Etymologie, Etimología, Étymologie, Etimologia, Etymology
UK Vereinigtes Königreich Großbritannien und Nordirland, Reino Unido de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda del Norte, Royaume-Uni de Grande-Bretagne et d'Irlande du Nord, Regno Unito di Gran Bretagna e Irlanda del Nord, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Recht (Rechtssprache), Derecho, Droit, Diritto, Law

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doom (W3)

Engl. "doom" (1600) = dt. "Schicksal", "Untergang", "Vernichtung" geht zurück auf altengl. "dom" = dt. "Gesetz", "Urteil ", "Verurteilung". Eines der ältesten englischen Wörter engl. "doom" hatte ursprünglich eine neutrale Bedeutung als dt. "Gesetz" (sowohl im Sinne von Gewohnheitsrecht als auch im Sinne einer Gesetzesregelung, Verordnung, Verfügung). Der Bedeutungswandel verlief über dt. "Beurteilung", "Benachteiligung" zu dt. "ausgesprochene Verurteilung" insbesondere dt. "Verurteilung", "Straferlass". Und eine Verurteilung konnte durchaus die Lebensplanung eines menschen vernichten. Und heute findet man auch die Konnotation dt. "Schicksal", "Geschick", "Los", "katastrophales Schicksal".

Noch weiter zurück gehend wird germ. "*domaz" und ide. "*dhe-" postuliert.

Über ide. "*dhe-" = dt. "setzen", "stellen", "legen", "bereiten", gehört engl. "doom" zu einer grossen Wortfamilie, zu der z.B. auch russ. "duma" = dt. "gewählte Volksvertretung" (wörtlich dt. "Gedanke", zu got. "dom" = dt. "Ruhm", "Urteil") gehört. Als nahe Verwandte findet man altengl. "dombec" = dt. "Gesetzbuch". Als Adjektiv findet man engl. "doomed" = dt. "verloren", "dem Untergang geweiht".



(E?)(L?) http://www.alphadictionary.com/articles/eponyms/eponym_list_ij.html#j

"jeremiad": A lamentation with a prophecy of "doom". Jeremiah, the Old Testament prophet of the 6th and 7th centuries BCE who prophesied the "doom" of the Jewish people at the hands of the Babylonians during the reigns of several kings.


(E?)(L?) http://archive.org/mediatypes-browse.php?mediatype=movies

Doom Replays


(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20080710154716/http://www.bartleby.com/61/4/d0340400.html

doom"


(E1)(L1) http://www.bartleby.com/81/D2.html

Doom | Doom-rings | Doomstead


(E?)(L?) http://filmschatten.blogspot.de/

Doomed to Die (1940)


(E?)(L?) http://mattiasa.blogspot.de/2006/10/art-class-of-doom.html

2006 (218): October (33): Art class of DOOM


(E?)(L2) http://www.britannica.com/search?query=doom

Results: 1-10 of 335 items


(E?)(L?) http://www.childrensbooksonline.org/super-index_R.htm

Rootabaga Stories: Four Stories About the Deep Doom of Dark Doorways


(E?)(L?) http://www.djfl.de/entertainment/djfl/1120/112142.html

Doom


(E?)(L?) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=doom

"doom" (n.) Old English "dom" "law", "judgment", "condemnation", from Proto-Germanic "*domaz" (cognates: Old Saxon and Old Frisian "dom", Old Norse "domr", Old High German "tuom", Gothic "doms" "judgment", "decree"), from PIE root "*dhe-" (cognates: Sanskrit "dhaman-" "law", Greek "themis" "law", Lithuanian "dome" "attention"), literally "to set", "put" (see "factitious"). A book of laws in Old English was a "dombec". Modern sense of "fate", "ruin", "destruction" is c.1600, from the finality of the Christian Judgment Day.

"doom" (v.) late 14c., from "doom" (n.). Related: "Doomed"; "dooming".


(E?)(L1) http://www.gutenberg.org/browse/authors/b

Borrow, George Henry, 1803-1881: Faustus his Life, Death, and Doom (English) (as Translator)


(E?)(L1) http://www.gutenberg.org/browse/authors/c

Cromie, Robert, 1856-1907: The Crack of Doom (English) (as Author)


(E?)(L1) http://www.gutenberg.org/browse/authors/g

Gaskell, Elizabeth Cleghorn, 1810-1865: Doom of the Griffiths (English) (as Author)


(E?)(L?) http://www.gutenberg.org/browse/authors/h

Hickey, H. B., 1916-1987: Daughters of Doom (English) (as Author)


(E?)(L1) http://www.gutenberg.org/browse/authors/k

Klinger, Friedrich Maximilian, 1752-1831: Faustus his Life, Death, and Doom (English) (as Author)


(E?)(L1) http://www.gutenberg.org/browse/authors/l

Leinster, Murray, 1896-1975: Sand Doom (English) (as Author)


(E?)(L?) http://www.gutenberg.org/browse/authors/m

Munro, Neil, 1864-1930: Doom Castle (English) (as Author)


(E?)(L1) http://www.gutenberg.org/browse/authors/o

Owen, Wilfred, 1893-1918: Anthem for Doomed Youth (English) (as Author)


(E?)(L1) http://www.gutenberg.org/browse/authors/p

Peirce, Earl: Doom of the House of Duryea (English) (as Author)


(E?)(L1) http://www.gutenberg.org/browse/authors/s

Sutphen, Van Tassel, 1861-1945: The Doomsman (English) (as Author)


(E?)(L1) http://www.gutenberg.org/browse/authors/t

Terry, Bill: Daughters of Doom (English) (as Illustrator)


(E?)(L1) http://www.gutenberg.org/browse/authors/v

Vance, Gerald: Equation of Doom (English) (as Author)


(E?)(L?) http://www.ibiblio.org/lineback/words/sax.htm

Words of Anglo-Saxon Origin

"doom" n. ["dom", "judgement"]


(E?)(L?) http://www.metmuseum.org/research/metpublications/Glitter_and_Doom_German_Portraits_from_the_1920s

Glitter and Doom: German Portraits from the 1920s at The Met


(E?)(L?) http://www.moviemaze.de/filme/1275/doom-der-film.html

Doom - Der Film


(E?)(L?) http://www.oedilf.com/db/Lim.php?Word=crack of doom

Limericks on "crack of doom"


(E?)(L?) http://www.oedilf.com/db/Lim.php?Word=doom

Limericks on "doom"


(E?)(L?) http://www.oedilf.com/db/Lim.php?Word=doomsayer

Limericks on "doomsayer"


(E?)(L?) http://www.oedilf.com/db/Lim.php?Word=doomster

Limericks on "doomster"


(E?)(L?) http://openliterature.net/?s=doom

doom

Search Results for doom — 30 match(es)


(E?)(L?) http://www.opensourceshakespeare.org/concordance/

doom (54)


(E?)(L?) http://www.opensourceshakespeare.org/concordance/

doom'd (5)


(E?)(L?) http://www.opensourceshakespeare.org/concordance/

doom's (1)


(E?)(L?) http://www.opensourceshakespeare.org/concordance/

dooms (1)


(E?)(L?) http://www.opensourceshakespeare.org/concordance/

dooms-day (2)


(E?)(L?) http://www.phrases.org.uk/meanings/phrases-sayings-shakespeare.html

The crack of doom


(E?)(L?) http://www.phrases.org.uk/meanings/t.html

The crack of doom


(E2)(L1) http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/doom

doom


(E2)(L1) http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/doom and gloom

doom and gloom


(E2)(L1) http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/doomful

doomful


(E2)(L1) http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/doom palm

doom palm


(E2)(L1) http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/doomsayer

doomsayer


(E2)(L1) http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/foredoom

foredoom


(E2)(L1) http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/gloom and doom

gloom and doom


(E?)(L?) http://www.sekretaria.de/daily_vocabmail.html?day=2013-02-15

15.02.2013 doom and gloom


(E?)(L?) http://www.shakespeareswords.com/Glossary?let=d

doom | just-dooming


(E?)(L?) http://users.tinyonline.co.uk/gswithenbank/sayindex.htm

Crack of doom


(E?)(L?) http://www.toonopedia.com/docdoom.htm

Doctor Doom


(E?)(L?) http://www.toonopedia.com/doompatr.htm

The Doom Patrol


(E?)(L?) http://www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/phylum#word=C

"crack of doom" (New Testament) day at the end of time following Armageddon when God will decree the fates of all individual humans according to the good and evil of their earthly lives


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=doom
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "doom" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1590 auf.

Erstellt: 2015-01

Doomsday Book (W3)

Im engl. "Doomsday Book" ist die ursprüngliche Bedeutung von engl. "doom" = dt. "Schicksal", "Untergang", "Vernichtung". Vor dem 16. Jh. traf man engl. "doom" bzw. altengl. "dom" in der Bedeutung dt. "Gesetz", "Urteil ", "Verurteilung" an.

Als Wilhelm der Eroberer im Jahr 1066 nach England kam ließ er erst einmal eine Bestandsaufnahme der englischen Besitzverhältnisse an Boden erstellen. Diese Bestandsaufnahem wurde in einem Werk festgehalten, das den Namen engl. "Doomsday Book" erhielt.

(E?)(L?) http://historymedren.about.com/u/reviews/modernentertainment/Medieval-Historical-Novel-Review/The-Doomsday-Book-by-Connie-Willis.htm

The Doomsday Book, by Connie Willis

Reader Reviews: Medieval Historical Novel Review


(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20070512130707/http://www5.bartleby.com/68/79/1979.html

Domesday, doomsday

"Doomsday" was a day in Old English times when judicial decisions were pronounced, and it also became the name Christians gave to the "day of the Last Judgment".

The "Domesday Book" is the huge survey of landholdings in England done for William the Conqueror in the eleventh century, so named because it was a legal undertaking, and it aimed to be as fair and relentless as "Judgment Day" itself. "Doom" and "doomsday" are pronounced DOOM and DOOMZ-DAI, but the name of William’s famous 1086 survey tome is pronounced either the DOMZ-DAI or DOOMZ-DAI book.


