Etymologie, Etimología, Étymologie, Etimologia, Etymology
UK Vereinigtes Königreich Großbritannien und Nordirland, Reino Unido de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda del Norte, Royaume-Uni de Grande-Bretagne et d'Irlande du Nord, Regno Unito di Gran Bretagna e Irlanda del Nord, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Sprache, Lengua, Langue, Lingua, Language

Amtssprache, Langue Officielle, Official Language:
Englisch, Anglais, English

A

about.com
English language

(E?)(L?) http://grammar.about.com/od/e/g/englishlanguageterm.htm

Definition:

The primary language of several countries (including Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States) and a second language in a number of multilingual countries (including India, Singapore, and the Philippines). See Observations, below.

English is conventionally divided into three historical periods: Old English, Middle English, and Modern English.

Varieties of English:

African American Vernacular English, American, Australian, Babu, Banglish, British, Canadian, Caribbean, Chicano, Chinese, Euro-English, Hinglish, Indian, Irish, Japanese, New Zealand, Nigerian, Nonstandard English, Pakistani, Philippine, Scottish, Singapore, South African, Spanglish, Standard American, Standard British, Standard English, Taglish, Welsh, Zimbabwean

also:

Etymology:

"English" is derived from "Anglisc", the speech of the "Angles" (one of the three Germanic tribes that invaded England during the fifth century).
...


Erstellt: 2014-12

Amtssprache von UK
Amtssprache von United Kingdom

Amtssprache(n) von UK - Vereinigtes Königreich (Großbritannien u. Nordirland) ist / sind

Erstellt: 2012-07

antonomasia (W3)

'Antonomasia' comes from the Greek 'anti-' meaning 'instead' or 'against', plus 'onomazein', meaning 'to name'.
Originally, the word was used in the sense "the substitution of another designation for a common, obvious, or normal one."
Beispiele: aber auch:

(E?)(L?) http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/antonomasia

antonomasia


B

babbel.com
Babbel Magazine

(E?)(L?) http://www.babbel.com/magazine




Erstellt: 2015-07

Barbarian
Vandals, barbarians, and cosmopolitans
Barbarians and Savages
blahs and barbarians

From the Greek "barbaroi", meaning "babblers", used to mean non-Greeks, i.e., people who didn't speak Greek; from the sound that the Greeks thought they were making: "bar bar bar bar..."

(E?)(L?) http://www.angelfire.com/ma/vivekananda/sanscrit3.html


(E?)(L1) http://www.crystalinks.com/barbarians.html


(E1)(L1) http://www.etymonline.com/b2etym.htm


(E1)(L1) http://www.takeourword.com/Issue010.html
Issue 10 Spotlight Barbecued Barbarians and Their Barbers

(E1)(L1) http://www.westegg.com/etymology/


bartleby116
Fowler, H.W.
The King’s English

(E?)(L?) http://www.bartleby.com/116/
The plan for the second edition of the classic reference work The King’s English was dictated by the following considerations:

SECOND EDITION
OXFORD: CLARENDON PRESS, 1908
NEW YORK: BARTLEBY.COM, 1999



bbc
English language History Trail

(E2)(L1) http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/lj/conquestlj/legacy_entry.shtml?site=history_conquestlj_yoke

The invaders of Britain left their indelible mark on the English language and culture - from the royal coat of arms to our place names and the words we use everyday. Discover the roots of English by creating your own poem or try to spot the origins of a selection of objects.


bbc
English language in different era

(E?)(L1) http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/routesofenglish/index.shtml


(E?)(L1) http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/routesofenglish/world/index_noflash.shtml
Hier findet man eine kleine Übersicht über die Entwicklung der englischen Sprache von 400 bis 1970 (auch als Flash version).
Choose a time period to find out the comings and goings of the English language in that era.

bbc
Evolving English
englische Sprache
Beiträge der BBC

(E?)(L?) http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/routesofenglish/storysofar/series1.shtml


(E?)(L?) http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/routesofenglish/storysofar/series2.shtml


(E?)(L?) http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/routesofenglish/storysofar/series3.shtml


(E?)(L?) http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/routesofenglish/storysofar/series4.shtml
Humour and Cussing Accents and Dialects People and Places

bbc
Language Map of UK

(E?)(L1) http://www.bbc.co.uk/voices/


(E?)(L1) http://www.bbc.co.uk/voices/multilingual/
"Daps" or "pumps"? "Mitch" or "skive"? What's your local lingo? Create your own interactive word map and help us build a picture of the words we use across the British Isles.

Some of the languages in this section originated here. The others have become part of our language landscape over time. No one knows how many languages are spoken in the British Isles, but we've included some of the most widely spoken.
Arabic | Bengali | British Sign Language | Caribbean Creoles | Chinese | Cornish | Croatian | English | Greek | Guernesiais | Gujarati | Irish | Jerriais | Manx | Panjabi | Portuguese | Romani | Serbian | Somali | Scottish Gaelic | Scots | Turkish | Ulster-Scots | Urdu | Welsh | Yoruba

Zu jeder dieser Sprachen gibt es einen Link zu weiteren Informationen bei BBC.

bbc
Languages
language site

(E?)(L1) http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/languages/


(E?)(L1) http://www.bbc.co.uk/languages/
One standout is the BBC language site, which offers free courses in French, Spanish, German and Italian, as well as basic guides to several other languages. Audio clips guiding pronunciation abound throughout the site, and the bigger courses boast an impressive array of multimedia exposure. Video clips demonstrating conversational exchanges are the central component to the main language courses, with follow-up exercises designed to aid oral and written skills. Another handy offering: extensive links to the BBC World Service, which offers news reports in 43 languages.
For quick reference, the site also has a collection of essential phrases in 30 languages, with a printer-friendly version so you can take it with you as you travel.

Learn some lingo for your holiday
Keep your grey matter active and use your holiday as an opportunity to learn a new language. For an easy start delve into a quick fix and then graduate to one of the steps online in French, Spanish, German or Italian.

bbc
Language Gene discovered

(E?)(L1) http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/2192969.stm
First language gene discovered - Scientists think they have found the first of many genes that gave humans speech.

bbc
Sound of the Saxons

(E2)(L1) http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/trail/conquest/after_viking/sound_saxons_ms03.shtml

Play 'Sound of the Saxons'

Imagine giving a speech to the turbulent, unpredictable England which existed under the Vikings. The country is being ravaged by the invaders and King Ethelred has fled to France, leaving the throne empty.

In 1014, Archbishop Wulfstan, a prominent government member, made such a speech. But what did an Anglo-Saxon speech sound like? What did it look like? Find out in 'Sound of the Saxons'.


bbc
The Ages of English Timeline

(E2)(L1) http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/launch_tl_ages_english.shtml

From a West Saxon dialect to a global phenomena, from runes to rap, the development of English follows a fascinating trail.

