Nadsat (W3)In dem Film "A Clockwork Orange" von Anthony Burgess nutzen die Darsteller eine künstliche Jugendsprache, deren Vokabular sich u.a. auch der russischen Sprache entnommen wurde. Die Sprachbezeichnung "Nadsat" soll dabei dem deutschen "-zehn" entsprechen und also etwa "Teenager" bedeuten.
Die Sprache, die Alex und seine Droogs sprechen, ist eine Erfindung von Burgess, "Nadsat", eine Mischung aus Englisch, Russisch und Umgangssprache. Stanley Kubrick hatte Angst, daß sie zu viele Nadsat-Ausdrücke verwendet hatten und der Film möglicherweise unverständlich würde. (Im Gegenteil: "Nadsat" wurde in den 70ern zu einer beliebten "Jugendsprache".)
Then, too, if you use current slang when translating to modern language, you'll have to re-translate every decade or two. The language used in the '60s in translating the Bible into then-current patois is laughable today. But if you're avoiding using current slang in a modern translation, how do you deal with slang phrases in the original?
(If you were translating "A Clockwork Orange" into Russian, would you change all the "Nadsat" words? Also, what do you do with terms that are already in a foreign language? If a character says "That has a certain je ne sais quois", a French translation will be lacking a certain ... well, you know. And if you're translating into Spanish, what do you do with place names like Los Angeles?)
While we're at it, we could introduce some less common foreign phrases. I've long been partial to "mutatis mutandis" (Latin for "with the necessary changes being made"); perhaps this could best be rendered in English as "mutate mutants". People say "time flies" all the time, but rarely does anyone exclaim "tempis fuggit!" (particularly appropriate when all of one's time has flown and one is now late). To find out how a friend is doing, you could ask "V gates?" [zu dt. "wie geht's"?] The gang slang language "Nadsat" from Anthony Burgess' A Clockwork Orange is a rich source of such terms (mostly adapted from Russian), from "horrorshow" (for "good") to "droog" ("friend").
Search Results for: Nadsat
The writer Anthony Burgess invented futuristic slang for his cult novel "A Clockwork Orange" and was so fascinated by the language of the street that he began work on a dictionary more than 50 years ago. Now his lost dictionary of slang, abandoned after several hundred entries covering three letters, has been discovered.
“This interest influenced almost all of his novels, most famously in "A Clockwork Orange", in which he invents a new language called "Nadsat". This is not slang, but it shows a developed and sophisticated interest in exploring the possibilities of language. […]
"Nadsat" and the power of slang
"Nadsat"? What, pray, is that? Is that, like, a Russian slovo for "satnav" or some such cal? No, no, no my droogies, "Nadsat" is the slovo for "teen", as in "teenager", and is the name of the invented slang of the oomny raskazz "A Clockwork Orange" by that zammechat chelloveck "Anthony Burgess". It’s a book about the vile exploits of a young prestoopnik malchick called Alex, that, like, really makes you think about the horrible, horrible world we live in, full of, like, immorality and ultra-violence.
Anthony Burgess' "A Clockwork Orange" Nadsat Dictionary
Upon writing "A Clockwork Orange" (ACO), Anthony Burgess made up a teenage argot he calls "Nadsat". It is English with a polyglot of slang terms and jargon thrown in. The main sources for these additional terms is Russian. Although there are also contributions from Gypsy, French, Cockney/English slang and other miscellaneous sources such as Malay and Dutch (possibly via the Dutch influence on Malay) and his own imagination. The large number of Russian words in "Nadsat" is explained in the book as being due to propaganda and subliminal penetration techniques. This is probably because of the cold war (which was still quite "warm" when Burgess wrote ACO) which, in Burgess's ACO world, has apparently shifted into overdrive. If a meaning can be confused, e.g. "Lomtick" (slice) is a noun (as in "a slice oftoast"), not a verb, the meaning is clarified by use of an (n.) or (v.) etc.
Credits : I got hold of the contents of this file some time ago, while working my way through "A Clockwork Orange". After some googling around, I came across a very interesting, if badly-formatted and uncredited, version of this web page. After unsuccessfully trying to contact the supposed author, I gave it some minor reformatting and copied it to my web page (I did not take care to write down the orignal URL, though). Since then, Daniel Delany suggested an origin for "filly".
"Nadsat" - Jugendsprache im Clockwork Orange
Samstag, 15. 10. 2011| Radim Sochorek| Dauerlink | Kategorie: Welt der Sprachen
Die Sprache "Nadsat" aus dem Roman von Anthony Burgess Uhrwerk Orange/Clockwork Orange (1962) ist ein fiktiver Slang von Jugendlichen aus der nahen Zukunft.