(E1)(L1) http://www.bartleby.com/81/D2.html

Doom Book (dom-boc) is the book of dooms or judgments compiled by King Alfred. (See DOMESDAY BOOK.)


(E?)(L?) http://www.bartleby.com/81/5194.html

"Domesday Book" consists of two volumes, one a large folio, and the other a quarto, the material of each being vellum. It was formerly kept in the Exchequer, under three different locks and keys, but is now kept in the Record Office. The date of the survey is 1086.

Northumberland, Cumberland, Westmoreland, and Durham are not included in the survey, though parts of Westmoreland and Cumberland are taken.

The value of all estates is given, firstly, as in the time of the Confessor; secondly, when bestowed by the Conqueror; and, thirdly, at the time of the survey. It is also called "The King’s Book", and "The Winchester Roll" because it was kept there. Printed in facsimile in 1783 and 1816.

Stow says the book was so called because it was deposited in a part of Winchester Cathedral called "Domus-dei", and that the word is a contraction of "Domus-dei book"; more likely it is connected with the previous surveys made by the Saxon kings, and called "dom-bocs" ("libri judiciales"), because every case of dispute was decided by an appeal to these registers.
...


(E?)(L1) http://www.bbc.co.uk/ahistoryoftheworld/exploreraltflash/?tag=&page=1

William 1st Silver Penny Our family (Sweatman) emanated from the City of Oxford in England where we have two records from the Doomsday Book of ... Contributed by Individual


(E?)(L?) http://www.oedilf.com/db/Lim.php?Word=Doomsday Book

Limericks on "Doomsday Book"


(E2)(L1) http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Doomsday Book

Doomsday Book


(E?)(L?) http://www.visualthesaurus.com/cm/dogeared/?page=26

Speculative Fiction

July 31, 2006

It goes by any number of rubrics: Science fiction, speculative fiction, fantasy. Whatever you call it, a software developer here at the VT named Robert W. is a huge fan. When he's not busy fine-tuning our visualization technology, he's nose-deep in the genre. We asked Robert to tell us about his favorites: Article Topics: Fiction writing, Books


(E?)(L?) http://www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/phylum#word=D

"Doomsday Book" record of a British census and land survey in 1085-1086 ordered by William the Conqueror


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/doomsday-book

Doomsday Book


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=Doomsday Book
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "Doomsday Book" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1790 auf.

Erstellt: 2015-01

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juggler's box (W3)

Die umgangsprachliche engl. "juggler's box" war eine Maschine um Angeklagten die Hand zu verbrennen. Hier liegt wohl die ältere allgemeine Bedeutung von "juggler" = "Trickspieler", "Betrüger" zu Grunde, dessen "Werkzeuge" "gebrandmarkt" werden sollten.

(E?)(L?) http://jugglingwithjohn.googlepages.com/learntojuggletoday


(E3)(L1) http://www.gutenberg.net/etext04/dcvgr10.txt


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koeblergerhard.de
Köbler, Gerhard
Rechtsenglisch, 7. A. 2007

(E1)(L1) http://www.koeblergerhard.de/publikat.html


(E?)(L?) http://www.koeblergerhard.de/rengl7.html

Deutsch-englisches und englisch-deutsches Rechtswörterbuch, 7. A. 2007, XXXIII, 485 S.

Mit der Globalisierung der modernen Welt wird auch für den Juristen das Leben immer stärker international geprägt. Das bedeutet die gedankliche Auseinandersetzung mit fremden Staaten, Völkern und Kulturen. Kommunikatorisch erfordert sie die Kenntnis fremder Sprachen.

Um sie auch für das Fachgebiet des Rechts zu erleichtern, bietet das Zentrum integrativer europäischer Legistik (ZIEL) auf der Grundlage des wegen der großen Nachfrage bereits in 14. Auflage vorgelegten deutschsprachigen Juristischen Wörterbuches in seiner Interlexserie zweisprachige Übersichten über den gegenwärtigen Grundwortschatz wichtiger Fremdsprachen. Sie sollen jedermann grundsätzlich in den Stand versetzen, im Rechtskernbereich fremde Rechtswörter in der eigenen Sprache zu verstehen und eigene Rechtswörter in der fremden Sprache zum Ausdruck zu bringen. Eine einführende Übersicht und zahlreiche Literaturhinweise wollen die eigenständige Vertiefung ermöglichen.

Den Beginn macht dabei entsprechend seiner weltweiten Bedeutung das Englische. Für dieses sind in der wegen der großen Nachfrage inzwischen vorgelegten sechsten Auflage rund 120.000 deutschen Stichwörtern etwa 17000 angloamerikanische Gegenstücke in ungefähr 25000 beidseitig begehbaren Übersetzungsgleichungen gegenüberstellt. Dadurch wird jedermann der Einstieg in den anglophonen Teil der globalen modernen Welt der internationalen Jurisprudenz in praktischer und preiswerter Art und Weise eröffnet.

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malefactor (W3)

Engl. "malefactor" (someone who has been legally convicted of a crime) = dt. "Übeltäter", engl. "wrongdoer", findet man als mengl. "malefactour" und lat. "malefactor", geht zurück auf das Verb lat. "malefacere" = dt. "schlecht machen" und setzt sich zusammen aus lat. "male" = dt. "schlecht", "schlimm", "böse", "verkehrt", "treulos" und lat. "facere" = dt. "tun", "machen".

Solange das "Faktotum", der "Allesmacher", nicht alles falsch macht gibt es ja noch Hoffnung.

(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20080710154716/http://www.bartleby.com/61/89/m0058900.html

malefactor


(E?)(L?) http://outils.biblissima.fr/collatinus-web/

malefactor, oris, m. : "homme malfaisant", "malfaiteur".


(E?)(L?) http://www.classicsunveiled.com/romevd/html/derivf.html
English words derived from Latin words


lat. "malus" - engl. "dismal", "dismally", "maladjustment", "malady", "malapert", "malaria", "malarial", "malcontent", "malediction", "malefactor", "malevolence", "malevolent", "malice", "malicious", "maliciously", "malign", "malignant", "malignity", "malnutrition", "maltreat", "maugre"


(E?)(L?) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=malefactor

"malefactor" (n.) mid-15c., from Latin "malefactor", agent noun from past participle stem of "malefacere" "to do evil", from "male" "badly" (see "mal-") + "facere" "to perform" (see "factitious").


(E?)(L?) http://getwords.com/results/malefactor

malefactor


(E?)(L1) http://www.gutenberg.org/browse/authors/o

Oppenheim, E. Phillips (Edward Phillips), 1866-1946: The Malefactor (English) (as Author)


(E?)(L?) http://www.hs-augsburg.de/~harsch/lusitana/Cronologia/seculo13/Malefactorio/mal_intr.html

século XIII

BIBLIOTHECA AUGUSTANA

Mentio de malefactoria

c. 1210

Obra

O «Mentio de malefactoria» é um documento, em que D. Lourenço

Fernandes da Cunha se queixa das violencas e malfeitorias que lhe fez el-rei

D. Sancho, pessoalmente e por intermédio de Vasco Mendes.

Mentio de malefactoria (c. 1210)

Secundárias

Estudos de cronologia (P. Avelino de Jesus da Costa)

Fontes


(E?)(L?) http://www.lateinseiten.de/konjugator/kon80/index.htm

malefactor

Formen Singular - Plural


(E?)(L?) http://openliterature.net/?s=malefactor

Search Results for malefactor — 4 match(es)

Uncommercial Traveller

Title: The Uncommercial Traveller Author: Charles Dickens Source: Gutenberg Source URL: http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/914 THE UNCOMMERCIAL TRAVELLER CHAPTER I–HIS GENERAL LINE OF BUSINESS Allow me to introduce myself–first negatively. No landlord is my friend and brother, no chambermaid loves me, no waiter worships me, no boots admires and envies me. No round of beef or tongue or […]

Measure for Measure

As equivocal and all-encompassing as its title suggests, Measure for Measure is one of Shakespeare’s first forays out of Renaissance pomp and convention into the more complicated sensibilities of the Jacobean era. Probably written while the playhouses were closed between March 1603 and April 1604, Shakespeare takes his audience to a Vienna which seems much […]

Antony and Cleopatra

Antony and Cleopatra is possibly the grandest of the tragedies and the greatest of Shakespeare’s Classical plays. Offering the playwright’s own slant on Thomas North’s translation of Plutarch’s Life of Markus Antonius, and written probably in 1606–7, its epic sweep covers the fall of Mark Antony, one of the triumvirate of triumvirate of Rome’s leaders […]

Much Ado About Nothing

Much Ado About Nothing dates from around 1598, grouped with Shakespeare’s sophisticated middle comedies As You Like It and Twelfth Night, but sharing Merry Wives’ more realistic use of prose. Its traditional plot (resembling the twenty-second of Bandello’s novelle, and the fifth book of Ariosto’s Orlando Furioso) presents the disruption of the marriage of Claudio, […]


(E?)(L?) http://www.opensourceshakespeare.org/concordance/

malefactor (1) | malefactors (2)


(E2)(L1) http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/malefactor

malefactor


(E?)(L?) http://rpo.library.utoronto.ca/poems/malefactors-plea

The Malefactor's Plea

Stephen, James Kenneth (1859 - 1892)

Original Text:

J. K. Stephen, Quo Musa Tendis?, new edn. (Cambridge: Macmillan and Bowes, 1891), pp. 37-38. PR 5473 S4Q8 1891 Robarts Library.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/institutions_connected/latinitas/documents/rc_latinitas_20040601_lexicon_it.html
Hier findet man eine Liste lateinischer Neologismen mit der italienischen Entsprechung.


pentitismo - malefactorum paeniténtia


(E1)(L1) http://www.visualthesaurus.com/landing/?w1=Malefactor

Tuesday, November 4th, 2014
Sunday, June 3rd, 2007 - "Gangster" - "Malefactor"

"Malefactor" is pretty much limited to technical jargon as a stand in for criminal, but the real meaning is "wrongdoer", just like "benefactor" means "do gooder".