Ever wondered how Beowulf sounded? Why "pickleherring" was one of Johnson's choice insults? Explore the ten ages of English in this interactive timeline and find out.


bbc
The Roots of English

(E2)(L1) http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/routesofenglish/index.shtml




bbc
URP - upper received pronunciation

(E?)(L?) http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/routesofenglish/storysofar/posh.shtml

Routes of English Special - Talking Posh
In this special edition of Routes of English, Melvyn Bragg turns his attention to the mysterious speech patterns of Britain's aristocrats for whom Cadogan Square will forever be "squaur".
But was it ever thus? And is toffs' talk the product of a lineage that in many cases stretches back to the Middle Ages?
...


bbc
Word of Mouth

(E2)(L1) http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/factual/wordofmouth.shtml


bl.uk
The British Library
Evolving English
English Timeline
The evolution of English language and literature

(E?)(L?) http://www.bl.uk/


(E?)(L?) http://www.bl.uk/evolvingenglish/

About the exhibition

Explore the English language in all its national and international diversity

Exhibition supported by the American Trust for the British Library

In this ground-breaking exhibition, the roots of Old English, slang dictionaries, medieval manuscripts, advertisements and newspapers from around the world come together - alongside everyday texts and dialect sound recordings. Follow the social, cultural and historical influences on the English language... and see how it’s still evolving today.


(E?)(L?) http://www.bl.uk/learning/langlit/evolvingenglish/accessvers/index.html
Vom Jahr 1000 bis 2000 wird die Entwicklung der englischen Sprache mit Texten und kleinen Videos aufgearbeitet.


This interactive timeline allows you to explore the evolution of English language and literature, from the 11th century to the present day. Scroll through decade by decade to investigate the richness and diversity of our poetry and prose, as well as the many social, cultural and political strands from which our language has been woven.

The timeline includes a fascinating combination of texts: Anglo Saxon tales and medieval illuminations; iconic literary manuscripts and printed texts; as well as letters, newspapers, handbills, posters, charters, speeches and campaign leaflets.

Explore the content


(E?)(L?) http://www.bl.uk/learning/timeline/item126565.html

...
One of the reasons Chaucer is so important is that he made the decision to write in English and not French. In the centuries following the Norman invasion, French was the language spoken by those in power. The Canterbury Tales was one of the first major works in literature written in English. Chaucer began the tales in 1387 and continued until his death in 1400. No text in his own hand still exists, but a surprising number of copies survive from the 1500s - more than 80. This suggests the tales were enormously popular in medieval England. This early and handsomely ornamented manuscript copy, from c.1450, was made within a generation of Chaucer's death.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.bl.uk/learning/langlit/timeline/index.html

Animated Timeline


Erstellt: 2016-04

blackwellpublishing.com
Studying HEL Today
History of the English Language

(E?)(L?) http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/content/BPL_Images/Content_store/Sample_chapter/9781405129923/9781405129923.PDF

History, English, Language

Studying HEL Today

Michael Matto and Haruko Momma


Erstellt: 2017-10

C

cam
Cmabrigde Uinervtisy
intuitives Lesen

(E?)(L1) http://www.mrc-cbu.cam.ac.uk/people/matt.davis/home.html
Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoetnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be at the rghit pclae. The rset can be a toatl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe.

(E?)(L1) http://www.snopes.com/language/apocryph/cambridge.asp


(E?)(L1) http://www.spiegel.de/kultur/literatur/0,1518,grossbild-294441-266694,00.html


copyeditor

(E?)(L?) http://www.copyeditor.com/
Welcome to the leading language newsletter

D

dummies
Language Arts

(E?)(L?) http://www.dummies.com/how-to/education-languages/language-arts.html?&sort=TITLE




E

eleaston
History of the English Language

Links zu folgenden Themen:

(E?)(L?) http://www.eleaston.com/etymology.html#HistoryofEnglish




eng-lang
English Language Issues

(E?)(L?) http://www.eng-lang.co.uk/

Articles
This is a selection of articles I have written on English language issues, mostly as a result of questions that kept coming up in various places about correct usage of apostrophes and suchlike.


(E?)(L?) http://www.eng-lang.co.uk/indexpage.htm

This is an index to the words discussed on other pages (about writing style, errors and superstitions).

agenda | alternatives | among | apostrophes with single letters | arena | averse to | beg the question | between | cheap prices | clichés | criteria | criterion | consensus | could of | data | different to | discreet | discrete | e-mail | enormity | extension | fewer | foreign words - plurals of | hot temperatures | hyphens | it's | it is | lay | less | liaise | lie | licensed | loose | lose | minuscule | none | practising | prepositions at the end of sentences | principal | principle | raises a question mark | referenda | referendum | refute | sat | should of | split infinitive | stadia | stadium | stood | supersede | track records | who's | whose | would of | vocal cords.

The apostrophe page looks at apostrophe use with: abbreviations (CDs | 70s) | adjectival and attributive phrases (sports car) | initialisms (USA) | it's and its | Master's Degree | Mother's Day | names | non-living things | noun phrases (hotel room | car door) | personal pronouns (everybody | everyone | somebody | someone | no-one | nobody) | plurals (disco's) | possessive pronouns (mine | yours | his | hers | its | ours | theirs | whose) | times | titles (Land Rover Owners Club | Masters Tournament | Hundred Years War) | words ending in s.


englishclub.com
History of English

(E?)(L?) https://www.englishclub.com/history-of-english/

The history of the English language really started with the arrival of three Germanic tribes who invaded Britain during the 5th century AD. These tribes, the Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes, crossed the North Sea from what today is Denmark and northern Germany. At that time the inhabitants of Britain spoke a Celtic language. But most of the Celtic speakers were pushed west and north by the invaders - mainly into what is now Wales, Scotland and Ireland. The Angles came from "Englaland" [sic] and their language was called "Englisc" - from which the words "England" and "English" are derived.


Erstellt: 2017-10

ethnologue
Languages of United Kingdom
Sprachen von United Kingdom (Europe)