Im englischen Original bildet "Nadsat" eine Mischung aus künstlichen Vokabeln, die hauptsächlich auf dem Russischen, Londoner Cockney, der Zigeunersprache oder auch Elementen der Kindersprache basieren. Die Übersetzer des Romans bemühten sich um die Nachahmung der Wortspiele, indem sie Hybridwörter geschaffen haben, die Lexika verschiedener Sprachen vermischten, für die Leser ihre Bedeutung aber dennoch erkennbar blieb.
Der eigentliche Name der Sprache "Nadsad" stammt aus dem Russischen "???", also "-zehn", der Endung der Zahlwörter 11–19, nach der die Teenager genannt werden.
Reprinted from the novel "A Clockwork Orange",
by Anthony Burgess
Perhaps the most fascinating thing about the book it's language. Alex thinks and talks in the "nadsat" (teenage) vocabulary of the future. A doctor in the book explains it. "Odd bits of old rhyming sland", he says. "A bit of gypsy talk, too. But most of the roots are Slav. Propaganda. Subliminal penetration." Nadsat is not quite so hard to decipher as Cretan Linear B, and Alex translates it. I found that I could not read the book without compiling a glossary; I reprint it here, although it is entirely unauthorized, and some of it is guesswork.
At first the vocabulary seems incomprehensible: "you could peet it with vellocet or synthemesc or drencrom or one or two other veshches". Then the reader, even if he knows no Russian, discovers that some of the meaning is clear from context: "to tolchock some old veck in an alley and viddy him swim in his blood". Other words are intelligible after a second context: when Alex kicks a fallen enemy on the "gulliver" it might be any part of the body, but when a glass of beer is served with a gulliver, "gulliver" is head. (Life is easier, of course, for those who know the Russian word "golova".)
Anthony Burgess has not used Russian words mechanically, but with great ingenuity, as the transformation into "gulliver", with its Swiftian associates, suggests. Others are brilliantly anglicized: "khorosho" ("good" or "well") as "horrowshow"; "iudi" (people) as "lewdies"; "militsia" ("militia" or "police") as "millicents". Burgess has not used Russian words in an American slang extension, such as "nadsat" itself, in the termination of the Russian numbers "eleven" to "nineteen", which he breaks off independently on the analogy of our "teen". Thus "kopat" ("to dig with a shovel") is used as "dig" in the sense of "enjoy" or "understand"; "koshka" ("cat") and "ptitsa" ("bird") become the hip "cat" and "chick"; "neezhny" ("lower") turns into "neezhnies" ("underpants"); "pooshka" ("cannon") becomes the term for a "pistol"; "rozha" ("grimace") turns into "rozz", one of the words for "policeman"; "samyi" ("the most") becomes "sammy" ("generous"); "soomka" ("bag") is the slang "ugly woman"; "vareet" ("to cook up") is also used in the slang sense, for something preparing or transpiring.
The "gypsy talk", I would guess, includes Alex's phrase "O my brothers", and "crark" ("to yowl"?), "cutter" ("money"), "filly" ("to fool with"), and such. The rhyming slang includes "luscious glory" or "hair" (rhyming with "upper story"?) and "pretty polly" for "money" (rhyming with "lolly" or current slang) Others are inevitable associations, such as "cancer" for "cigarette" and "charlie" for "chaplain". Others are produced simply by schoolboy transformations: "appy polly loggy" ("apology"), "baddiwad" ("bad"), "eggiweg" ("egg"), "skolliwoll" ("school"), and so forth. Others are amputations: "guff" ("guffaw"), "pee and em" ("pop and mom"), "sarky" ("sarcastic"), "sinny" ("cinema"). Some appear to be portmanteau words: "chumble" ("chatter-mumble"), "mounch" ("mouth-munch"), "shive" ("shiv-shave"), "skirking" ("striking-scratching").
There are slight inconsistencies in the story when Alex forgets his word and invents another or uses our word, but on the whole he handles his Russianate vocabulary in a masterly fashion. It has a wonderful sound, particularly in abuse, when "grahzny bratchny" sounds infinitely better than "dirty bastard".
Stanley Edgar Hyman, July, 1963
"Nadsat" ist ein fiktionaler Jargon unter Jugendlichen aus Anthony Burgess’ Roman "A Clockwork Orange" und gehört zur Gruppe der konstruierten Sprachen.
- 1 Beschreibung
- 2 Funktion von Nadsat
- 3 Übernahme in die Jugendkultur
- 4 Beispiele
- 5 Literatur
- 6 Weblinks
- 7 Einzelnachweise
Das Wort "Nadsat" selbst basiert auf dem russischen Suffix der Zahlen von 11 bis 19 ("???"), was dem englischen "-teen" entspricht, das wiederum gleichlautend mit dem englischen Wort für "Jugendlicher" ist.
"Nadsat" ist in Burgess’ Original eine verballhornende Mischung von russischen Vokabeln mit dem Londoner Cockney Rhyming Slang. Dazu kommen Begriffe aus der englischen Zigeunersprache (Gypsy Slang) sowie Elemente der Kindersprache. Ins Deutsche wurde "Nadsat" zuerst von Walter Brumm übertragen und dem Original durch Verwendung deutscher Wörter nachgebildet. Dadurch entstanden multisprachliche Hybridworte, die in ihrer Morphemstruktur Bestandteile mehrerer Sprachen vereinen.
