Etymologie, Etimología, Étymologie, Etimologia, Etymology, (griech.) etymología, (lat.) etymologia, (esper.) etimologio
UK Vereinigtes Königreich Großbritannien und Nordirland, Reino Unido de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda del Norte, Royaume-Uni de Grande-Bretagne et d'Irlande du Nord, Regno Unito di Gran Bretagna e Irlanda del Nord, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, (esper.) Britujo
Statistik, Estadística, Statistique, Statistica, Statistics, (esper.) statistiko
How Many Words are in English?
Another Stunning Discovery at alphaDictionary
Dr. Goodword (Robert Beard, PhD, Linguistics)
- Words are Spoken.
- Dictionaries are Word Samplings.
- Words are Used at Particular Times.
- Words are Used in Particular Places.
- Do Words Exist at All?
Engl. "extrapolate" = dt. "extrapolieren", "ableiten", beschreibt ein mathematisches Verfahren das insbesondere in der Statistik zu Ehren kam. Dabei werden Aussagen über eine Teilmenge (die auf konkreter Auswertung beruhen) auf die Gesamtmenge übertragen.
Das Wort engl. "extrapolate" setzt sich zusammen aus lat. "extra" = dt. "außerhalb", "außerdem", "über ... hinaus" und lat. "pélein" = dt. "in Bewegung sein", "sich drehen". Das Ergebnis einer Teilmenge wird also "über diese hinaus" auf die Gesamtmenge "ausgerollt".
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.
Engl. "extrapolate" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1710 / 1880 auf.
Word Frequency lists
Here we provide plain text versions of the frequency lists contained in WFWSE. These are raw unedited frequency lists produced by our software and do not contain the many additional notes supplied in the book itself. The lists are tab delimited plain text so can be imported into your prefered spreadsheet format. For the main lists we provide a key to the columns. More details on the process undertaken in the preparation of the lists can be found in the introduction to the book.
These lists show dispersion ranging between 0 and 1 rather than 0 and 100 as in the book. We multiplied the value by 100 and rounded to zero decimal places in the book for reasons of space. Log likelihood values are shown here to one decimal place rather than zero as in the book.
Please note, all frequencies are per million words. There are some extra notes explaining the dummy values (:, @, and %) in the lemmatised lists.
CHAPTER 1: Frequencies in the Whole Corpus (Spoken and Written English)
complete lists without frequency cut-offs: unix compressed 5.3Mb or WinZip compressed 4.4Mb
- •List 1.1: Alphabetical frequency list of the whole corpus (lemmatized): list key
CHAPTER 2: Spoken and Written English
- •List 1.2: Rank frequency list for the whole corpus (not lemmatized): list key
CHAPTER 3: Two Main Varieties of Spoken English Compared
- •List 2.1: Alphabetical frequency list: speech v. writing (lemmatized): list key
- •List 2.2: Rank frequency order: spoken English (not lemmatized): list key
- •List 2.3: Rank frequency order: written English (not lemmatized) list key
- •List 2.4: Distinctiveness list: contrasting speech and writing (ordered by log likelihood): list key
CHAPTER 4: Two Main Varieties of Written English Compared
- •List 3.1: Alphabetical frequency list: conversational v. task-oriented speech (lemmatized): list key
- •List 3.2: Distinctiveness list: contrasting conversational v. task-oriented speech (not lemmatized): list key
CHAPTER 5: Rank Frequency Lists of Words within Word Classes (Parts of Speech) in the whole corpus
- •List 4.1: Alphabetical frequency list: imaginative v. informative writing (lemmatized): list key
- •List 4.2: Distinctiveness list: imaginative v. informative writing (not lemmatized): list key
CHAPTER 6: Frequency Lists of Grammatical Word Classes (based on the Sampler Corpus)
- •List 5.1: Frequency list of nouns (by lemma): list
- •List 5.2: Frequency list of verbs (by lemma): list
- •List 5.3: Frequency list of adjectives (by lemma): list
- •List 5.4: Frequency list of adverbs (not lemmatized): list
- •List 5.5: Frequency list of pronouns (not lemmatized): list
- •List 5.6: Frequency list of determiners: list
- •List 5.7: Frequency list of determiner/pronouns: list
- •List 5.8: Frequency list of prepositions: list
- •List 5.9: Frequency list of conjunctions: list
- •List 5.10: Frequency list of interjections and discourse particles: list
- •List 6.1.1: Alphabetical list: the whole sampler corpus (spoken and written English): list
- •List 6.1.2: Rank frequency list: the whole sampler corpus: list
- •List 6.2.1: Alphabetical list: spoken v. written English: list
- •List 6.2.2: Rank frequency list: spoken English compared with written English: list
- •List 6.2.3: Rank frequency list: written English compared with spoken English: list
- •List 6.2.4: Distinctiveness list: spoken v. written English: list
- •List 6.3.1: Alphabetical list: conversation v. task-oriented speech: list
- •List 6.3.2: Distinctiveness list: conversation v. task-oriented speech: list
- •List 6.4.1: Alphabetical list: imaginative v. informative writing: list
- •List 6.4.2: Distinctiveness list: imaginative v. informative writing: list
The English Language WordClock
The Number of Words in the English Language
1,000,000th english word
Number of Words - The Number of Words in the English Language
The English Language WordClock: 1,003,322
English passed the 1,000,000 threshold on June 10, 2009 at 10:22 am GMT
On June 10, the Global Language Monitor announced that "Web 2.0" has bested "Jai Ho", "N00b" and "Slumdog" as the 1,000,000th English word or phrase added to the codex of fourteen hundred-year-old language.