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=GB


ethnologue
Albannach Gaidhlig - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=gla


ethnologue - Angloromani - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=rme


ethnologue - Arabic, Judeo-Iraqi - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=yhd


ethnologue - Arabic, Moroccan Spoken - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ary


ethnologue - Arabic, Ta'izzi-Adeni Spoken - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=acq


ethnologue - Assyrian Neo-Aramaic - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=aii


ethnologue - Belfast - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng


ethnologue - Bengali - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ben


ethnologue - Birmingham - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng


ethnologue - Bolton Lancashire - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng


ethnologue - British Sign Language - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=bfi


ethnologue - Brummie - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng


ethnologue - Brummy - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng


ethnologue - BSL - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=bfi


ethnologue - Central Cumberland - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng


ethnologue - Chinese, Hakka - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=hak


ethnologue - Chinese, Mandarin - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cmn


ethnologue - Chinese, Yue - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=yue


ethnologue - Cockney - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng


ethnologue - Cornish - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cor


ethnologue - Cornwall - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng


ethnologue - Craven Yorkshire - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng


ethnologue - Cumberland - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng


ethnologue - Curnoack - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cor


ethnologue - Cymraeg - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cym


ethnologue - Devonshire - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng


ethnologue - Dgernesiais - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=fra


ethnologue - Dorset - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng


ethnologue - Durham - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng


ethnologue - East Anglia - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng


ethnologue - East Devonshire - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng


ethnologue - East Sutherlandshire - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=gla


ethnologue - Edinburgh - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng


ethnologue - English - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng


ethnologue - English Romani - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=rme


ethnologue - Erse - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=gla


ethnologue - Erse - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=gle


ethnologue - Estonian - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=est


ethnologue - Farsi, Western - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pes


ethnologue - French - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=fra


ethnologue - Gaeilge - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=gle


ethnologue - Gaelg - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=glv


ethnologue - Gaelic - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=gla


ethnologue - Gaelic, Hiberno-Scottish - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ghc


ethnologue - Gaelic, Irish - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=gle


ethnologue - Gaelic, Scottish - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=gla


ethnologue - Gàidhlig - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=gla


ethnologue - Gailck - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=glv


ethnologue - Gaoidhealg - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ghc


ethnologue - Greek - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ell


ethnologue - Gujarati - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=guj


ethnologue - Hebrew - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=heb


ethnologue - Hiberno-Scottish Classical Common Gaelic - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ghc


ethnologue - Hindi - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=hin


ethnologue - Insular - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=sco


ethnologue - Irish - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=gle


ethnologue - Italian - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ita


ethnologue - Japanese - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=jpn


ethnologue - Jerriais - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=fra


ethnologue - Kalderash - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=rmy


ethnologue - Kashmiri - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kas


ethnologue - Kernewek - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cor


ethnologue - Kernowek - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cor


ethnologue - Kirmanjki - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kiu


ethnologue - Kurdish, Northern - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kmr


ethnologue - Latvian - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=lav


ethnologue - Lithuanian - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=lit


ethnologue - Lovari - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=rmy


ethnologue - Lowland Scottish - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng


ethnologue - Malayalam - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mal


ethnologue - Maltese - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mlt


ethnologue - Manx - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=glv


ethnologue - Manx Gaelic - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=glv


ethnologue - Newcastle Northumberland - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng


ethnologue - Norfolk - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng


ethnologue - Norn - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=nrn


ethnologue - North Lancashire - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng


ethnologue - North Wiltshire - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng


ethnologue - North Yorkshire - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng


ethnologue - Northern Scots - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=sco


ethnologue - Northern Welsh - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cym


ethnologue - Northumberland - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng


ethnologue - Old Kentish Sign Language - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=okl


ethnologue - Palari - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pld


ethnologue - Palarie - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pld


ethnologue - Panjabi, Eastern - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pan


ethnologue - Panjabi, Mirpur - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pmu


ethnologue - Panjabi, Western - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pnb


ethnologue - Parlare - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pld


ethnologue - Parlary - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pld


ethnologue - Parlyaree - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pld


ethnologue - Parsi - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=prp


ethnologue - Pashto, Northern - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pbu


ethnologue - Pashto, Southern - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pbt


ethnologue - Patagonian Welsh - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cym


ethnologue - Pogadi Chib - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=rme


ethnologue - Polari - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pld


ethnologue - Portuguese - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=por


ethnologue - Posh `N' Posh - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=rme


ethnologue - Radcliffe Lancashire - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng


ethnologue - Rom - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=rmy


ethnologue - Romani English - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=rme


ethnologue - Romani, Vlax - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=rmy


ethnologue - Romani, Welsh - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=rmw


ethnologue - Romanichal - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=rme


ethnologue - Romenes - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=rmy


ethnologue - Saraiki - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=skr


ethnologue - Scots - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=sco


ethnologue - Scots Gaelic - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=gla


ethnologue - Scottish Cant - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=trl


ethnologue - Scottish Traveller Cant - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=trl


ethnologue - Scouse - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng


ethnologue - Seraiki - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=skr


ethnologue - Sheffield Yorkshire - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng


ethnologue - Shelta - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=sth


ethnologue - Sindhi - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=snd


ethnologue - Somali - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=som


ethnologue - Somerset - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng


ethnologue - South Wales - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng


ethnologue - Southern Scots - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=sco


ethnologue - Southern Welsh - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cym


ethnologue - Southwestern Caribbean Creole English - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=jam


ethnologue - Sussex - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng


ethnologue - Sylheti - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=syl


ethnologue - Tagalog - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tgl


ethnologue - Tamil - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tam


ethnologue - Traveller Scottish - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=trl


ethnologue - Tsigane - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=rmy


ethnologue - Turkish - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tur


ethnologue - Tyneside Northumberland - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng


ethnologue - Urdu - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=urd


ethnologue - Vietnamese - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=vie


ethnologue - Welsh - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cym


ethnologue - West Country - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng


ethnologue - West Yorkshire - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng


ethnologue - Westmorland - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng


ethnologue - Yinglish - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=yib


ethnologue - Yoruba - Language of GB

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=yor


F

furman
The Great Vowel Shift

(E?)(L?) http://alpha.furman.edu/~mmenzer/gvs/



This site is designed for my students--undergraduates with limited linguistic knowledge who are being introduced to the Great Vowel Shift.

The "Great Vowel Shift" was a massive sound change affecting the long vowels of English during the fifteenth to eighteenth centuries. Basically, the long vowels shifted upwards; that is, a vowel that used to be pronounced in one place in the mouth would be pronounced in a different place, higher up in the mouth. The Great Vowel Shift has had long-term implications for, among other things, orthography, the teaching of reading, and the understanding of any English-language text written before or during the Shift. Any standard history of the English language textbook (see our sources) will have a discussion of the GVS. This page gives just a quick overview; our interactive See and Hear page adds sound and animation to give you a better sense of how this all works.

When we talk about the GVS, we usually talk about it happening in eight steps. It is very important to remember, however, that each step did not happen overnight. At any given time, people of different ages and from different regions would have different pronunciations of the same word. Older, more conservative speakers would retain one pronunciation while younger, more advanced speakers were moving to a new one; some people would be able to pronounce the same word two or more different ways. The same thing happens today, of course: I can pronounce the word "route" to rhyme with "boot" or with "out" and may switch from one pronunciation to another in the midst of a conversation. Please see our Dialogue: Conservative and Advanced section for an illustration of this phenomenon.


furman
The History of English Phonemes

(E?)(L?) http://alpha.furman.edu/~wrogers/phonemes/

This Website was constructed by William E. Rogers of the English Department at Furman University, Greenville, South Carolina, and Diana Ervin, an English major at Furman. The site is intended to supplement four courses currently taught at Furman: English 38 (History of the English Language), English 39 (English Grammar), English 40 (Medieval English Literature), and English 60 (Chaucer). The construction of this site was made possible by a grant from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation to Furman University and Wofford College (Furman/Wofford Mellon Program).