(E1)(L1) http://www.visualthesaurus.com/cm/wordroutes/play-it-as-it-lays/

Word Routes - Exploring the pathways of our lexicon

Play It As It Lays

March 17, 2009

By Ben Zimmer

Yesterday, writing teacher Margaret Hundley Parker offered a delightful lesson on the perils of learning grammar from rock and roll lyrics. Among the grammatical "malefactors" are Bob Dylan, whose song "Lay, Lady, Lay" uses the verb lay in an intransitive fashion instead of lie. Likewise, Dylan sang "If not for you, babe, I'd lay awake all night," and "I wanna lay right down and die." But he should get points for using lay in the transitive too, as in: "Lay down your weary tune," or using lay as the proper past-tense form of lie: "I spied an old hobo, in a doorway he lay." Still, if the foremost bard of American popular music can't be consistent on this point, what hope is there for the rest of us? Continue reading...

Article Topics: Vocabulary, Words, Usage, Grammar


(E?)(L?) https://www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/malefactor

malefactor


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordsmith.org/awad/archives.html




(E1)(L1) http://www.wordsmith.org/words/malefactor.html

malefactor


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/malefactor

malefactor


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=malefactor
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "malefactor" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1580 auf.

(E?)(L?) http://www.wordmap.co/#malefactor

This experiment brings together the power of Google Translate and the collective knowledge of Wikipedia to put into context the relationship between language and geographical space.


Erstellt: 2016-02

malversation (W3)

Das im 16. Jh. aufkommende engl. "malversation" (ehemals als "jobbery" = "Schiebung", "Korruption", "Amtsmißbrauch" bezeichnet) = "Verfehlung", "Verfälschung", "Erpressung (im Amt)" wurde von frz. "malversation" übernommen und geht zurück auf lat. "male" = "schlecht", "schlimm" und lat. "versari" = "teilnehmen an", "befasst sein mit".

Es bezeichnet heute "Korruption im öffentlichen Dienst oder einer Vertrauensposition", etwa im Sinne "schlechtes gesellschaftliches Engagement".

Passend zum Substaniv gibt es das Verb "malversate". Und als mögliche Adjektiv-Formen bieten sich "malversational" und "malversative" an.

Die "-ion"-Endung deutet auf die Herkunft aus Frankreich hin und zwar von frz. "malverser" = "sich schlecht benehmen". Das frz. "malverser" geht zurück auf lat. "male versari" = "sich schlecht benehmen" und setzt sich zusammen aus lat. "male" = "schlecht", "schlimm", "übel", "böse" und lat. "versari" = "sich verhalten", wörtlich "sich hin und her wenden" (lat "vertere" = "wenden", "drehen").

Das lat. "malus" = "schlecht", "böse" findet man auch in engl. "malign" = "verderblich", "schädlich", engl. "malady" = "Krankheit", "Gebrechen", "Übel", engl. "malevolent" = "mißgünstig", "widrig", engl. "dismal" = "düster", "trübe", "bedrückend", engl. "maladroit" = "ungeschickt", "taktlos", engl. "malcontent" = "unzufrieden" und engl. "maltreat" = "schlecht behandeln", "malträtieren".

Als Wurzel liegt ide. "*wer-" = "drehen", "biegen", "krümmen" zu Grunde, das man auch in Wörtern findet wie engl. "wring" = "verdrehen", "wringen", engl. "weird" = "unheimlich", "sonderbar", "seltsam", ("verdreht"), engl. "writhe" = "sich krümmen", "sich winden", "leiden", engl. "worth" = "Wert", engl. "revert" = "zurückkehren", "zurückkommen" und engl. "universe" = "Universum".

Auch der dt. "Wert" geht auf ide. "*wer-" zurück im Sinne von "das Gedrehte", "das Dagegengewendete" und noch deutlich erkennbar in dem "weissen Schimmel" "Gegenwert".

(E?)(L?) http://www.alphadictionary.com/goodword/word/malversation


(E?)(L?) http://www.alphadictionary.com/goodword/date/2006/10/07


(E?)(L?) http://www.cnrtl.fr/etymologie/malversation


(E?)(L?) http://wordcraft.infopop.cc/Archive/2005-2-Feb.htm


(E?)(L?) http://wordcraft.infopop.cc/Archives/2005-2-Feb.htm


(E?)(L?) http://dictionary.reference.com/


(E?)(L?) http://dictionary.reference.com/wordoftheday/archive/2001/02/22.html


(E?)(L?) http://dictionary.reference.com/wordoftheday/archive/2004/12/03.html


(E?)(L?) http://dictionary.reference.com/search?r=9&q=malversation


(E1)(L1) http://www.visualthesaurus.com/landing/?w1=malversation


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordsmith.org/awad/archives/0805


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordsmith.org/words/malversation.html


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/malversation


N

Nolle prosequi (W3)

Den Rechtsbegriff "Nolle prosequi" (1675-1685) = dt. "Einstellung eines Verfahrens", engl. "to be unwilling to prosecute", findet man heute noch als Fachbegriff in vielen europäischen Sprachen.

(E2)(L1) http://web.archive.org/web/20120331173214/http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Nolle_Prosequi

NOLLE PROSEQUI (sometimes shortened into nol. pros.), a technical term of English law, ...
...
(E1)(L1) http://www.bartleby.com/81/N1.html
Nolle Prosequi [Dont prosecute]

(E?)(L?) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=nolle prosequi


(E?)(L?) http://www.kokogiak.com/logolepsy/ow_n.html


(E2)(L1) http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Nolle+prosequi


(E6)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/ilq/resultats.asp?recherche=mots&page=1


(E?)(L?) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Latin_phrases:_N

"nolle prosequi" = engl. "to be unwilling to prosecute" - A legal motion by a prosecutor or other plaintiff to drop legal charges, usually in exchange for a diversion program or out-of-court settlement.


(E?)(L?) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nolle_prosequi


(E1)(L1) http://ngrams.googlelabs.com/graph?corpus=0&content=Nolle prosequi
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Dt. "Nolle prosequi" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1810 auf.

Erstellt: 2011-04

O

oldbaileyonline
The Proceedings of the Old Bailey London 1674 to 1834
Criminal Trials

(E?)(L?) http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/

A fully searchable online edition of the largest body of texts detailing the lives of non-elite people ever published, containing accounts of over 100,000 criminal trials held at London's central criminal court.
Now available: 22,000 trials, from December 1714 to December 1759. Project Timetable. Project Conference: Call for Papers.


Der Beschreibung nach geht es hier um eine riesige Sammlung von Prozessakten aus dem England des 18. Jh. Aber ich habe den Schatz der Site noch nicht gehoben. Jedenfalls findet man hier auch viele Informationen zum geschichtlichen Hintergrund dieser Zeit.

Aufgefallen ist mir zum Beispiel auch der Germanismus "Hinterland" in der Rubrik:


London and its Hinterland - London life from the late seventeenth to the early nineteenth centuries; Rural Middlesex; Currency, Coinage, and the Cost of Living; Material London.


(E?)(L?) http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/forms/formMain.jsp

Search Home

The boxes below allow you to search the whole of the Proceedings and all published Ordinary's Accounts (for the period 1679 to 1772). You may combine keyword searches with queries on tagged information including surname, crime, and punishment. The default setting allows you to search the full text of all the documents available on this website. This page should be used for basic and general searches. Please refer to the other pages listed to your left for more search options.




P

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parapherna (W3)

Das Substantiv engl. "parapherna" bezeichnet alles, was eine Frau als persönliche Mitgift in die Ehe mitbringt. Das Wort setzt sich zusammen aus griech. "pará" = dt. "neben", "über - hinaus" und griech. "pherne" = dt. "Mitgift", "Ausstattung", das weiter basiert auf griech. "pherein" = dt. "tragen", "bringen".

(E?)(L?) http://archimedes.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de/cgi-bin/archim/dict/hw?lemma=parapherna&step=entry&id=d002

"Parapherna", "paraphernorum", n. g. Vlpianus. Græci "parapherna" dicunt quæ Galli peculium appellant.

All things that the woman bringeth to hir husband beside hir dowry.


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/parapherna

"parapherna", oun

(law, historical, Ancient Rome) A woman's property which was not made a part of her marriage dower but remained her own.

Origin: Latin


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=parapherna
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "parapherna" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1830 auf.

(E?)(L?) http://corpora.informatik.uni-leipzig.de/


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordmap.co/#parapherna

This experiment brings together the power of Google Translate and the collective knowledge of Wikipedia to put into context the relationship between language and geographical space.


Erstellt: 2017-08

paraphernalia (W3)

Im rechtlichen Sinn waren dt. "Paraphernalien", span. "parafernalia", frz. "paraphernal", ital. "parafernale", ndl. "parafernalia", engl. "paraphernalia" (1791), die Dinge (Kleidung, Schmuck, evtl. auch Ländereien), die eine Frau als Erbe in die Ehe mitbrachte, aber - im Unterschied zur normalen Mitgift - das alleinige Verfügungsrecht darüber behielt. In der Regel bestanden diese Parafernalia allerdings wohl aus weniger wertvollen privaten Gegenständen. Und so nahm "Parafernalia" auch die Bedeutung "Utensilien" und "Kleinigkeiten" oder "Nebensächlichkeiten" an.

Die etymologische Betrachtung führt zu griech. "parápherna", "parapherna" mit der Bedeutung dt. "persönlicher Besitz einer Frau, den sie zusätzlich zur Mitgift in die Ehe mitbringt". Die Bezeichnung setzt sich zusammen aus griech. "pará" = dt. "neben", "über - hinaus" und griech. "pherne" = dt. "Mitgift", "Ausstattung", das weiter basiert auf griech. "pherein" = dt. "tragen", "bringen".