"Web 2.0" beats "Jai Ho" & "N00b" as 1,000,000th English Word
English passed the Million Word mark earlier today, June 10 at 10:22 am GMT
These are the fifteen finalists for the one millionth English word, all of which have met the criteria of a minimum of 25,000 citations with the necessary breadth of geographic distribution, and depth of citations.
In addition, the 1,000,001st word is "Financial Tsunami" - The global financial restructuring that seemingly swept out of nowhere, wiping out trillions of dollars of assets, in a matter of months.
- 1,000,000: "Web 2.0" - The next generation of web products and services, coming soon to a browser near you.
- 999,999: "Jai Ho!" - The Hindi phrase signifying the joy of victory, used as an exclamation, sometimes rendered as “It is accomplished”. Achieved English-language popularity through the multiple Academy Award Winning film, “Slumdog Millionaire”.
- 999,998: "N00b" - From the Gamer Community, a neophyte in playing a particular game; used as a disparaging term.
- 999,997: "Slumdog" - a formerly disparaging, now often endearing, comment upon those residing in the slums of India.
- 999,996: "Cloud Computing" - The ‘cloud’ has been technical jargon for the Internet for many years. It is now passing into more general usage.
- 999,995: "Carbon Neutral" - One of the many phrases relating to the effort to stem Climate Change.
- 999,994: "Slow Food" - Food other than the fast-food variety hopefully produced locally (locavores).
- 999,993: "Octomom" - The media phenomenon relating to the travails of the mother of the octuplets.
- 999,992: "Greenwashing" - Re-branding an old, often inferior, product as environmentally friendly.
- 999,991: "Sexting" - Sending email (or text messages) with sexual content.
- 999,990: "Shovel Ready" - Projects are ready to begin immediately upon the release of federal stimulus funds.
- 999,989: "Defriend" - Social networking terminology for cutting the connection with a formal friend.
- 999,988: "Chengguan" - Urban management officers, a cross between mayors, sheriff, and city managers.
- 999,987: "Recessionista" - Fashion conscious who use the global economic restructuring to their financial benefit.
- 999,986: "Zombie Banks" - Banks that would be dead if not for government intervention and cash infusion.
Each word was analyzed to determine which depth (number of citations) and breadth (geographic extent of word usage), as well as number of appearances in the global print and electronic media, the Internet, the blogosphere, and social media (such as Twitter and YouTube). The Word with the highest "PQI" score was deemed the 1,000,000th English language word. The "Predictive Quantities Indicator" ("PQI") is used to track and analyze word usage.
Global Language Monitor has been tracking English word creation since 2003. Once it identifies new words (or neologisms) it measures their extent and depth of usage with its "PQI" technology.
In Shakespeare’s day, there were only 2,000,000 speakers of English and fewer than 100,000 words. Shakespeare himself coined about 1,700 words. Thomas Jefferson invented about 200 words, and George W. Bush created a handful, the most prominent of which is, misunderestimate. US President Barack Obama’s surname passed into wordhood last year with the rise of "obamamania".
English Word Frequency 2010
Turn-key Solution for Word Frequency Lists in All Languages.
The Lexiteria German Word List 2010 contains 1,367,544 words taken from a 310,563,660 word corpus based on edited web pages. It has passed at least one of two commercial spell-checkers and the eye of a human editor. Like all Lexiteria word frequency lists, it contains multitudes of foreign and domestic names and domestic abbreviations.