This Website is designed to help students of the English language trace the development of the phonemes of English from the Old English period into Present-Day English. The information contained in the site is available in any good textbook on the history of the language, but printed texts normally present the information in a linear fashion corresponding to the chronological development of English. The value of the Website is the hypertextual treatment of the information, which is meant to keep students from having to spend a great deal of time leafing through textbooks.

The navigation bar on the left-hand side of this page mirrors the structure of the site. Click on "Instructions" in the navigation bar for instructions on using the site, or click on the green button here.

ENGLISH PHONEMES:
Instructions for Using Site
Phonology: Consonants | Vowels
Phonemes:
Old English (OE): Consonants | Vowels
Middle English (ME): Consonants | Vowels
Early Modern English (EME): Consonants | Vowels
Present-Day English (PDE): Consonants | Vowels
Sound-Changes
Spelling
Useful Links


G

Geschichte der Englischen Sprache (W3)

Um das Jahr 450 mußten sich die britischen Kelten gegen Pikten aus dem Norden und die Scoten aus Irland wehren. Zur Unterstützung engagierten sie Angeln, Jüten und Sachsen als Söldner. Viele von ihnen blieben - mit ihrer Sprache - auf der Insel. An die Angeln erinnert z.B. "East Anglia", an die Sachsen erinnert "Wessex" ("West-Sachsen").

Im 8. Jh. begannen die Wikinger die Nordseeküsten unsicher zu machen. Ab 840 gingen die Wikinger dazu über nicht nur Raubzüge zu unternehmen sondern auch Eroberungen zu machen. D. h. sie siedelten sich an der Küste und in Mündungsgebieten an.

Um 900 schlossen der Wikingeranführer Guthrum und Alfred der Große von Wessex einen Vertrag über eine Grenze zwischen Skandinaviern im Nordosten und Engländern im Südwesten. Im Herrschaftsbereich der Wikinger galt nun dänisches Recht und die Bezeichnung "Danelag" (nord. "lag" = dt. "Gesetz", vgl. engl. "law") wurde zur Bezeichnung dieses Gebietes. 50 Jahre später waren aus den kriegerischen Wikingern friedliche Bauern geworden. Die letzten Haudegen und ihr wikingischer König von York, Erik Blutaxt, wurden im Jahr 954 von den Engländern vertrieben. Damit war das Kapitel Wikinger noch nicht ganz erledigt. Um weitere Plünderungszüge zu vermeiden zahlten die Engländer fortan Schutzgeld an die Wikinger, das "Danegeld".

Die Wikinger hatten nicht nur die englische Ostküste besucht und teilweise besiedelt. Sie plünderten auch die Nordküste Frankreichs. Mit dem Vertrag des Frankenkönigs "Karl dem Einfältigen" und dem Wikinger-Anführer Rollo (Hrólfr, Graf von Rouen), in dem Rollo den Küstenstreifen im Nordwesten als Lehen erhielt, gelang 911 ein Assimilationsprojekt, das sich schon bald als erfolgreich herausstellen sollte. Die angesiedelten Wikinger verteidigten nun ihrerseits die Nordküste Frankreichs, die "Normandie", die "Nordmännerei", wurden Bauern und lernten Französisch, d.h. Fränkisch.

Und dann kam das Jahr 1066. Auf Grund mehrerer Todesfälle sah sich der normannische "Wilhelm der Eroberer" als rechtmäßiger Herrschernachfolger in England. Er nutzte die Gunst der Stunde und brachte den Engländern die französische Sprache näher. Seither gibt es in England viele Doppelbenennungen, die etwas vornehmeren erinnern an Französisch (amtliche Sprache war fortan das normannische Französisch), die etwas alltäglicheren erinnern an sächsisch oder keltisch.

Bis zum Ende des 12. Jh. waren Latein und Französisch die Schriftsprachen in England in offiziellen Schriftstücken und Briefen, für Gedichte und Prosa.

Ab dem 13. Jh. beginnen einige Literaturschaffende sich der englischen Sprache zu bedienen. In seinen "Canterbury Tales" läßt Geoffrey Chaucer (1340 - 1400) Vertreter verschiedener Gesllschaftsschichten zu Wort kommen.

Im 14. Jh. gewann das Englische wieder an Einfluß. Aus der mit vielen französischen Lehnwörtern angereicherten Sprache der Londoner Kanzleien ging die neuenglische Sprache hervor. Im heutigen Englisch findet man auch zahlreiche Entlehnungen aus dem Altnordischen, Lateinischen, Griechischen, Niederländischen, Spanischen und Deutschen.

Erstellt: 2014-11

google.com - HEL
HEL on the Web
History of the English Language

(E?)(L?) https://sites.google.com/site/helontheweb/hel




Erstellt: 2017-10

googlealert.com
Language-Links per E-Mail

(E?)(L1) http://www.googlealert.com/


(E?)(L?) http://www.googlealert.com/feed/0629/cogooglert.4.html


Erstellt: 2016-12

H

History of English
A Brief Look at the History of English

The history of English is conventionally, if perhaps too neatly, divided into three periods usually called The earliest period begins with the migration of certain Germanic tribes from the continent to Britain in the fifth century A.D., though no records of their language survive from before the seventh century, and it continues until the end of the eleventh century or a bit later. By that time Latin, Old Norse (the language of the Viking invaders), and especially the Anglo-Norman French of the dominant class after the Norman Conquest in 1066 had begun to have a substantial impact on the lexicon, and the well-developed inflectional system that typifies the grammar of Old English had begun to break down. The following brief sample of Old English prose illustrates several of the significant ways in which change has so transformed English that we must look carefully to find points of resemblance between the language of the tenth century and our own. It is taken from Aelfric's "Homily on St. Gregory the Great" and concerns the famous story of how that pope came to send missionaries to convert the Anglo-Saxons to Christianity after seeing Anglo-Saxon boys for sale as slaves in Rome:
...

historychannel

(E?)(L?) http://www.historychannel.com/speeches/
berühmte Reden

historyofenglishpodcast
The History of English Podcast

(E?)(L?) http://historyofenglishpodcast.com/


(E?)(L?) http://historyofenglishpodcast.com/episodes/

Episodes


Erstellt: 2017-10

I

infoplease
English language

(E?)(L1) http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/society/A0817376.html


infoplease
History of English

(E?)(L1) http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/society/A0857999.html


itools.com
Language Toolbox

(E?)(L?) http://itools.com/language

Look up words to find out what they mean, how to spell or pronounce them. Translate words, phrases and whole texts into other languages. Solve word games with the language toolbox full of the best vocabulary reference tools

Dictionary - Language reference for words with meaning, pronunciation, and etymology Translate - Translate words, texts and web pages from one language to another: Mandarin Chinese, English, Spanish, Hindi, Russian, Arabic, Portuguese, French (+42 more) Thesaurus - Language reference: Look up the words that are related – that have the same meaning (synonyms), or the opposite meaning (antonyms) or are pronounced similarly Word Games - Solve word games like find all the words that can be made from a set of letters, as in SCRABBLE games Quotes - Quotations and famous quotes on pretty much any subject Specialized Words - Gain understanding of a technical or industry-specific terminology


Erstellt: 2014-06

J

K

King James Bible (W3)

In der Ausgabe "December 2011" von "National Geographic" findet man einen interessanten Artikel mit der Überschrift "The Bibel of King James". Und darunter:

"First printed 400 years ago, it molded the English language, buttressed the 'powers that be' - one of its famous phrases - and yet enshrined a gospel of individual freedom. No other book has given more to the English-speaking world."