Geht man vom griech. "pherne" = dt. "Mitgift", "Ausstattung" weiter zurück, stößt man auf die Wurzel ide. "*bher-" mit der Bedeutung dt. "bringen", "führen", "tragen", auch "austragen" bzw. "(ein Kind) gebären". Demnach kann die Mitgift als "Mitgebrachtes" verstanden werden. Im dt. "Mitgift" steckt dies auch drin nur aus einer anderen Perspektive, als "das (von den Eltern der Frau) Mitgegebene".

Übrigens steckt auch in dt. "Gift" ursprünglich "das (bei einer Krankheit vom Arzt) Gegebene". Aber anscheinend traute man den Ärzten schon lange nicht so ganz und so wurde durch falsche Verabreichung von Medikamenten (Zusammensetzung und Menge) das "Gift" in der heutigen Bedeutung.

Im Folgenden seien einige Originalzitate aus verschiedenen Nachschlagewerken angeführt:

Bei Adelung findet man:


Das "Nebengut", des -es, plur. die "Nebengüter", ein von dem Hauptgute abhängiges, demselben nach und untergeordnetes Gut. (S. "Hauptgut") In den Rechten werden zuweilen auch die zugebrachten Güter, "Jura paraphernalia", "Nebengüter" genannt, und alsdann den Erbgütern entgegen gesetzt.


Im Folgenden seien einige Originalzitate aus verschiedenen Nachschlagewerken angeführt:

Quelle: ein alter Newsletter von Merriam-Webster:


...
We've talked before about how "para" can mean "beside", "alongside of". And it can mean "beyond", "outside of". It can mean "abortive", and it can mean "perversion". "Para" can mean "faulty", "abnormal". And it also can mean "associated in a subsidiary or accessory capacity".

And that's to say nothing of the "para" that comes from "parachute" and the "-para" born of the Latin verb meaning "to bring forth", "bear offspring".

So your challenge today is this: which of these various "para" meanings is associated with the word "paraphernalia"? "Paraphernalia", of course, refers to "personal belongings", "articles of equipment" or "accessory items".

If you know the earliest meaning of "paraphernalia" in English, you can probably pick out the "para" ancestor: it's the sense meaning "beyond". Originally, "paraphernalia" named "the separate real or personal property of a married woman that she can dispose of by will (and sometimes according to common law) during her life". "Paraphernalia" comes ultimately from the Greek word meaning "bride's property beyond her dowry".


Quelle: Trésor de la Langue Francaise:


"PARAPHERNAL", -ALE, -AUX adj.

DR., vieilli. Biens paraphernaux. Biens qui sont la possession d'une femme mariée sans faire partie de sa dot et qu'elle peut administrer à sa convenance. Propriété, rente paraphernale. Section IV. Des Biens paraphernaux. 1554. Tous les biens de la femme qui n'ont pas été constitués en dot, sont paraphernaux (...). 1576. La femme a l'administration et la jouissance de ses biens paraphernaux. Mais elle ne peut les aliéner ni paraître en jugement à raison desdits biens, sans l'autorisation du mari (Code civil, 1804, p.291). Le mari est responsable du défaut d'emploi du prix de l'immeuble paraphernal qu'il a autorisé sa femme à aliéner (BACH.-DEZ. 1882).

[P. ell. de biens] Des paraphernaux:

... il s'agit de vos paraphernaux, de votre position et de votre indépendance (...). Renoncez à votre salut en deux minutes, s'il vous plaît de vous damner; d'accord! mais réfléchissez bien quand il s'agit de renoncer à vos rentes.

BALZAC, Langeais, 1834, p.327.

[P. méton. du subst.] Qui concerne ce type de biens. L'amour, la haine, la mort, les passions se manifestent chez nous sous leurs aspects mobiliers et immobiliers, synallagmatiques et paraphernaux, s'enferment à l'état de grosses et de minutes, d'actes, de papier timbré dans nos dossiers (ARNOUX, Crimes innoc., 1952, p.296).

Prononc. et Orth.: [], plur. masc. [-o]. Ac. 1740-1798: paraphernaux, adj. plur.; dep. 1835: paraphernal, -ale, adj. Étymol. et Hist. XVes. biens dotaulx et parapharnelz (Coutumes de Bourges ds Nouv. Coutumier gén., t.3, p.905b); 1510 biens parafernaux (Coutumes d'Auvergne, ibid., t.4, p.1169b); 1765 subst. sing. et plur. paraphernal, -aux (Encyclop.). Du lat. médiév. paraphernalis même sens (déb. XIIIes. ds BLAISE Latin. Med. Aev.), formé au moyen du suff. -alis (-al*) à partir du gr. "parápherna" «biens particuliers de la femme, en dehors de la dot» (Ier s., LIDDELL-SCOTT), comp. de - «auprès de, à côté de, en dehors de» (cf. élém. para-1) et de gr. "pherne" «dot». Fréq. abs. littér.: 13.


Quelle: Langenscheidt Wörterbücher:





Quelle: Duden Wörterbücher:





(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20120323161532/http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Paraphernalia

"PARAPHERNALIA" (Lat. "paraphernalia", sc. bona, from Gr. ""; "para", "beside", and "pherne", "dower"), a term originally of Roman law, signifying all the property which a married woman who was sui juris held apart from her dower (dos). A husband could not deal with such except with his wife's consent. Modern systems of law, which are based on the Roman, mainly follow the same principle, and the word preserves its old meaning. In English and Scottish law the term is confined to articles of jewelry, dress and other purely personal things, for the law relating to which see Husband And Wife. The word is also used in a general sense of "accessories", "external equipment", "cumbersome or showy trappings".


(E?)(L?) http://www.alphadictionary.com/sounds/paraphernalia.mp3

Hear "paraphernalia"


(E?)(L?) http://www.alphadictionary.com/goodword/word/paraphernalia

"paraphernalia"

Meaning: 1. (Law) That property of a woman that does not pass to her husband by marriage, but remains her own. 2. Personal belongings, your things–clothing, jewelry, accessories. 3. Equipment required by a certain profession or activity, such as sound, mountain-climbing, or baseball paraphernalia.

Notes: Although many English-speakers have given up on preserving the second "R" in this Good Word, we think it deserves further consideration. Those of us who pronounce "R"s at the end of syllables should pronounce this one. Pronounce it or not, it must be included in the correct spelling of this word. However, you do not have to worry about related words: this one is an orphan with no adjectives or verbs derived from it.

In Play: The implication of the second and third senses of today's word is that paraphernalia is equipment supporting some activity: "Rhonda Block considered her toy boy just another part of her traveling paraphernalia." More commonly this word is used today to refer to the tools of some activity: "Lacie Shortz considered class, professors, and books the paraphernalia of the education system to be used to enrich sorority life."

Word History: The Latin word "paraphernalia", which English simply confiscated on one of its raids of that language, meant "of or related to the parapherna". "Parapherna" was a Greek word made up of "para" "beyond" + "pherne" "dowry" and referred to a bride's property beyond her dowry. The Greek root "pher-", as in "pherein" "to carry", comes from PIE "bher-" / "bhor-" "carry", "bring" and so fits a word meaning what a woman brings to a marriage. But it also turns up in "amphora", from "amphi" "both sides" + "phoreus" "bearer", the large oval containers with a handle on either side that the Greeks used for transporting goods. PIE "bher-" / "bhor-" came through the Germanic languages to English as "bear" which, with the suffix "-ing" later developed into "bring", the same meaning implicit in "parapherna". (Today we thank Kathy Garrett for suggesting a word with such interesting historical paraphernalia as today's Good Word.)


(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20080821125316/http://bartleby.com/61/39/P0063900.html

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition.  2000.

"paraphernalia"

PLURAL NOUN: (used with a sing. or pl. verb) 1. Personal belongings. 2. The articles used in a particular activity; equipment: a photographer's paraphernalia. See synonyms at equipment. 3. A married woman's personal property exclusive of her dowry, according to common law.

ETYMOLOGY: Medieval Latin "paraphernalia", neuter pl. of "paraphernalis", pertaining to the "parapherna", a married woman's property exclusive of her dowry, from Greek : "para-", "beyond" + "pherne", "dowry"; see "*bher-" (1) in Appendix I.


(E?)(L1) http://www.atlasobscura.com/places/buckland-gallery-of-witchcraft-magick

Cleveland, Ohio
Buckland Gallery of Witchcraft and Magick
A collection of Wiccan artifacts and occult paraphernalia started by the leader of the Long Island Coven.


(E?)(L1) http://www.atlasobscura.com/places/nuclear-bunker-museum

Nuclear Bunker Museum
Prague, Czech Republic
Buried 5 stories underground, this Soviet bunker is jampacked with gas masks and Cold War paraphernalia.


(E?)(L1) http://www.atlasobscura.com/places/magic-circle-museum

Magic Circle Museum
London, England
This collection of illusory paraphernalia has been culled from the history of London's premier magician's club
magic, museums, museums and collections


(E?)(L1) http://www.atlasobscura.com/places/gothenburg-medical-history-museum

Gothenburg Medical History Museum
Gothenburg, Sweden
A 200 year old collection of medical paraphernalia in a historic home
Medical Museums


(E?)(L1) http://www.atlasobscura.com/places/hunterian-museum-glasgow

Hunterian Museum, Glasgow
Glasgow, Scotland
200 year old collection of oddities and medical paraphernalia
Strange Science, Natural History, Medical Museums, Unique Collections


(E1)(L1) http://www.bartleby.com/81/12764.html

E. Cobham Brewer 1810–1897. Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. 1898.

"Paraphernalia" means all that a woman can claim at the death of her husband beyond her jointure. In the Roman law her paraphernalia included the furniture of her chamber, her woaring apparel, her jewels, etc. Hence personal attire, fittings generally, anything for show or decoration. (Greek, "parapherne", "beyond dower").