This list may be obtained by a nonexclusive, nontransferable, world-wide license in perpetuity for a single application. Call or e-mail the form below for a customized quote or for answers to any questions you might have.
Lexiteria English Frequency Samples
mootgame - Top Four Written English Words - Zipf's Law - Top Twenty Written English Words - Top Twenty Spoken English Words
"In English, for example, the word the appears most frequently and is said to have rank order 1; the words of rank 2, 3, and 4 are of, and, and to, respectively.
Ausserdem findet man auf der Seite:
- Zipf's Law
- Top Twenty Written English Words
- Top Twenty Spoken English Words
"ONS" steht für "Office for National Statistics".
Themes: Agriculture, Fishing and Forestry | Commerce, Energy and Industry | Crime and Justice | Economy | Education and Training | Health and Care | Labour Market | Natural and Built Environment | Public Sector and Other | Population and Migration | Social and Welfare | Transport, Travel and Tourism
The Office for National Statistics produces independent information to improve our understanding of the United Kingdom's economy and society.
Reliable and impartial statistics are vital for planning the proper allocation of resources, policy-making and decision-making to ensure a fair society.
Glossary - Common terms used within the Time Series Data service
Abbreviations - Common acronyms and abbreviations used within time series titles
Certain familiarity with National Statistics data is assumed. If you are unsure regarding any of the full terminology linked to the acronyms or abbreviations, please search within StatBase® or refer to the applicable user manual.
Die "Virtual Bookshelf" enthält viele statistische Dokumente zum Download.
Consumer Price Inflation Since 1750
Composite consumer price index with description and assessment of source data, and examples of how to revalue historical amounts to current day prices and calculate changes in purchasing power.
Author: Jim O'Donoghue
Economic Trends, no No. 604, pp 38-46.
Download (PDF, 68Kb)
This article presents a composite price index covering the period since 1750 which can be used for analyses of consumer price inflation, or the purchasing power of the pound, over long periods of time. The index is based on both official and unofficial sources and replaces previous long-run inflation indices produced by the ONS, the Bank of England and the House of Commons Library. It shows that:
Put another way, the index shows that one decimal penny in 1750 would have had greater purchasing power than one pound in 2003.
- - between 1750 and 2003, prices rose by around 140 times;
- - most of the increase in prices has occurred since the Second World War: between 1750 and 1938, a period spanning nearly two centuries, prices rose by a little over three times; since then they have increased more than forty-fold.
pig in a python (W3)
Engl. "pig in a python" bezeichnet eine Spitze in einem statistischen Graphen. Vermutlich soll das sprachliche Bild - ganz wörtlich - an eine gewundene Python-Schlange erinnern, die durch Aushängen des Kiefers ein Schwein in sich aufgenommen hat und nun an einer Stelle eine große Wölbung hat.
especially in demographics, a spike or surge in a statistic measured over time.
The Pig and the Python
How to Prosper from the Aging Baby Boom
Stoddart Publishing Co. Ltd.
David Cork (Autor)
Susan Lightstone (Autor)
Taschenbuch: 256 Seiten
Verlag: Prima Lifestyles (5. Januar 1998)
(E1)(L1) http://ngrams.googlelabs.com/graph?corpus=0&content=pig in a python
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.
Engl. "pig in a python" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1960 auf.
statsoft - Statistics Textbook - Statistical Terms Glossary
Wenn man etwas über Statistik wissen möchte - hier sollte man es finden!
StatSoft, Inc. (2006). Electronic Statistics Textbook. Tulsa.
This Electronic Statistics Textbook offers training in the understanding and application of statistics. The material was developed at the StatSoft R&D department based on many years of teaching undergraduate and graduate statistics courses and covers a wide variety of applications, including laboratory research (biomedical, agricultural, etc.), business statistics and forecasting, social science statistics and survey research, data mining, engineering and quality control applications, and many others.
The Electronic Textbook begins with an overview of the relevant elementary (pivotal) concepts and continues with a more in depth exploration of specific areas of statistics, organized by "modules," accessible by buttons, representing classes of analytic techniques.