(By Adam Nicolson, Photograps by Jim Richardson).

Vergleichbar der Lutherbibel formte die die "King James Bible" die englische Sprache ab 1611 und fügte ihr neue (18) Redewendungen hinzu und bewahrte 240 aus früheren Bibelübersetzungen. Viele findet man auch in entsprechender Übersetzung in der Lutherbibel. Als Beispiele werden genannt:

Im Jahr 1603 erbte der schottische König "James VI" den englischen Thron. Eine seiner ersten Amtshandlungen war die Einsetzung einer Kommission, die sich um eine neue englische Bibelübersetzung kümmern sollte. Als klare Regeln wurden 1604 festgelegt: Die Bibel sollte also eine klare Sprache sprechen, ohne Anmerkungen über strittige Übersetzungen, verständlich für jedermann, dabei aber genau und bedingungslos auf der höchsten Bildungsstufe, geschrieben sein.

Die Kommission bestand aus 54 Gelehrten unter denen sich viele Originale befanden, um ein breites Spektrum an Wissen und Bildung in die Übersetzung einfliessen zu lassen. Unter ihnen befanden sich Die Übersetzer-Kommission wurde in 6 Unterkomitees aufgeteilt. Jedes Mitglied übersetzte einen festgelegten Bibelabschnitt allein. Die Übersetzungen wurden in den Unterkomitees verglichen, diskutiert und laut verlesen, bis man sich auf eine einzige Variante geeinigt hatte. Diese wurde dann zwei Bischöfen und dann dem Erzbischof von Canterbury präsentiert. Mindestens informativ wurde sie auch dem König vorgelegt.

Im Jahr 1611 war die Übersetzung fertiggestellt und die "King James Bible" erschien mit dem Vorwort: "We desire that the Scripture may speake like it selfe, that it may be understood even of the very vulgar."

Die Formulierung "In the beginning God created the heaven, and the earth" soll im Unterkomitee das die ersten fünf Bücher übersetzte, unter dem Vorsitz des Dekans Lancelot Andrews, im Dekanatsraum der Westminster Abbey, zum ersten Mal gehört worden sein.

Mitte des 17. Jh. (also um 1650) hatte sich die "King James Bible" weitgehend durchgesetzt. Durch die Konolisierungsaktivitäten wurde sie in alle Welt verbreitet. Zwischen 1804 und 1884 wurden 100 Millionen Ausgaben durch Bibelgesellschaften in England und den USA verteilt. Das führte allerdings auch dazu, dass sie als "Bible of slavery" assoziiert wird.

Ein Schaubild zeigt u.a. auch eine kleine Bibelgeschichte:

(E?)(L1) http://www.bbc.co.uk/ahistoryoftheworld/exploreraltflash/?tag=&page=70
The King James Bible (Authorised) The King James Bible translation was begun in 1604, at the request of King James 1, and translated from the original ... Contributed by Individual

(E?)(L1) http://www.bbc.co.uk/ahistoryoftheworld/exploreraltflash/?tag=&page=71
Book of Common Prayer Probably, with the King James Bible, one of the most influential written books in the history of this country. Wherever ... Contributed by Individual

(E?)(L?) http://www.classic-literature.co.uk/classic-literature.asp
King James Bible

The Old Testament of the King James Bible The New Testament of the King James Bible

(E?)(L?) http://www.culture24.org.uk/art353825

Manifold Greatness: Bodleian Library Oxford recounts the Making of the King James Bible


(E?)(L?) http://www.global-language.com/djvueds/


(E?)(L1) http://www.gutenberg.org/browse/authors/m
McAfee, Cleland Boyd: Study of the King James Bible (English) (as Author)

(E?)(L1) http://www.gutenberg.org/browse/authors/v
The King James Bible (English) (as Author)

(E?)(L?) http://www.languagemonitor.com/?s=King+James+Bible

Words in the King James Bible:


(E2)(L1) http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/King James Bible


(E?)(L?) http://www.speedbible.com/


(E?)(L?) http://www.lib.uchicago.edu/efts/ARTFL/public/bibles/


(E?)(L?) http://www.cddc.vt.edu/bps/rexroth/essays/new-english-bible.htm

The New English Bible
Kenneth Rexroth compares the New English Bible with the King James Version


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=King James Bible
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "King James Bible" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1750 auf.

Erstellt: 2011-12

krysstal
Languages and Linguistics

(E?)(L?) http://www.krysstal.com/language.html#borrow
Language Families : The English Language : Words
Grammar : History of Writing : UK and USA English : London English
Place Names : Writing for the Internet
Essays, Tables and Lists
Language Families
Languages are grouped together into families. Languages belonging to the same family share common ancestors. This essay looks at some of the more common and important language families. These are described in general terms with unusual or interesting grammars indicated for selected languages.
There are descriptions of several language families in detail: Indo-European, Uralic, Altaic, Sino-Tibetan, Malayo-Polynesian, Afro-Asiatic, Caucasian, Dravidian, Austro-Asiatic, Niger-Congo, Other Families.
There is also a listing of the 30 Most Spoken Languages in the world.
The English Language: A short history of the world's most widespread language from its Anglo Saxon origins via Norman and Latin influences to Modern English.
Borrowed Words in English: A collection of words in the English language that were originally borrowed from other languages. The list features languages as diverse as Arabic, Hindi, Cree, Italian and Ewe. Borrowed words include algebra, ketchup, baron, caravan, patio, lava, clock, theory, shampoo, doctor, and chocolate.
There is a search engine for looking up borrowed words by language, continent, language family, and type of word.