Der Schwerpunkt von "Nadsat" liegt im lexikalischen Bereich, also in der Wortschöpfung. Viele der Ausdrücke sind Wortspiele. Die Klangähnlichkeit mit dem russischen "golowa" ("???") führte beispielsweise zur Nadsat-Vokabel "Gulliver" für "Kopf". Die Syntax entspricht bei Burgess in der Regel der englischen, auch wenn es gelegentlich zu auffallenden Wortstellungen kommt. "Nadsat" weist alle typischen Merkmale eines Jugendslangs auf: Die Verwendung von fremdsprachigen Lehnwörtern, „ihre phonetische und morphematische Anpassung“ sowie eine affektive Anwendung insbesondere für tabuisierte Sachverhalte. Die Einflüsse von Kindersprache äußern sich in lautmalerischen Wortbildungen und reduplizierenden Wendungen wie "Eggiweg" ("Ei"), "Skolliwoll" ("Schule"), "rizrazzen" ("aufreißen") und "lubbilubben" ("lieben"). Abstrakte Begriffe fehlen in "Nadsat" weitestgehend, ebenso wie politische Vokabeln (bis auf "Oberklassen-Goloß" sowie "Regierungsgazetta").
4. Weird Words: Droogish
Relating to the nature or attitudes of a member of a street gang.
This derives from a member of a large set of slang terms invented by Anthony Burgess in his book "A Clockwork Orange" of 1962. A "droog" is a "young ruffian", or an "accomplice" or "henchman of a gang-leader". The continuing impact of Burgess's novel (and the notorious Stanley Kubrick film made from it) is clear from the way that droog continues to appear in English writing (and has even reached a few dictionaries) and that droogish has been created as a derived term that wasn't in the original vocabulary.
"Droog", like much of the slang in the book, is Russian in origin, in this case coming from "drug", "friend". Burgess called his slang "Nadsat", from the ending in Russian of the number words from "11 to 19" (so it's a close equivalent of our "teen"). Other words from the set that are sometimes seen are "malenky", "small" or "little", and "poogly", "scared".
4. Book Review: "From Elvish to Klingon"
The history of "invented languages" ranges from the philosophical languages of the seventeenth century to modern creations linked to books, films and games.
The story of the international "auxiliary languages" such as "Volapük" and "Esperanto" - created with high moral purpose to aid communication between peoples lacking a common tongue - take up only one chapter of this book. The emphasis is rather on languages of various levels of completeness that have been created in the past century to add a sense of place and culture to creative works.
Some are long-established, such as J R R Tolkien's Elvish languages "Sindarin" and "Quenya", well-developed tongues created by a linguistic scholar that are woven into "The Lord of the Rings". George Orwell created "Newspeak" in his 1984, a regularised and pared-down English designed to make it impossible to even think anything that didn't conform to the beliefs of his dystopian state. In "A Clockwork Orange", "Anthony Burgess" used "Nadsat", an argot based on Russian, to characterise the worldview of the book's violent gangs. Followers of the Star Trek SF franchise will have encountered the "Klingon" tongue, originally a few phrases introduced to give colour but later worked up by Klingonists into a tongue in which it's possible to perform Shakespeare. A more recent case is "Na'vi", the speech of the natives in Avatar. The development of computer games has led to several languages - mostly only partially developed - that include "Gargish", "D'Ni", "Simlish", "Al-Bhed" and "Logos", to help provide a flavour of the culture of groups being portrayed.
Michael Adams's academic contributors offer a very mixed bag of eight chapters in which these and other languages are discussed in detail. The last, by Suzanne Romaine, takes a different line; she investigates natural languages that have been revitalised in recent times, including "Hawaiian", "Irish", "Breton Cornish" and "Hebrew". She points out that to bring a dead or dying tongue back to daily use requires many decisions to be made, not least how it should be said and spelled and how words for aspects of modern life - aircraft, telephones, antibiotics - should be created. The potential for splittist factions who compete to gain ownership of a language is always present; "Cornish" has several, which led in 2004 to the county offices in Camborne trying to accommodate all parties by using four different spellings of the Cornish word for welcome in different places within the building. Trying to build the consensus essential for widespread take-up of a language in such circumstances is very difficult.
This work will give readers with a serious interest in invented and revitalised languages a good grounding in the issues involved. If you would prefer a more popular approach, Arika Okrent's "In the Land of Invented Languages" may be more to your taste.
[Michael Adams [ed], From Elvish to Klingon: Exploring Invented Languages; Oxford University Press; published 24 Nov. 2011; pp294, including index; ISBN 978-0-19-280709-0; publisher's UK price Â£12.99.]
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Engl. "Nadsat" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1962 auf.