originally founded in 1994 by a group of writers and historians based at the Victoria & Albert Museum/Royal College of Art. things embodies the belief that objects can open up new ways of understanding the world, building on MA research and taking a curatorial eye out into the world. The course still exists and continues to actively publish the research it generates: visit the RCA/V&A HOD site for more information.
Etymologie und Bedeutung
Thing geht auf germanisch "*Þenga-" - "Übereinkommen", "Versammlung" zurück und steht in grammatischem Wechsel zu gotisch "*Þeihs" - "Zeit". Dieser semantische Zusammenhang verweist darauf, dass das "Thing" meist zu festgelegten Zeiten abgehalten wurde. Die ältesten Belege des Wortes finden sich auf Altarsteinen, die von friesischen Söldnern in römischen Diensten entlang des Hadrianswalls errichtet worden sind. Darauf verehren sie den Gott Tyr als "Mars Thingsus" ("Gott des Things").
Das Wort "Thing" bedeutet seit ältester Zeit "Volks- und Gerichtsversammlung". Im alemannischen Raum und im Rheinland hat sich die Bedeutung teilweise noch bis ins 17. Jahrhundert im Wort "Dinghof" gehalten, das einen mit dem herrschaftlichen Niedergericht verbundenen Hof bezeichnete. Daneben machte der Begriff einen Bedeutungs- und Lautwandel durch. "Þing" wurde zum neuhochdeutschen "Ding" und neuenglischen "thing". Die Bedeutung "Sache" leitet sich von der auf der Gerichtsversammlung behandelten "Rechtssache" ab (vgl. auch lat. "res publica" - "Staat"; "res" - "Sache") und wurde später verallgemeinert. Im Gegensatz zu Deutschland und England erhielt sich der Begriff im Norden in beiden Bedeutungen bis heute. So heißt das dänische Parlament "Folketing", das isländische "Althing", auf den Färöern "Løgting" und in Norwegen "Storting". In Schweden heißen die Provinziallandtage "Landsting"; schwedische Amtsgerichte heißen "Tingsrätt", norwegische Amtsgerichte "tingrett".
Im deutschen Wortschatz ist der Gerichtsort "Thing" als Wortbestandteil "ding" erhalten geblieben, zum Beispiel in "dinglich", "Bedingung", "(un)abdingbar", "dingfest", "dingflüchtig", "sich ausbedingen" (verteidigen) und auch in den veraltenden Wörtern (sich als Magd) "verdingen", "gedungene" (Mörder). So ist auch der "Dienstag" dem germanischen Gott Tyr, dem Beschützer des Things gewidmet.
Auch in vielen Ortsnamen hat sich der Begriff erhalten, beispielsweise "Thüngen", "Dingden", "Denghoog", "Dingstäde", "Dingstätte" und "Dingstede" in Deutschland, "Tingvoll", "Tingvatn" und "Tinghaug" in Norwegen, "Þingvellir" in Island oder "Tingstäde" auf Gotland. Diese historischen Ortsbezeichnungen sind jedoch nicht mit den Thingplätzen zu verwechseln, welche die Nationalsozialisten für ihre Thingspiele errichten ließen, die ein Teil der Thingbewegung waren.
Nach dem Vorbild des Bundes Quickborn nannten in den Zwanzigerjahren des 20. Jahrhunderts Jugendbünde ihre Jahresversammlung Thing, so heute noch viele deutsche Pfadfinderverbände und Jungenschaften.
The Old Norse, Old Frisian and Old English "þing" with the meaning "assembly" is identical in origin to the English word "thing", German "Ding", Dutch "ding", and modern Scandinavian "ting" when meaning "object". They are derived from Proto-Germanic "*þinga" meaning "appointed time", and some suggest an origin in Proto-Indo-European "*ten-", "stretch", as in a "stretch of time for an assembly". The evolution of the word thing from "assembly" to "object" is paralleled in the evolution of the Latin "causa" ("judicial lawsuit") to modern French "chose", Spanish/Italian/Catalan "cosa" and Portuguese "coisa" (all meaning "object" or "thing"). A word with similar meaning, "zaak" in Dutch and "Sache" in German, still retains the meaning "affair", "matter" alongside "thing", "object".
In English the term is attested from 685 to 686 in the older meaning "assembly"; later it referred to a "being", "entity" or "matter" (sometime before 899), and then also an "act", "deed", or "event" (from about 1000). The meaning of "personal possessions", commonly in plural, first appears in Middle English around 1300.
The Horologicon (or book of hours) gives you the most extraordinary words in the English language, arranged according to the hour of the day when you really need them. Do you wake up feeling rough? Then you're philogrobolized. Pretending to work? That's fudgelling, which may lead to rizzling if you feel sleepy after lunch, though by dinner time you will have become a sparkling deipnosophist. From Mark Forsyth, author of the bestselling The Etymologicon, this is a book of weird words for familiar situations. From ante-jentacular to snudge by way of quafftide and wamblecropt, at last you can say, with utter accuracy, exactly what you mean.