Writing

The development, history and evolution of the world's writing systems. Beginning with pictographic forms and outlining the invention of the alphabet.
A map shows the evolution of scripts, alphabets and syllabaries with links to several examples: Amharic, Arabic, Aramaic, Armenian, Bengali, Berber, Brahmi, Burmese, Cham, Chinese Characters, Chinese Pictograms, Coptic, Cuniform, Cyrillic, Etruscan, Georgian, Greek, Gujerati, Hebrew, Hindi, Japanese, Javanese, Kannada, Khmer, Korean, Lao, Latin (Roman and Modern), Lepcha, Linear B, Malayalam, Maldivian, Mayan, Mongolian, Nastaliq, Oriya, Phonecian, Punjabi, Runic, Samaritan, Sanskrit, Sinhalese, Syriac, Tamil, Telugu, Thai, Tibetan, Tocharian, Ugarit.

Words And Names: The origin of names (both of people and places). The origin and evolution of selected words. Brief descriptions with many examples.

English: UK and USA: Differences in the usage of English in the United Kingdom and the United States of America. Some differences are trivial, others could cause embarassment.

"Have a butchers, me old china!"
Grammar: An essay on grammar defining different parts of speech with examples mainly from English but also from different languages. Terms defined include nouns, verbs ( with descriptions of mood, tense and voice), adjectives, adverbs and more.
It's a WORLD Wide Web: This essay is about communicating over the internet in English.
Many writers on the web assume that their readers will be from a particular country ("the Prime Minster says..."), cultural background ("the holiday season is approaching..."), hemisphere ("now that spring is here...") or religion ("merry Christmas...").
These assumptions can be a bar to effective communication and may even cause offence.
KryssTal Related Pages
The Western Media: Why the Western media does not always report everything that is going on in the world. From a linguistic point of view, this essay includes a section on how language is used to obscure facts and mould public opinion.
External Language and Linguistics Links
Language Families: A complete index to many of the world's language families.
Language for Travellers: A web site featuring languages useful for travellers.
Webster's Dictionary: An excellent American dictionary.
Etymology: An excellent etymological site with many links and a section on World English.
First Names: Very large site for the etymology and history of first names.
Numbers: A list of the numbers 1 to 10 in thousands of languages and many more language resources.
So You Wanna: So you want to know the most spoken languages in the World. Plus more on languages.

krysstal
English-Speaking Countries
History of English
The Origin and History of the English Language

(E?)(L1) http://www.krysstal.com/english.html


(E?)(L1) http://www.krysstal.com/index.html#language
The Web Site is a United Kingdom based educational and information web site by Kryss Katsiavriades and Talaat Qureshi in London.

The English Language - A short history of the world's most widespread language from its Anglo Saxon origins via Norman and Latin influences to Modern English. - Including the origin of words, borrowed words and language families.

Hinweise zur Geschichte, Verbreitung, Statistik, Dialekte, Einflüsse der englischen Sprache.

KryssTal Site Search Web Search:

ku-eichstaett
Englische Sprachwissenschaft
Katholische Universität Eichstätt-Ingolstadt

Sprachwissenschaft für die Öffentlichkeit

Da der Lehrstuhl für Englische und Vergleichende Sprachwissenschaft den Kontakt mit der interessierten Öffentlichhkeit fördern möchte, stellt diese Website Arbeitsblätter zur Verfügung, die von Studierenden erstellt und anfänglich für den Schulunterricht gedacht waren. Die Seite startete daher unter dem Titel "Service für die Schule". Wir denken aber, dass viele der hier zusammengetragenen Beiträge auch eine breitere Öffentlichkeit ansprechen, und haben der Seite daher den Namen "Sprachwissenschaft für die Öffentlichkeit" gegeben. Die Themen entstammen dabei den verschiedenen Bereichen der Englischen, Europäischen, Deutschen und Französischen Sprachwissenschaft.

(E?)(L?) http://www1.ku-eichstaett.de/SLF/EngluVglSW/euvsw.htm


(E?)(L?) http://www1.ku-eichstaett.de/SLF/EngluVglSW/schule.htm




L

Language (W3)

(E3)(L1) http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language


Language Code (W3)

(E3)(L1) http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/w/wiki.phtml?PHPSESSID=97ff51cc9e07858c2fc30dd48b4c71f2&search=language+code


Latinisierung Englands
Latinisierung der englischen Sprache (W3)

Eine - wie ich finde - besonders interessante Entwicklung mit Auswirkung auf die englische Sprache fand im Jahr 1066 statt.

Obwohl die Römer bereits vor 2000 Jahren in England waren, hatten sie es nicht geschafft, die lateinische Sprache nachhaltig zu etablieren. In Gallien (Frankreich) wurde die lateinische Umgangssprache der römischen Söldner dahingegen zum heutigen Französisch kultiviert.

Die normannischen Einwanderungen, die meist kriegerisch verliefen, dominierten den einstigen Einfluß der Römer nachhaltig. Und so war England bis zum Jahr 1066 vorwiegend von den skandinavischen Wikingern und deren Sprache beeinflußt.

Die Normannen, die sich jedoch in der - nach Ihnen benannten - Normandie niederließen, nahmen nach kurzer Zeit gallisch-römische Sitten und das latinisiserte Idiom an. Im Nachhinein war es also ein geschickter Zug des französischen/westfränkischen Königs (Karl der Einfältige) im Jahr 911, einen Teil der Wikinger (unter ihrem Anführer Jarl Rollo) mit einer Landschenkung zu Verbündeten zu machen und damit ein Bollwerk gegen weitere Normanneneinfälle zu schaffen.

Und nun kam also das Jahr 1066. Auf Grund der noch gepflegten familiären Beziehungen leitete auch der normannische Herzog Wilhelm (der Eroberer) ein Anrecht auf den englischen Thron ab. Als König Eduard am 05. Januar 1066 kinderlos starb erhoben drei Verwandte Anspruch auf den englischen Thron. Ob nun geschickt geplant oder Nutznießer der Geschichte - Wilhelm ging als lachender Dritter aus dem Streit hervor.

Der bereits amtierende König Harald II. wehrte den Einfall von 300 Schiffen des norwegischen Harald im Norden Englands erfolgreich ab. Als er erfuhr, dass der Normanne Wilhelm auf dem Weg war, an der Südküste Englands zu landen, führte er seine bereist erschöpften Krieger in einem Gewaltmarsch in den Süden der Insel. Vermutlich verdankte Wilhelm dieser Doppel- und Dreifachbelastung der Verteidiger Englands den Sieg.

Und so übernahmen nun die Verwandten aus dem bereits latinisierten europäischen Festland die Herrschaft in England. Als neue politische und kriegerische Oberschicht, bestimmten sie auch wesentlich die Sitten und die Sprache in England. Und so kam es, dass die einstigen Wikinger/Nordmänner nun die Latinisierung Englands (in Form des Altfranzösischen) betrieben.

Ein weiterer interessanter Aspekt ist, dass im Gefolge Wilhelms nicht nur Nordmänner waren sondern auch Angehörige der bereits länger an der Nordküste siedelnden Bewohner, eben Gallier und Bretonen. Und die Bretonen waren ihrerseits einst aus "Großbritannien" gekommen, um "Kleinbritannien" ("Little Brittany", "Bretagne") zu besiedeln. Somit kamen also auch die Nachfolger ehemalier Britten latinisiert nach England zurück, um nun auf Seiten der Herrscher die Latinisierung ihrer Verwandten zu betreiben.