(E?)(L?) http://www.businessballs.com/clichesorigins.htm

"paraphernalia" - personal belongings, or accessories, equipment associated with a trade or hobby - original meaning from Roman times described the possessions (furniture, clothes, jewellery, etc) that a widow could claim from her husband's estate beyond her share of land, property and financial assets. Derived from the Greek, "parapherne" meaning "beyond dower" ("dower" meaning a widow's share of her husband's estate).


(E2)(L1) http://www.dictionary.com/browse/paraphernalia

paraphernalia
...
Origin of "paraphernalia"

1470-80; from Medieval Latin "paraphernalia (bona)" a bride's goods, beyond her dowry, equivalent to Late Latin "paraphern", "parapherna" a bride's property (from Greek "parápherna", equivalent to "para-" + "phern", "pherné" dowry, derivative of "phérein" to bear + "-a" neuter plural noun suffix) + Latin "-alia", noun use of neuter plural of "-alis" "-al".
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=paraphernalia

"paraphernalia" (n.): 1650s, "a woman's property besides her dowry," from Medieval Latin "paraphernalia" (short for "paraphernalia bona" "paraphernal goods"), neuter plural of "paraphernalis" (adj.), from Late Latin "parapherna" "a woman's property besides her dowry", from Greek "parapherna", neuter plural, from "para-" "beside" (see "para-" (1)) + "pherne" "dowry", related to "pherein" "to carry", from PIE root "*bher-" (1) "to carry". Meaning "equipment", "apparatus" is first attested 1791, from notion of odds and ends.


(E?)(L?) http://wordcraft.infopop.cc/Archives/2008-3-Mar.htm

Para-words

Recall our recent word "palfrey" ("a docile horse ridden especially by women", as distinguished from a "warhorse”). The "pal-" part comes from Greek "para-" "beside", "secondary"; thus at root a "palfrey", a woman’s horse, was a "secondary" horse. Tells you something about the status of women.

Many "para-" words have an obvious connection with "beside" or "secondary": "paramedic" and like terms ("paranormal", "paralegal", "paramilitary"), "parallel" and even "parenthetical". This week we'll look at ones where the connection is less obvious.

  We’ll begin with one which, like "palfrey", is originally rooted in the status of women. Until 1882, English law provided when a woman married her property automatically became owned by her husband. He could sell it without her consent, and upon his death it would pass to his heirs, not to hers. There was one exception: the rule did not apply to miscellaneous, personal items, such as jewelry or clothing, which remained her property. (My understanding the English gave women less rights than did laws derived from the Romans, where her "retained property" included the furniture she brought with her.)

This miscellaneous property she had "besides her dowry" was given a name from the Greek "para-" "beside" + "pherne" "dowry". It was called "paraphernalia".

"paraphernalia" – miscellaneous articles, especially the equipment needed for a particular activity

  An acquaintance inflicted the gift of a piranha with appropriate aquarium and paraphernalia on me. For six or seven months now I have had to put up with the gurgling water, whirring motors, and the uneasy feeling that I am a potential meal.

– William F. Buckley, Cancel Your Own Goddam Subscription: Notes & Asides from National Review


(E?)(L?) http://www.kuriositas.com/2011/05/paraphernalia.html

Paraphernalia


(E?)(L?) http://www.lateinlexikon.com/lexicon_latinum_hodiernum_07_uvwxyz.pdf

"Vorbehaltsgut", n merx proprietatis servatae, f [~LEA p.598]; ~ der Frau, n peculium, i, n [vet.; LEA p.598]; "parapherna", orum, n pl [vet.]; "paraphernalia" (importata), n pl [med.; LEA p.598]


(E?)(L?) http://www.learnersdictionary.com/definition/paraphernalia

Learner's definition of "PARAPHERNALIA": objects that are used to do a particular activity : objects of a particular kind


(E?)(L?) https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/paraphernalia

...
Did You Know?

In current use, "paraphernalia" is typically encountered in its "equipment" sense in such contexts as "arrested for possession of drug paraphernalia". But the word hasn't always been used in that way. Originally, "paraphernalia" was property that a married woman owned herself - as opposed to her husband's property or the dowry she brought to the marriage. "Paraphernalia" came to English, via Medieval Latin, from Greek "parapherna", meaning "bride's property beyond her dowry" (from "para-", meaning "beyond", and "pherne", meaning "dowry"). Although "paraphernalia" was plural in Medieval Latin, it can take either a singular or plural verb in English.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.owad.de/owad-archive-quiz.php4?id=192

paraphernalia


(E?)(L?) http://www.owad.de/owad-archive-quiz.php4?id=1120

paraphernalia


(E?)(L?) http://www.owad.de/owad-archive-quiz.php4?id=3504

"paraphernalia" = engl. "bits and pieces" = dt. "Zubehör", "Ausrüstung", "Utensilien", "Drum und Dran", "Krimskrams".

There are three meanings associated with this interesting word: From Medieval Latin "paraphernalia", neuter pl. of "paraphernalis", relating to a married woman's property exclusive of her dowry, from Late Latin "parapherna", a married woman's property exclusive of her dowry, from Greek: "para-", "beyond" + "pherne", "dowry".

Paraphernalia is a collection of objects, esp. equipment needed for or connected with a particular activity (Cambridge Dictionary)

Paraphernalia is apparatus, equipment, or furnishing used for a particular activity. For example, an avid sports fan may cover his walls with football or basketball paraphernalia. In legal jargon, paraphernalia stems from family law and literally refers to "things beyond the dowry".

Paraphernalia were the separate property of a married woman, such as clothing and jewellery appropriate to her social standing, but excluding the assets that may have been included in her dowry. The term originated in Roman law, but ultimately comes from the Greek "parapherna" (from "para" = "beside" + "pherne" = "dowry"). A husband could not sell, appropriate, or convey good title to his wife's assets considered paraphernalia without her separate consent. They did not become a part of her husband's estate upon his death, and could be conveyed by a married woman's will.

Changes in family and inheritance law that mirror broader societal trends have made the legal concept of paraphernalia more or less obsolete.


(E?)(L?) http://blog.oxforddictionaries.com/2016/02/unusual-etymologies/

"metaphor" / "paraphernalia"

Why do both "metaphor" and "paraphernalia" have the Greek "pherein", "to bring", "bear", "carry" lurking in their etymology? You have to look a little closer at the words. A "metaphor" ("meta" = "with") carries extra meaning with it, transferring meaning from one sphere to another; "metaphor" is aptly itself a "metaphor". "Paraphernalia", on the other hand, now means "miscellaneous articles" but was originally the property owned by a married woman besides her dowry. "Para" is ‘distinct from’ and "pherna" is "dowry" which, in turn, comes from "pherein", "to bring", "bear", "carry", for what a woman brought to marriage.


(E?)(L?) http://users.tinyonline.co.uk/gswithenbank/curiousm.htm#paraphernalia

"paraphernalia": "miscellaneous things". Originally a legal term for the "personal goods such as clothes and jewellery which a married woman was allowed to keep as her own" - i.e. they were not included in her dowry, which passed into the ownership of her husband. The words literally means "beside or beyond the dowry" and the modern meaning comes from the idea of personal belongings being a miscellany of articles.


(E1)(L1) http://www.visualthesaurus.com/portlets/wod/?y=2015&m=03&d=1&mode=m
(E1)(L1) http://www.visualthesaurus.com/portlets/wod/?y=2007&m=11&d=1&mode=m

Tuesday, November 6th 2007 / Saturday, March 21st 2015

"paraphernalia"

This word today usually denotes the kit that accompanies a particular activity and is sometimes used with an ironic twist, perhaps to characterize equipment as excessive or silly. Its origins, however, were no joke: the Greek roots mean essentially "besides the dowry" and denoted a woman's property that was not part of the marriage deal.


(E?)(L?) http://www.visualthesaurus.com?word=Paraphernalia

Paraphernalia


(E?)(L?) http://www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/phylum#word=A




(E?)(L?) http://www.word-detective.com/back-i2.html#paraphernalia

...
It is true, as you note, that "paraphernalia" comes from a Latin root meaning "the bride's possessions", but there's more to the story than that brief definition indicates. The root is actually "parapherna", from the Greek words meaning "beside the dowry". The "paraphernalia", in Roman and, later, English marriage law, were the possessions a bride brought to the marriage and kept as her own personal property. The key distinction was that the "paraphernalia" were considered the bride's personal property, not part of the dowry (the money and property the bride's family gave to the groom). If the husband later died, the wife kept her "paraphernalia", while the dowry and all other property went to the husband's male heirs.

As marriage law in England became a bit more equitable, the more general use of "paraphernalia" to simply mean "personal belongings" arose in the 18th century. This usage paved the way for the term to be applied to, as the Oxford English Dictionary puts it, "the articles that compose an apparatus, outfit, or equipment; the mechanical accessories of any function or complex scheme; appointments or appurtenances in general".


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordsmith.org/words/paraphernalia.mp3

Pronunciation: "paraphernalia"


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordsmith.org/words/paraphernalia.html

"paraphernalia" (a words that is formed as a plural but is now used as singular.)

MEANING:

ETYMOLOGY:

Plural of "paraphernalis", from "parapherna" (a woman's property besides her dowry), from Greek "para-" ("beyond") + "pherne" ("dowry"). Ultimately from the Indo-European root "bher-" ("to carry", "to bear children") that gave birth to "basket", "suffer", "fertile", "burden", "bring", "bear", "offer", "prefer", "birth", "periphery", "phosphorus" (literally "bringing light"), "adiaphorism", "delate", and "sufferance". Earliest documented use: 1478.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordsmith.org/words/paraphernalia1.html

...
[Medieval Latin "paraphernalia", neuter pl. of "paraphernalis", pertaining to a married woman's property exclusive of her dowry, from Late Latin "parapherna", a married woman's property exclusive of her dowry, from Greek : "para-", "beyond" + "pherne", "dowry".]
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.worldwidewords.org/weirdwords/ww-par2.htm

"Paraphernalia"

We’re most familiar with this word to describe the equipment or materials that are used in some activity or craft. But it also has a negative meaning: of things that are unnecessary or superfluous, the trappings and impedimenta that have accreted around something as blown sand might collect around a pebble.