The Horologicon is a book of the strangest and most beautiful words in the English language arranged by the hour of the day when you will really need them. Words for breakfast, for commuting, for working, for dining, for drinking and for getting lost on the way home. It runs from uhtceare (sadness before dawn) to curtain lecture (a telling off given by your spouse in bed). It's out on November the first, but you can already order it from these lovely people:
Discover the most extraordinary words in the English language with Mark Forsyth's The Horologicon and unravel the strange connections between words with The Etymologicon.
Join our campaign to bring back wonderful lost words of the English Language! #lostwords
About • inkyfool.com • @inkyfool • @iconbooks • Pinterest • Facebook Buy • Read an extract
This book offers a far-reaching philosophical investigation into the persistence and disappearance of speech, in individuals and in linguistic communities. Just as speech can be acquired, so can it be lost. Speakers can forget words, phrases, even entire languages they once knew; over the course of time peoples, too, let go of the tongues that were once theirs, as languages disappear and give way to the others that follow them. In "Echolalias", Daniel Heller-Roazen reflects on the many forms of linguistic forgetfulness, offering a far-reaching philosophical investigation into the persistence and disappearance of speech. In twenty-one brief chapters, he moves among classical, medieval, and modern culture, exploring the interrelations of speech, writing, memory, and oblivion. Drawing his examples from literature, philosophy, linguistics, theology, and psychoanalysis, Heller-Roazen examines the points at which the transience of speech has become a question in the arts, disciplines, and sciences in which language plays a prominent role. Whether the subject is Ovid, Dante, or modern fiction, classical Arabic literature or the birth of the French language, structuralist linguistics or Freud's writings on aphasia, Heller-Roazen considers with clarity, precision, and insight the forms, the effects, and the ultimate consequences of the forgetting of language. In speech, he argues, destruction and construction often prove inseparable. Among peoples, the disappearance of one language can mark the emergence of another; among individuals, the experience of the passing of speech can lie at the origin of literary, philosophical, and artistic creation. From the infant's prattle to the legacy of Babel, from the holy tongues of Judaism and Islam to the concept of the dead language and the political significance of exiled and endangered languages today, "Echolalias" traces an elegant, erudite, and original philosophical itinerary, inviting us to reflect in a new way on the nature of the speaking animal who forgets.
Some think that the obsolescing of words from the English language is a sorry indication of its constant decline. Not so, argues Jeffrey Kacirk, the author of this charming collection of quirky antiquated words and the stories behind them. "In fact," he writes in his introduction, "the richness and maturity of a language may be gauged by the volume and quality of words it can afford to lose." The wonderful sounds these forgotten words make - "nimgimmer", "tup-running", "mocteroof", "frubbish", "grog-blossom", "wayzgoose", "galligaskin", "sockdolager" - are half the fun. Their fabulous meanings, particularly those that seem inevitable once you learn them, make up the rest. And as the history of the words unfolds, so does history itself. Among the many strange and outmoded folk Kacirk introduces are the "bird-swindler", a 19th-century "purveyor of expensive, exotic-looking birds that, upon closer inspection, were found to be one of several common varieties of local birds that had been trimmed and dyed"; the "eye-servant", "a devious domestic or other employee ... who was too lazy to efficiently perform duties except when 'within eyeshot' of his or her master"; the "prickmedainty", a 16th-century "man-about-town who coifed himself in an overly careful manner, frequently seeking the services of his barber"; and the "dog-flogger", "a minor church official ... whose duty it was to supervise and discipline the unruly canines that traditionally accompanied their owners to English church services."
A stroll through the neglected and overgrown byways of the English dictionary. The author uncovers words which probably haven't been written or pronounced for centuries, such as "piggesyne", "adamitism", "lycanthrope", "cachpule". He then traces their history and defines them. Amusing and entertaining for anyone compulsively fascinated by the English language. (Kirkus UK)
Some think that the obsolescing of words from the English language is a sorry indication of its constant decline. Not so, argues Jeffrey Kacirk, the author of this charming collection of quirky antiquated words and the stories behind them. "In fact," he writes in his introduction, "the richness and maturity of a language may be gauged by the volume and quality of words it can afford to lose." The wonderful sounds these forgotten words make--nimgimmer, tup-running, mocteroof, frubbish, grog-blossom, wayzgoose, galligaskin, sockdolager--are half the fun. Their fabulous meanings, particularly those that seem inevitable once you learn them, make up the rest. And as the history of the words unfolds, so does history itself. Among the many strange and outmoded folk Kacirk introduces are the bird-swindler, a 19th-century "purveyor of expensive, exotic-looking birds that, upon closer inspection, were found to be one of several common varieties of local birds that had been trimmed and dyed"; the eye-servant, "a devious domestic or other employee ... who was too lazy to efficiently perform duties except when 'within eyeshot' of his or her master"; the prickmedainty, a 16th-century "man-about-town who coifed himself in an overly careful manner, frequently seeking the services of his barber"; and the dog-flogger, "a minor church official ... whose duty it was to supervise and discipline the unruly canines that traditionally accompanied their owners to English church services."