Hätte der norwegische Harald dem normannischen Wilhelm den Vortritt gelassen - wäre also Harald erst an der Nordküste gelandet nachdem Wilhelm an der Südküste gelandet, so hätten die Truppen des englischen Harald II. sich im Süden abgekämpft - vermutlich gesiegt - und wären nach dem Marsch nach Norden erschöpft auf die norwegische Invasion getroffen. Und die Geschichte hätte eine vollkommen andere Richtung genommen. Die Weltsprache Englisch würde wesentlich mehr dem Norwegischen ähneln.

So aber kamen zu den bereits skandinavisch-sächsisch geprägten britischen Spracheinheiten die fränkisch durchsetzten vulgärlatinisiserten gallischen Varianten hinzu und verdoppelten den Wortschatz der englischen Sprache. Und ehemalige Skandinavier und Britten betrieben die Eingemeindung ins latinisierte Europa, lange nachdem die Römer die Insel verlassen hatten und überhaupt von der europäischen Bühne verschwunden waren.

Die Fähigkeit Wörter aus anderen Sprachen aufzunehmen hat die englische Sprache bis heute nicht verloren. Und so findet man im "Concise Oxford Dictionary" Wörter aus 87 Sprachen. Während für Französisch 150.000 Wörter geschätzt werden, geht man im Englischen von 400.000 bis 600.000 Wörtern aus.

(E?)(L?) http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gro%C3%9Fbritannien_in_r%C3%B6mischer_Zeit

Großbritannien in römischer Zeit


(E?)(L?) http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angelsachsen

Angelsachsen


(E?)(L?) http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geschichte_Englands

Geschichte Englands


(E?)(L?) http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/1066


(E?)(L?) http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Normannische_Eroberung_Englands
Normannische Eroberung Englands

(E?)(L?) http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bretagne

Bretagne ...
Bretonische Einwanderung

Ab etwa 450 n. Chr., nach dem Niedergang des Römischen Reiches, wanderten christianisierte Waliser auf die bretonische Halbinsel ein. Gleichzeitig dehnten sich die Siedlungsgebiete der heidnischen Sachsen, Angeln und Jüten auf der britischen Hauptinsel immer weiter aus. So setzten etwa zwei Jahrhunderte lang in unregelmäßigen Abständen sogenannte Inselkelten in die Bretagne über. Sie besiedelten und christianisierten Aremorica und brachten ihre Sprache in das bereits lange romanisierte Gallien. Das Bretonische geht also nicht auf die zu Caesars Zeiten in der Bretagne gesprochene keltische Sprache, das Gallische zurück. Im Zuge der Stärkung der keltischen Sprache und Kultur wurden die Gallorömer immer weiter zurückgedrängt, bis sie die Vorherrschaft um 580 endgültig verloren.
...


Erstellt: 2010-03

Leeward Caribbean Creole English
Sprache von UK
Language of UK

(E?)(L?) http://www.ethnologue.com/


(E?)(L?) http://www.ethnologue.com/language/aig


(E?)(L?) http://www.ethnologue.com/country/GB

Official Name: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
...
Immigrant Languages

Afrikaans, Assyrian Neo-Aramaic (5,000), Bengali (400,000), Eastern Punjabi (471,000), Greek (200,000), Gujarati (140,000), Hakka Chinese (10,000), Hebrew (8,000), Hindi (480,000), Iranian Persian (12,000), Italian (200,000), Japanese (12,000), Judeo-Iraqi Arabic, Kashmiri (115,000), Leeward Caribbean Creole English, Lithuanian, Malayalam (21,000), Maltese (40,900), Mandarin Chinese (12,000), Morisyen (1,000), Moroccan Spoken Arabic (5,800), Northern Kurdish (23,800), Northern Pashto, Northern Zazaki, Pahari-Potwari (20,000), Parsi (75,000), Portuguese (17,000), Saraiki, Shelta (30,000), Sindhi (25,000), Somali (1,600), Southern Pashto (87,000), Southwestern Caribbean Creole English (170,000), Spanish (112,000), Standard Estonian (14,000), Standard Latvian (12,000), Sylheti (300,000), Tagalog (74,000), Ta’izzi-Adeni Spoken Arabic (29,000), Tamil, Turkish (60,000), Urdu (400,000), Vietnamese (22,000), Western Punjabi (103,000), Yoruba (12,000), Yue Chinese (300,000)
...


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=Leeward Caribbean Creole English
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "Leeward Caribbean Creole English" taucht in der Literatur nicht signifikant auf.

(E?)(L?) http://www.wordmap.co/#Leeward Caribbean Creole English

This experiment brings together the power of Google Translate and the collective knowledge of Wikipedia to put into context the relationship between language and geographical space.


Erstellt: 2016-01

M

macmillandictionaryblog.com
Macmillan Dictionary Blog

(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/about

The Macmillan Dictionary Blog is a multi-authored blog discussing the English language today. We explore a wide range of topics related to English as it is used around the world, and hope to be of interest and relevance to the international community of English speakers.