Just look round your garden shed, or your kitchen, and work out quite how much of the paraphernalia you have there is essential, and the light may begin to dawn.

That makes the origin of the word deeply galling to those who are passionate about the rights of women. It derives from a term in Greek and Roman law; the root is the Greek "parapherna", from "para", "distinct from", plus "pherna", a "dowry", so it referred to "the bride’s personal property", things other than her dowry. All other goods became the property of her husband, as they did, for example, in England until the first Married Women’s Property Act was passed in 1870.

The legal sense was the first one that appeared in English, in medieval times; the senses of personal possessions or items of equipment or accessories only arose in the eighteenth century. By the time that Anthony Trollope wrote in 1862 about “the paraphernalia of justice: the judge, and the jury, and the lawyers”, it had begun to take on associations with outmodedness that it now sometimes has.


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/paraphernalia

paraphernalia


(E?)(L?) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pIBlme0VC3A

Paraphernalia


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=paraphernalia
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "paraphernalia" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1570 / 1750 auf.

(E?)(L?) http://corpora.informatik.uni-leipzig.de/


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordmap.co/#paraphernalia

This experiment brings together the power of Google Translate and the collective knowledge of Wikipedia to put into context the relationship between language and geographical space.


Erstellt: 2017-08

Paraphernalien (W3)

Im rechtlichen Sinn waren dt. "Paraphernalien", span. "parafernalia", frz. "paraphernal", ital. "parafernale", ndl. "parafernalia", engl. "paraphernalia" (1791), die Dinge (Kleidung, Schmuck, evtl. auch Ländereien), die eine Frau als Erbe in die Ehe mitbrachte, aber - im Unterschied zur normalen Mitgift - das alleinige Verfügungsrecht darüber behielt. In der Regel bestanden diese Parafernalia allerdings wohl aus weniger wertvollen privaten Gegenständen. Und so nahm "Parafernalia" auch die Bedeutung "Utensilien" und "Kleinigkeiten" oder "Nebensächlichkeiten" an.

Die etymologische Betrachtung führt zu griech. "parápherna", "parapherna" mit der Bedeutung dt. "persönlicher Besitz einer Frau, den sie zusätzlich zur Mitgift in die Ehe mitbringt". Die Bezeichnung setzt sich zusammen aus griech. "pará" = dt. "neben", "über - hinaus" und griech. "pherne" = dt. "Mitgift", "Ausstattung", das weiter basiert auf griech. "pherein" = dt. "tragen", "bringen".

Geht man vom griech. "pherne" = dt. "Mitgift", "Ausstattung" weiter zurück, stößt man auf die Wurzel ide. "*bher-" mit der Bedeutung dt. "bringen", "führen", "tragen", auch "austragen" bzw. "(ein Kind) gebären". Demnach kann die Mitgift als "Mitgebrachtes" verstanden werden. Im dt. "Mitgift" steckt dies auch drin nur aus einer anderen Perspektive, als "das (von den Eltern der Frau) Mitgegebene".

Übrigens steckt auch in dt. "Gift" ursprünglich "das (bei einer Krankheit vom Arzt) Gegebene". Aber anscheinend traute man den Ärzten schon lange nicht so ganz und so wurde durch falsche Verabreichung von Medikamenten (Zusammensetzung und Menge) das "Gift" in der heutigen Bedeutung.

Quelle: Conversations-Lexikon oder kurzgefaßtes Handwörterbuch (1809-1811):


Paraphernalien – Paraphernal-Vermögen heißt alles dasjenige, was die Frau außer der Mitgift, oder dem Heirathsgute dem Manne mitbringt, oder während der Ehe erwirbt.


Quelle: Theoder W. Adorno: Gesammelte Schriften:


...
Er kann es sich nicht einmal versagen, die Verschwendung zeremonialer Paraphernalien ökonomisch zu beklagen, die in den religiösen Kulten erfolgt.
...
Überwertig sind ihm die minderen Paraphernalien von Gesundheit. Er fürchtet aber nicht den Tod, sondern daß er mißlingen könnte; das Kafkasche Motiv des Jägers Grachus hallt nach.
...


Quelle: Wander: Deutsches Sprichwörter-Lexikon:


70. "Eingebracht Gut ergreift auch ererbtes Gut."

Pistor., V, 86; Eisenhart, II, 4, 22; Graf, 154, 97; Simrock, 1987; Hassl., 44.

Unter dem eingebrachten Gute werden die Güter verstanden, welche eine Ehefrau ausser dem Brautschatz dem Manne zubringt ("Paraphernalgüter"). Die Meinung des Sprichworts geht nun dahin, dass in den Fällen, wo man nicht weiss, ob etwas von dem zugebrachten Gute zum Brautschatz oder zu den Paraphernalgütern zu rechnen sei, stets das letztere angenommen werde, und dass unter den Paraphernalien, was der besondere Sinn des Sprichworts ist, auch die Güter begriffen sein sollen, die eine Ehefrau durch Erbschaft erhält.


Quelle: Bärenreiter-Verlag: Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart: Schamanentrommel:


...
Sofern sie beschädigt oder zerbrochen wurde, wurde er krank oder mußte sterben. Während seines Lebens wurde sie mit anderen Paraphernalien an einem besonderen Platz verwahrt, so z.B. bei den Lappen im hintersten und vornehmsten Tl. der Kote. Nach dem Tod des Schamanen wurde in Südsibirien die Trommel zerbrochen und ihr Fell unweit der Begräbnisstelle an einem Baum aufgehängt, bei den Lappen hingegen an die Nachkommen vererbt.
...


Quelle: Duden Wörterbücher:





Bei Adelung findet man:


Das "Frauengut", des -es, plur. die -güter, in den Rechten Güter, welche dem weiblichen. Geschlechte gehören, dergleichen der Brautschatz, die Spindelgelder, "Paraphernalien" u. s. f. sind.


(E?)(L?) https://www.peterlang.com/view/product/35131?rskey=rJJTmC&result=31

Oboe – Metalltuba – Trommel

Organologisch-onomasiologische Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der Paraphernalieninstrumente- Teil 1: Blasinstrumente- Teil 2: Trommeln

Maximilian Hendler

Die Phrase Mit Pauken und Trompeten umreißt den Gegenstand der Arbeit. Die Instrumente der älteren Hof- und Militärmusik werden in ihrer geographischen Verbreitung dargestellt. Sie umfaßt Europa, Asien ohne den subarktischen Norden und Nordafrika einschließlich der Sahelzone. Anhand einer umfangreichen Datensammlung werden Wanderung und Perfektionierung vom 3. Jahrtausend vor Christus bis zur Erfindung der Ventilinstrumente rekonstruiert. Die Paralleluntersuchung der Instrumententypen und ihrer Namen ermöglicht die Klärung historischer Prozesse, über die keine anderen Dokumente vorliegen.

Buch (Broschiert)
ISBN:9783631344873
Frankfurt/M., Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Wien, 2001. Teil 1: 618 S., Teil 2: 580 S., zahlr. Tab., 21 x 29,7 cm


(E3)(L1) http://drw-www.adw.uni-heidelberg.de/drw/

parapherna | paraphernal | paraphernalgeld | paraphernalgut | paraphernalien | paraphernalspruch


(E?)(L?) http://drw-www.adw.uni-heidelberg.de/drw-cgi/zeige?term=Paraphernalien&index=lemmata

"Paraphernalien", pl.

wie "Paraphernalgut"
...


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=8&content=Paraphernalien
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Dt. "Paraphernalien" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1800 auf.

(E?)(L?) http://corpora.informatik.uni-leipzig.de/


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordmap.co/#Paraphernalien

This experiment brings together the power of Google Translate and the collective knowledge of Wikipedia to put into context the relationship between language and geographical space.


Erstellt: 2017-08

pettifogger (W3)

Engl. "pettifogger" (16. Jh.) = dt. "Haarspalter", "Rabulist", "Rechtsverdreher", "Winkeladvokat", engl. "someone who argues about trivialities", ist die Bezeichnung für einen windigen, skrupellosen Rechtsanwalt (a petty, unscrupulous lawyer; also, who quibbles over trivia).

Die Herkunft des Wortes scheint nicht wirklich geklärt zu sein.

Eine Deutung interpretiert die Bezeichnung als Zusammensetzung von engl. "petit", "petty", frz. "petit" = dt. "klein" und engl. "vogue" = dt. "Beliebtheit", "Ansehen". Eine weitere Deutung führt "fogger" auf mndl. "voeger" = dt. "jemand der Dinge anordnet", "Füger" zurück. Auch ein untergegangenes engl. "fogger" (a now-obsolete word that meant something like "huckster" = dt. "Hausierer") = dt. "Betrüger" wird in Erwägung gezogen.

Die größte Zustimmung findet die Verbindung zum deutschen Familiennamen "Fugger" und dessen berühmtesten Vertreter, einer Familie Augsburger Händler und Banker im 15. und 16. Jh. Die ersten Nachweise sollen noch die Form "petty Fugger", also dt. "kleiner Fuger", aufweisen. Die Wandlung zu engl. "pettifogger" soll auch der Ähnlichkeit zu engl. "fog" = dt. "Nebel" geschuldet sein, so dass die Bezeichnung als volksetymologisch "kleiner Vernebler", "kleiner Täuscher" inzterpretiert werden konnte. Insgesammt handelt es sich also um einen "nebligen" Begriff.


Captain Francis Grose defined the term "pettifogger" this way in his Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue (1796): "A little dirty attorney, ready to undertake any litigious or bad cause."