Elementary Concepts in Statistics
Overview of Elementary Concepts in Statistics. In this introduction, we will briefly discuss those elementary statistical concepts that provide the necessary foundations for more specialized expertise in any area of statistical data analysis. The selected topics illustrate the basic assumptions of most statistical methods and/or have been demonstrated in research to be necessary components of one's general understanding of the "quantitative nature" of reality (Nisbett, et al., 1987). Because of space limitations, we will focus mostly on the functional aspects of the concepts discussed and the presentation will be very short. Further information on each of those concepts can be found in the Introductory Overview and Examples sections of this manual and in statistical textbooks. Recommended introductory textbooks are: Kachigan (1986), and Runyon and Haber (1976); for a more advanced discussion of elementary theory and assumptions of statistics, see the classic books by Hays (1988), and Kendall and Stuart (1979).
- What are variables?
- Correlational vs. experimental research
- Dependent vs. independent variables
- Measurement scales
- Relations between variables
- Why relations between variables are important
- Two basic features of every relation between variables
- What is "statistical significance" (p-value)
- How to determine that a result is "really" significant
- Statistical significance and the number of analyses performed
- Strength vs. reliability of a relation between variables
- Why stronger relations between variables are more significant
- Why significance of a relation between variables depends on the size of the sample
- Example: "Baby boys to baby girls ratio"
- Why small relations can be proven significant only in large samples
- Can "no relation" be a significant result?
- How to measure the magnitude (strength) of relations between variables
- Common "general format" of most statistical tests
- How the "level of statistical significance" is calculated
- Why the "Normal distribution" is important
- Illustration of how the normal distribution is used in statistical reasoning (induction)
- Are all test statistics normally distributed?
- How do we know the consequences of violating the normality assumption?
A glossary of statistical terms and a list of references for further study are included.
usingenglish - Text Content Analysis Tool
This tool will show you a basic statistical breakdown of your text including:
Word Count | Unique Words | Number of Sentences | Average Words per Sentence | Lexical Density (what's this?) | Gunning Fog Readability Index (what's this?)
word frequency (W3)
Count Characters, Words, Lines - Count your text's characters, words, sentences, lines and word frequency.
Word Frequency Analysis as a Way to improve writing quality
A look at how using word frequency software can help improve your writing
(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=word frequency
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.
Engl. "word frequency" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1900 auf.
Most frequently used English Words
WordCount™ is an interactive presentation of the 86,800 most frequently used English words.
WordCount tracks the way we use language.
QueryCount™ tracks the way we use WordCount.
WordCount™ is an artistic experiment in the way we use language. It presents the 86,800 most frequently used English words, ranked in order of commonness. Each word is scaled to reflect its frequency relative to the words that precede and follow it, giving a visual barometer of relevance. The larger the word, the more we use it. The smaller the word, the more uncommon it is.
WordCount data currently comes from the British National Corpus®, a 100 million word collection of samples of written and spoken language from a wide range of sources, designed to represent an accurate cross-section of current English usage. WordCount includes all words that occur at least twice in the BNC®. In the future, WordCount will be modified to track word usage within any desired text, website, and eventually the entire Internet.
WordCount was designed with a minimalist aesthetic, to let the information speak for itself. The interface is clean, basic and intuitive. The goal is for the user to feel embedded in the language, sifting through words like an archaeologist through sand, awaiting the unexpected find. Observing closely ranked words tells us a great deal about our culture. For instance, “God” is one word from “began”, two words from “start”, and six words from “war”. Another sequence is "america ensure oil opportunity". Conspiracists unite! As ever, the more one explores, the more is revealed. Some of the best sequences people have sent me are here.
Each time someone searches a word on WordCount, QueryCount takes note. Every few hours, QueryCount refreshes itself, rearranging its word rankings based on the number of times each word has been queried by WordCount.
QueryCount is ever changing, volatile, unpredictable, and full of life. After all, it's what you're looking for. Launch QueryCount.
WordCount & QueryCount were designed and developed by Jonathan Harris of Number27, in conjunction with the FABRICA studio of Italy.
Am 08.09.2006 lag "Etymology" auf Platz 43.125 von 86.800 (englischen) Wörtern im Archiv.
Am 08.06.2009 lag "Etymology" auf Platz 5872 von 74.000 (englischen) Wörtern im Archiv.
Auf dieser Seite findet man Wortfolgen der "WordCount"-Liste die einen gewissen Sinn ergeben.
(Weshalb diese Seite die "Nummer 27" trägt, konnte ich nicht in Erfahrung bringen.)
September 2, 2004 - Wordcount.org: Jonathan Harris learned that when you line up 88,000 words in order of usage, "chances are pretty good that a few of those sequences are going to form some pretty conspiratorial meanings."