A 365-Day Calendar of Vanishing Vocabulary and Folklore for 2011
Word sleuth extraordinaire Jeffrey Kacirk has compiled another year’s worth of long-lost linguistic curiosities. With 313 unforgettable entries (Saturdays and Sundays share a page), Forgotten English unfurls a lexicon illuminating vanished professions, objects, activities, situations, etiquette, and states of mind. Obscure festivals, birthdays of significance, unsavory recipes, and dubious medical and hygienic procedures are also noted.
The calendar also includes a brief biography of the author, yearly grids for 2011 and 2012, and pages for notes 365-day padded tear-off calendar with plastic base. Size: 6¼ x 5¼ in. (box 7 x 6 in.). Click on the small picture to see an inside page. Printed with soy-based inks. ISBN: 978-0-7649-5210-4.
Jeffrey Kacirk's Forgotten English 365-Day
A page-a-day Calendar of Vanishing Vocabulary and Folklore
I think of my calendar as an annual review of a few forgotten things that are worth remembering. On every page you'll find such discarded but once common expressions as "queer-cuffin" (a Justice of the Peace), "bijoutry" (jewelry), "lutherhood" (wickedness, after Martin Luther), "coney-catch" (to swindle), "snollygoster" (an unprincipled person or politician), "oof" (slang for money), and "puckfyst" (thirsty). But the calendar also offers a cornucopia of anecdotes about fascinating people and historical vignettes from the past.
Our British ancestors once celebrated different holidays and seasons - from Christmas Revels and Beanfest Day (the forerunner of the "company picnic") to the Blessing of the Flour and Sweetening Saturday, when annual bathing took place.
You'll come across many etymologies and quirks of the English language, along with early travel inconveniences, Samuel Johnson's rude awakening, and the first crossword puzzle. Read about ridiculous American liquor laws, unusual marriage customs, and the FBI's 100th birthday. Also included are thought-provoking quotes from Edgar Allen Poe, William Shakespeare, and Edward R. Murrow, a look at London's Underground, Mutiny on the Bounty revisited, and odd lunar customs. Discover the origin of the expression "Hobson's choice," the writing of H.M.S. Pinafore, curious wedding customs, early weather forecasting, Mozart's mysterious death, and why Richard III offered his kingdom for a horse. Most pages are adorned with vintage line-drawings.
A companion to Jeffrey Kacirk's popular book Forgotten English, this calendar features 365 days of delightfully archaic words and their definitions. From January 1's "stangster" ("a husband with marital problems because he either mistreats his wife or is henpecked by her") to December 31's "resurrectionist" (a grave robber paid by anatomy students to steal illegal cadavers), these are words you'll have trouble not using. As a bonus, Kacirk marks the most obscure holidays and saints' days in the calendar (such as that honoring St. Bibiana, the patron saint of hangover sufferers).
From Library Journal
Kacirk has written a new book on the same theme as his last book, Forgotten English, gathering hundreds of words that have slipped from common usage. By searching old dictionaries and glossaries, he has compiled words that appeal to him based on their sound (although there is no pronunciation guide), show either endearing or humorous aspects of their times, or illustrate customs. The result is this lark of a book, sure to appeal to all who love words and the sounds they make. In this Aladdin's cave of vocabulary are words like "bouffage" (very satisfying), "ugsumness" (terribleness), "snirp" (shrink), and "maffle" (stutter). The work may be of use to academic libraries where there is strong interest in lexicography, for, in addition to the words and definitions, there is a lengthy bibliography. For public libraries, the use will mainly be in the pleasure of browsing and looking at the many period illustrations. Recommended where there is a perceived need. DNeal Wyatt, Chesterfield P.L., VA
Copyright 2000 Reed Business Information, Inc.
Richard Lederer author of "Crazy English" Through the wabe of "The Word Museum" gyre and gimble some of the most abracadabrant creations of our word-bethumped English language. You'll be a more verbivorous human being after you take this tour.
In "The Word Museum", I offer English expressions used since Shakespeare’s time which have, for a variety of reasons, faded or completely vanished. The often surprising, quirky, and thought-provoking definitions are drawn verbatim from their original sources offering the reader a firsthand relationship to the early lexicographers and wordsmiths who first cataloged these gems.
The offerings include such delights as "egg-wife-trott" (“an easy jog, such a speed as farmers’ wives carry their eggs to the market”), "cow-handed" (awkward), "sandillions" (“numbers like the sand on the seashore”), "inwit" (“conscience, as distinguished from outwit, knowledge, ability”), "cragsman" (a Scotsman who gathered seabirds’ eggs on hazardous cliffs), "wonder-wench" (a sweetheart from Yorkshire), and "illiack passion" (“wind in the small guts”). Included is a complete bibliography, along with several dozen vintage line drawings.