Bleibt noch zu ergänzen: Der Familienname "Fugger" könnte aus dem Schwäbischen stammen, wo die Familie noch "Fukker" hieß und wahrscheinlich zu spätmhdt. "fuker" eine "Schere zum Schafscheren" bezeichnete. Es gab allerdings auch ein wallon. "Fuker" = dt. "reicher Mann", das vermutlich von span. "fúcar" und port. "fúcaro" übernommen wurde.

Das lat. "fucare" = dt. "färben", "schminken", "aufputzen", "fälschen", "verfälschen" könnte nicht nur die Herkunft des Familiennamens erläutern sondern auch direkt für die Bedeutung von engl. "pettifogger" herangezogen werden - im Sinne von "kleiner Aufschneider", "kleiner Schwindler".

(E?)(L?) http://www.alphadictionary.com/articles/100_funniest_words.html
(E?)(L?) http://www.alphadictionary.com/sounds/pettifogger.mp3
(E?)(L?) http://www.alphadictionary.com/goodword/date/2006/02/15
(E?)(L?) http://www.alphadictionary.com/goodword/date/2014/08/15
(E?)(L?) http://www.alphadictionary.com/goodword/word/pettifogger
(E?)(L?) http://www.alphadictionary.com/articles/folk_etymology.html

"pettifogger": This word began with the phrase "petty Fugger", based on the family name, "Fugger", financial giants of Augsburg, Germany in the 15th-16th centuries. A "petty Fugger" was originally a small businessman who tried to live by the deceptive maneuvers and manipulations of the great financiers. The phrase became a word at which point "Fugger" was replaced by "fogger" via folk etymology. The implications of "fog" in the new word paved the way for this word migrating to lawyers who obfuscated issues and from there to the general public.


(E2)(L1) http://www.dictionary.com/browse/pettifogger

pettifogger


(E?)(L?) http://www.dictionary.com/wordoftheday/2000/10/29/pettifogger

pettifogger


(E?)(L?) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=pettifogger

"pettifogger" (n.), 1560s, from "petty"; the second element possibly from obsolete Dutch "focker", from Flemish "focken" "to cheat", or from cognate Middle English "fugger", from "Fugger" the renowned family of merchants and financiers of 15c.-16c. Augsburg. In German, Flemish and Dutch, the name became a word for "monopolist", "rich man", "usurer".

A "petty Fugger" would mean one who on a small scale practices the dishonourable devices for gain popularly attributed to great financiers; it seems possible that the phrase "petty fogger of the law", applied in this sense to some notorious person, may have caught the popular fancy. [OED first edition, in a rare burst of pure speculation]

However, OED also calls attention to "pettifactor" "legal agent who undertakes small cases" (1580s), which, though attested slightly later, might be the source of this. Related: "Pettifoggery".


(E?)(L?) http://languagehat.com/?s=pettifogger

"PETTIFOGGER", March 10, 2008 by languagehat

Another fun etymology (via wordorigins.org): "pettifogger" (“a lawyer who engages in petty quibbling and cavilling, or who employs dubious or underhanded legal practices”) is explained by the OED as simply "petty" plus the earlier "fogger", and the OED says of the latter:
...


(E?)(L?) https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/pettifogger?pronunciation&lang=en_us&file=pettif01.wav

pettifogger


(E?)(L?) http://www.owad.de/owad-archive-quiz.php4?id=178
(E?)(L?) http://www.owad.de/owad-archive-quiz.php4?id=1115
(E?)(L?) http://www.owad.de/wav/pettifogger.wav

pettifogger


(E?)(L?) http://pauls-notes.blogspot.de/

...
Can exposure to words affect our moods? Certainly! Here's a list of beautiful words as selected by Robert Beard (AKA Dr Language). Doesn't it feel good just reading them? "Wonderful", "love", "destiny", "fantastic", "blossom", "peace", "sunshine", "sweetheart", "enthusiasm", "butterfly", "smile", ... And if you're seeking amusement, just read this selection from the list of the funniest English words: "fuddy-duddy", "whippersnapper", "pettifogger", "hullabaloo", "mollycoddle", "bamboozle", "snollygoster".
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.visualthesaurus.com/

Mon, 17 Mar 2014

pettifogger

Today's noun and the associated form "pettifogging" suggests the existence of a verb "pettifog", which is in the lexicon; though it was backformed from "pettifogger", which is a person, especially a lawyer, who engages in quibbling and caviling. The word arose from combining "petty" ("trivial") and "fogger", a now-obsolete word that meant something like "huckster".


(E?)(L?) https://www.visualthesaurus.com/?word=pettifogger

pettifogger


(E?)(L?) http://www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/phylum#word=P




(E?)(L?) https://www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/pettifogger

pettifogger


(E?)(L?) http://wordcraft.infopop.cc/Archives/2004-4-Apr.htm

"pettifoggery" – "quibbling"; argument over petty points (typically used in the phrase "a pettifogging lawyer") [1564, from "petty", the second element possibly obs. Du. "focker", from Flem. "focken" "to cheat." Other etymologies are possible.]  

"Pettifoggery" has a nice sound to it, but what really made me laugh was the thought of what other words might also derive from Du. "focker", and Flem. "focken". Whom better to quote than a lawyer?

  Yet an inner voice argued against me. "How can you be such a magnificent hypocrite, such a Pharisee, such a champion of demagoguery? You, the whore-monger and gambler, now the double-faced "pettifogger", how are you going to clean up gambling and prostitution? You're like a repenting whore who joins the church, and wants to lead the choir the very first day."

– Gerry Spence, The Making of a Country Lawyer: An Autobiography


(E1)(L1) http://www.word-detective.com/backidx.html
(E?)(L?) http://www.word-detective.com/121603.html#pettifogger

...
You've pretty well nailed down the meaning of the adjective "pettifogging" - "nitpicking", "quibbling" and "small-minded". But the original meaning of "pettifogger" or "pettyfogger" (from which the verb "pettifog" was derived) was, believe it or not, even more derogatory.

A "pettifogger" was originally an attorney who made a practice of taking on (and often inciting) meritless cases and pursuing them through chicanery and duplicity. In the words of the Oxford English Dictionary, a "pettifogger" is "A legal practitioner of inferior status, who gets up or conducts petty cases; ... one who employs mean, sharp, cavilling practices; a 'rascally attorney.'" Imagine the sleaziest TV ads for ambulance-chasing lawyers you've ever seen, the ones with shrieking sirens in the background and huge flashing dollar signs. Those people are "pettifoggers".
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordsmith.org/words/pettifogger.mp3
(E?)(L?) http://www.wordsmith.org/words/pettifogger.html

pettifogger
...
ETYMOLOGY: From "petty" ("small") + "fogger", perhaps after "Fuggers", a Bavarian family of merchants in the 15th and 16th centuries. Earliest documented use: 1564.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.worldwidewords.org/

In the later middle ages, there was a class of lawyers who earned their livings making a great deal of fuss over minor legal cases. About 1560 they came to be called "pettifoggers". They often had limited concern for scruples or conscience and the term was deeply contemptuous.

"Petty", then as now, meant something minor or trivial (from the French "petit", small), so that part is obvious enough, but where does "fogger" come from?

Theories abound. One of the better known, and quoted as fact in a few dictionaries, is that it originated in a German family named "Fugger", successful merchants and financiers of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, who were based in Augsburg. German, together with Dutch and other Germanic languages, also had variations on "fugger" as a word for people who were wealthy or grasping about money, or whose business methods were disreputable. Hence in English "fogger", dating from the later sixteenth century but long obsolete, was a word for an underhand dealer; this might just be the source.

Another form used at the time was "pettifactor", which might have come from an old sense of "factor" for a person who acts as an agent, so somebody who looks after small matters for others. However, most experts think that "pettitfactor" actually came along later as a corrupted form of "pettifogger". People were trying to make sense of this odd word "fogger" that didn't then exist in the language and converted it to one they knew.

The lawyers called "pettifoggers" spent their time arguing about matters of small importance. The term became popular, and spawned derivatives like "pettifogging". These survived the original term, which is now considered archaic, but we retain in the latter word the idea of somebody who places too much emphasis on trifles or who quibbles about minor matters.


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/




(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/pettifogger

pettifogger


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=pettifogger
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "pettifogger" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1590 / 1670 / 1750 auf.

(E?)(L?) http://corpora.informatik.uni-leipzig.de/


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordmap.co/#pettifogger

This experiment brings together the power of Google Translate and the collective knowledge of Wikipedia to put into context the relationship between language and geographical space.


Erstellt: 2017-03

prosecution (W3)

Engl. "prosecution" = "Verfolgung", ist französischen Ursprungs und geht weiter zurück auf lat. "prosequor" = dt. "begleiten", "geleiten".



In dem Spielfilm "Witness for the Prosecution" (dt. "Zeugin der Anklage") (Regie: Billy Wilder) (1958) spielte (u.a.) Marlene Dietrich mit.

Im Jahr 1982 spielte Deborah Kerr in einer Neuauflage "Zeugin der Anklage" ("Witness for the Prosecution") (TV-Gerichtsfilm, Regie: Alan Gibson).

(E2)(L1) http://web.archive.org/web/20120331173214/http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Prosecution


(E?)(L?) http://www.anglo-norman.net/gate/


(E?)(L?) http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/newsenglish/witn/2008/04/080416_somali_pirates.shtml

16 April 2008: Somali pirates face prosecution in France


(E?)(L2) http://www.britannica.com/

International Criminal Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Genocide and Other Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of Rwanda (international organization)

International Criminal Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia (international organization)


(E?)(L?) http://www.businessdictionary.com/terms-by-letter.php?letter=C

criminal prosecution | malicious prosecution | prosecution


(E?)(L?) http://www.heritage.nf.ca/dictionary/azindex/pages/3495.html


(E?)(L?) http://www.oedilf.com/db/Lim.php?Word=criminal prosecution
Limericks on criminal prosecution

(E?)(L?) http://www.oedilf.com/db/Lim.php?Word=Crown Prosecution Service
Limericks on Crown Prosecution Service

(E2)(L1) http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/prosecution


(E?)(L?) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_English_words_of_French_origin
List of English words of French origin

(E?)(L?) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_phrases_used_by_English_speakers
French phrases used by English speakers

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Ringleader (W3)

Engl. "Ringleader" (1500) = dt. "Anführer", "Rädelsführer", hat meist einen negativem Beiklang. Ein möglicher Bezug wird zu einer etwas älteren Redewendung engl. "to lead the ring" (beim spätmittelalterlichen Gesellschaftstanz) hergestellt.