(E?)(L?) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2018/12


(E?)(L?) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2018/11


(E?)(L?) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2018/10


(E?)(L?) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2018/09


(E?)(L?) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2018/08


(E?)(L?) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2018/07


(E?)(L?) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2018/06


(E?)(L?) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2018/05


(E?)(L?) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2018/04


(E?)(L?) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2018/03


(E?)(L?) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2018/02


(E?)(L?) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2018/01


(E?)(L?) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2017/12




(E?)(L?) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2017/11




(E?)(L?) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2017/10




(E?)(L?) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2017/09




(E?)(L?) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2017/08




(E?)(L?) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2017/07




(E?)(L?) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2017/06




(E?)(L?) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2017/05




(E?)(L?) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2017/04




(E?)(L?) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2017/03

Archive - March 2017


(E?)(L?) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2017/02

Archive - February 2017


(E?)(L?) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2017/01

Archive - January 2017


(E?)(L?) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2016/12

Archive - December 2016


(E?)(L?) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2016/11

Archive for November, 2016




(E?)(L?) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2016/10

Archive for October, 2016


(E?)(L?) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2016/09

Archive for September, 2016


(E?)(L?) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2016/08

Archive for August, 2016


(E?)(L?) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2016/07

Archive for July, 2016


(E?)(L?) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2016/06

Archive for June, 2016


(E?)(L?) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2016/05

Archive for May, 2016


(E?)(L?) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2016/04

Archive for April, 2016


(E?)(L?) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2016/03

Archive for March, 2016


(E?)(L?) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2016/02

Archive for February, 2016


(E?)(L?) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2016/01

Archive for January, 2016


(E?)(L?) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2015/12

Archive for December, 2015


(E?)(L?) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2015/11

Archive for November, 2015


(E?)(L?) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2015/10

Archive for October, 2015


(E?)(L?) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2015/09

Archive for September, 2015


(E1)(L1) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2015/08

Archive for August, 2015


(E1)(L1) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2015/07

Archive for July, 2015


(E1)(L1) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2015/06

Archive for June, 2015


(E1)(L1) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2015/05

Archive for May, 2015


(E1)(L1) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2015/04

Archive for April, 2015


(E1)(L1) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2015/03

Archive for March, 2015


(E1)(L1) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2015/02

Archive for February, 2015


(E1)(L1) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2015/01

Archive for January, 2015


(E1)(L1) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2014/12

Archive for December, 2014


(E1)(L1) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2014/11

Archive for November, 2014


(E1)(L1) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2014/10

Archive for October, 2014


(E1)(L1) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2014/09

Archive for September, 2014


(E1)(L1) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2014/08

Archive for August, 2014


(E1)(L1) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2014/07

Archive for July, 2014


(E1)(L1) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2014/06

Archive for June, 2014


(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2014/05

Archive for May, 2014




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2014/04

Archive for April, 2014




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2014/03

Archive for March, 2014




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2014/02

Archive for February, 2014




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2014/01

Archive for January, 2014




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2013/12

Archive for December, 2013




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2013/11

Archive for November, 2013




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2013/10

Archive for October, 2013




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2013/09

Archive for September, 2013




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2013/08

Archive for August, 2013




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2013/07

Archive for July, 2013




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2013/06

Archive for June, 2013




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2013/05

Archive for May, 2013




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2013/04

Archive for April, 2013




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2013/03

Archive for March, 2013




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2013/02

Archive for February, 2013




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2013/01

Archive for January, 2013




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2012/12

Archive for December, 2012




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2012/11

Archive for November, 2012




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2012/10

Archive for October, 2012




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2012/09

Archive for September, 2012




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2012/08

Archive for August, 2012




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2012/07

Archive for July, 2012




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2012/06

Archive for June, 2012




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2012/05

Archive for May, 2012




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2012/04

Archive for April, 2012




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2012/03

Archive for March, 2012




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2012/02

Archive for February, 2012




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2012/01

Archive for January, 2012




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2011/12

Archive for December, 2011




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2011/11

Archive for November, 2011




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2011/10

Archive for October, 2011




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2011/09

Archive for September, 2011




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2011/08

Archive for August, 2011




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2011/07

Archive for July, 2011




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2011/06

Archive for June, 2011




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2011/05

Archive for May, 2011




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2011/04

Archive for April, 2011




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2011/03

Archive for March, 2011




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2011/02

Archive for February, 2011




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2011/01

Archive for January, 2011




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2010/12

Archive for December, 2010




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2010/11

Archive for November, 2010




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2010/10

Archive for October, 2010




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2010/09

Archive for September, 2010




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2010/08

Archive for August, 2010




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2010/07

Archive for July, 2010




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2010/06

Archive for June, 2010




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2010/05

Archive for May, 2010




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2010/04

Archive for April, 2010




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2010/03

Archive for March, 2010




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2010/02

Archive for February, 2010




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2010/01

Archive for January, 2010




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2009/12

Archive for December, 2009




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2009/11

Archive for November, 2009




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2009/10

Archive for October, 2009




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2009/09

Archive for September, 2009




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2009/08

Archive for August, 2009




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2009/07

Archive for July, 2009




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2009/06

Archive for June, 2009




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2009/05

Archive for May, 2009




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2009/04

Archive for April, 2009




(E3)(L2) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/2009/03

Archive for March, 2009




Erstellt: 2016-11

merriam-webster.com
What are the origins of the English Language?

(E?)(L?) https://www.merriam-webster.com/help/faq-history

The history of English is conventionally, if perhaps too neatly, divided into three periods usually called "Old English" (or "Anglo-Saxon"), "Middle English", and "Modern English". The earliest period begins with the migration of certain Germanic tribes from the continent to Britain in the fifth century A.D., though no records of their language survive from before the seventh century, and it continues until the end of the eleventh century or a bit later. By that time Latin, Old Norse (the language of the Viking invaders), and especially the Anglo-Norman French of the dominant class after the Norman Conquest in 1066 had begun to have a substantial impact on the lexicon, and the well-developed inflectional system that typifies the grammar of Old English had begun to break down.
...


Erstellt: 2017-10

mhhe
The Mayfield Handbook of Technical Scientific Writing

(E6)(L1) http://www.mhhe.com/mayfieldpub/tsw/home.htm


(E6)(L1) http://www.mhhe.com/mayfieldpub/tsw/toc.htm
mit folgenden Kapiteln:

N

natcorp
British National Corpus (BNC)

(E?)(L?) http://www.natcorp.ox.ac.uk/


(E?)(L?) http://sara.natcorp.ox.ac.uk/lookup.html

...
The British National Corpus (BNC) is a 100 million word collection of samples of written and spoken language from a wide range of sources, designed to represent a wide cross-section of current British English, both spoken and written. ...
If you just want a taste of what is in the BNC, you can perform a simple search using the World Wide Web. You can do this directly from the web browser you are currently using to read this page, without registering.
The restricted search interface will not return more than 50 hits, with a maximum of one sentence of context for each, but it will support any legal CQL query.
...


(E?)(L?) http://bnc.bl.uk/saraWeb.php?qy=Etymology&mysubmit=Go
(10.03.2005):

Results of your search - Your query was "etymology": Only 47 solutions found for this query:

nbierma
Writing Archive

(E?)(L?) http://www.nbierma.com/

I love words - their shapes, their sounds, their nuances, their pasts, their limitations. I think I loved words even before I could talk; when my parents and grandparents read me stories, the rhythm of the words put me in a solemn trance. Everything since has been an extension of that mesmerization.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.nathanbierma.com/archive/category/writing

‘Meta’-morphosis: It’s everywhere
Wednesday, August 2nd, 2006
Too much meta. That’s what Sam McManis wrote earlier this year in the Sacramento Bee, talking about the just-released movie “Tristram Shandy: A Cock and Bull Story.” The movie is “a movie about making a movie of an 18th Century comic novel that was about the conventions of novel writing,” McManis explained. “How very meta it [...]

‘Co-’ offers an alternative for families that are in ’step’
Thursday, November 24th, 2005
More than 10 years ago, sisters Kathy McGrath and Jeannie McDonald encountered a dilemma when introducing the members of their new stepfamily. “We found ourselves dealing with awkward situations when introducing someone: `This is my dad’s wife,’” McGrath said. “There was always a hesitation in our voice. Saying `stepmother’ and `stepson’ never seemed to convey the [...]

Sentence diagramming finds way back into some hearts
Wednesday, December 8th, 2004
Sentence diagramming is the long div