(E?)(L?) http://esl.about.com/od/engilshvocabulary/ig/Visual-Dictionary---Work/Ringleader.htm

Circus ringleaders direct the circus and announce the various circus acts to the audience. They often wear a top hat and are known as true showmen.


(E1)(L1) http://www.bartleby.com/81/R1.html

Ringleader


(E?)(L?) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=ringleader

"ringleader" (n.) c. 1500, from Middle English phrase "to lead the ring" (mid-14c.), probably from a medieval metaphor from dancing. See "ring" (n.1) + "lead" (v.1).


(E?)(L?) http://www.lib.ru/ENGLISH/american_idioms.txt

[ringleader] {n. phr.} The chief of an unsavory group; a higher-up.

* /The FBI finally caught up with the ringleader of the dope smugglers from South America./


(E?)(L?) http://www.opensourceshakespeare.org/concordance/o/?i=783945

ringleader (1)

Henry VI, Part II [II, 1]
Duke of Buckingham
913

Such as my heart doth tremble to unfold.
A sort of naughty persons, lewdly bent,
Under the countenance and confederacy
Of Lady Eleanor, the protector's wife,
The ringleader and head of all this rout,
Have practised dangerously against your state,
Dealing with witches and with conjurers:
Whom we have apprehended in the fact;
Raising up wicked spirits from under ground,
Demanding of King Henry's life and death,
And other of your highness' privy-council;
As more at large your grace shall understand.



(E2)(L1) http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ringleader

ringleader


(E?)(L?) http://learningenglish.voanews.com/media/video/news-words-ringleader/2461986.html

News Words: Ringleader
Published 04/10/2015
What does it mean if someone is a ringleader? Listen to this word used to describe someone in an international news story. Our hosts explain the meaning and origin of the word.
...


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=Ringleader
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "Ringleader" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1640 auf.

Erstellt: 2015-04

S

T

thefreedictionary.com
Legal Dictionary

(E?)(L?) http://www.thefreedictionary.com/


(E?)(L?) http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/

The main source of TheFreeDictionary's legal dictionary is West's Encyclopedia of American Law, Edition 2, which contains more than 4,000 entries detailing terms, concepts, events, movements, cases, and individuals significant to United States law.

The legal dictionary also incorporates The People's Law Dictionary, by renowned authorities Gerald and Kathleen Hill. It includes definitions, context, and usage for more than 3,000 terms. Regarded by scholars, jurists, leading attorneys and reviewers as one of the most practical works of its kind, The People's Law Dictionary is a comprehensive source of meanings and use for thousands of today's most common legal terms. It has gained widespread praise for its scope and clarity.

Please note that this information is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal professional.

Other popular articles in the legal dictionary:

| accommodation | adoption | amortization | articles of incorporation | attorney | bad debt | bank | bankruptcy | bond | broker | business | cause | chattel mortgage | check | child custody | child support | corporation | counsel | defense attorney | divorce employment | equity | | estate tax | exchange | expert witness | foreclosure | franchise | garnishment | grant | homestead | income tax | incorporate | insurance | interest | joint tenancy | levy | limited partnership | living trust | malpractice mediation | mortgage | option | paralegal | patent | person | prescription | probate | product liability | property | securities | settlement | sign | stock option | tax | trademark | trial | trust | will | wrongful death


Erstellt: 2012-04

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V

W

will (W3)

Das engl. "will" = "Testament" entstand als rechtlicher Begriff. In früheren Zeiten hatten Geistliche oder öffentliche Würdenträger per Gesetz das Recht die Aufteilung eines Erbes vorzunehmen. Dass es dabei auch einige Erbverwalter gab, die sich selbst mit berücksichtigten blieb dabei nicht aus. Als einziges Mittel sich davor zu schützen, war das Verfassen eines offiziellen Dokuments zur Erbschaftsregelung. Diese musste die Überschrift "ic wille" = "Ich will" tragen. Und auch im Deutschen nennt man ein Testament ja auch "Der letzte Wille".

X

Y

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Bücher zur Kategorie:

Etymologie, Etimología, Étymologie, Etimologia, Etymology
UK Vereinigtes Königreich Großbritannien und Nordirland, Reino Unido de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda del Norte, Royaume-Uni de Grande-Bretagne et d'Irlande du Nord, Regno Unito di Gran Bretagna e Irlanda del Nord, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Recht (Rechtssprache), Derecho, Droit, Diritto, Law

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Cowell, John
Manley, Thomas
Nomothetas

"Nomothet", zu griech. "nomothétes" = dt. "Gesetzgeber", setzt sich zusammen aus griech. "nómos" = dt. "Gesetz" und griech. "thésis" = dt. "das Setzen", "das Geben", "Aufstellen".

(E?)(L?) http://www.abebooks.de/Nomothetas-Interpreter-Containing-Genuine-Signification-Cowell/2756005303/bd

Nomothetas: The Interpreter Containing the Genuine Signification.
Cowell, John; Thomas Manley
Erscheinungsdatum: 2004
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.de/Nomothetas-Interpreter-Containing-Genuine-Signification/dp/1584774061

Nomothetas: The Interpreter, Containing the Genuine Signification of Such Obscure Words and Terms Used Either in the Common or Statute Laws of This Realm. (Englisch) Gebundene Ausgabe – 1. Juni 2004

von John Cowell (Autor), Thomas Manley (Autor)


(E?)(L?) http://books.google.de/books/about/Nomothetas_The_Interpreter_Containing_th.html?id=2DajkgAACAAJ&redir_esc=y

Nomothetas, The Interpreter, Containing the Genuine Signification of Such Obscure Words and Terms Used Either in the Common Or Statute Lawes of this Realm
John Cowell, Thomas Manley
assigns of R. Atkins, 1684 - 294 Seiten


(E?)(L?) http://www.lawbookexchange.com/pages/books/56094/john-cowell-thomas-manley/nomothetas-the-interpreter-containing-the-genuine-signification

Cowell, John; Thomas Manley

Nomothetas: The Interpreter Containing the Genuine Signification...

Cowel[l], John [1554-1611]. [Manley, Tho(mas)].
NOMOTHETAS: The Interpreter, Containing the Genuine Signification of Such Obscure Words and Terms Used Either in the Common or Statute Laws of this Realm.
First Compiled by the Learned Dr. Cowel, and Now Enlarged from the Collections of All Others Who Have Written in This Kind. With an Addition of Many Words Omitted by All Former Writers, and Pertinent to This Matter, with Their Etymologies as Often as They Occur: As Also Tenures whether Jocular, or Others Statutes and Records, Wherein the Alterations are Expressed, and their Agreement or Dissonancy, with the Law at Present Declared.

Whereto is Subjoyned, An Appendix, containing the Ancient Names of Places Here in England, Very Necessary for the Use of All Young Students, Who Intend to Converse with Old Records, Deeds or Charters.

The Second Edition, Wherein Many Errors and Mistakes in the Former are Carefully Corrected.
London: Printed by the Assigns of Richard Atkins Esq; and Sir Edward Atkins Knight, for H. Twyford, Tho. Buffet, J. Place, and H. Sawbridge, 1684.
Unpaginated. Printed in double columns. 9" x 12". Reprinted 2004 by The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. Cloth. As new. $85.

Reprint of the fifth edition, the second edited by Manley [1628-1690]. The Interpreter is considered to be the best law dictionary published before Jacob's A New Law-Dictionary (1729). Though its significance was recognized almost immediately, it was not approved by all. At a time when Parliament and crown were vying for power, the Commons were angered by John Cowell's [1554-1611] monarchical orientation, which was evident in such definitions as "King," "Parliament," "Prerogative," "Recoveries," and "Subsidies." When a joint committee of Lords and Councilors reviewed the work, the ensuing controversy nearly halted the affairs of government. James I intervened in fear that his own fiscal interests would not be approved by Parliament, and ordered a proclamation that imprisoned Cowell, suppressed the book and ordered all copies burned by a public hangman on March 10, 1610. Moreover, it contained a quotation critical of Littleton that angered Coke so much that he helped to suppress the book and prosecute Cowell. It remained in use, however, and went through several editions. Later enlarged editions, such as this one, remain u.


Erstellt: 2014-08

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parapherna (W3)

Das Substantiv frz. "parapherna" bezeichnet alles, was eine Frau als persönliche Mitgift in die Ehe mitbringt. Das Wort setzt sich zusammen aus griech. "pará" = dt. "neben", "über - hinaus" und griech. "pherne" = dt. "Mitgift", "Ausstattung", das weiter basiert auf griech. "pherein" = dt. "tragen", "bringen".

(E?)(L?) http://archimedes.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de/cgi-bin/archim/dict/hw?lemma=parapherna&step=entry&id=d002

"Parapherna", "paraphernorum", n. g. Vlpianus. Græci "parapherna" dicunt quæ Galli peculium appellant.

All things that the woman bringeth to hir husband beside hir dowry.


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/parapherna

"parapherna", oun

(law, historical, Ancient Rome) A woman's property which was not made a part of her marriage dower but remained her own.

Origin: Latin


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=parapherna
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "parapherna" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1830 auf.

(E?)(L?) http://corpora.informatik.uni-leipzig.de/


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordmap.co/#parapherna

This experiment brings together the power of Google Translate and the collective knowledge of Wikipedia to put into context the relationship between language and geographical space.


Erstellt: 2017-08

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