Etymologie, Etimología, Étymologie, Etimologia, Etymology
UK Vereinigtes Königreich Großbritannien und Nordirland, Reino Unido de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda del Norte, Royaume-Uni de Grande-Bretagne et d'Irlande du Nord, Regno Unito di Gran Bretagna e Irlanda del Nord, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Euphemismus, Eufemismo, Euphémisme, Eufemismo, Euphemism

A

aeon.co
McWhorter, John
Euphemise this

(E?)(L?) https://aeon.co/essays/euphemisms-are-like-underwear-best-changed-frequently

Euphemisms are like underwear: best changed frequently. What work are they doing in our language and why do they expire?

John McWhorter is a professor of linguistics and American studies at Columbia University. His latest book is The Language Hoax (2014).

Edited by Sam Dresser

Why do euphemisms change so often?

What we would today call "cash assistance" for the differently abled could in a different era permissibly have been called "welfare for cripples". The terms "welfare" and "crippled" sound somewhere between loaded and abusive today, and yet once were considered civil by educated, sensitive people. There actually was an organisation called the "International Society for the Welfare of Cripples" established in 1922.

However, in 1960 it was retitled the "International Society for the Rehabilitation of the Disabled".
...
The reason for this rolling semantic renewal is that the meanings of words are, in actual usage, messier than their dictionary definitions, cast in the tidy eternity of print, might make them seem. We store words in our brains amid webs of association, with experiences, impressions and other words. As a result, a word is always redolent of various associations, metaphorical extensions, beyond its core meaning.

For example, "generous" once meant "noble", with no connection to sharing. It’s what William Shakespeare meant when he used the term.
...
Over time, especially as formal nobility itself had ever less importance (think of the fate of the Crawleys in Downton Abbey), the meaning of magnanimity changed from a resonance of generous to the meaning it has today.

A word, then, is like a bell tone, with a central pitch seasoned by overtones. As the tone fades away, the overtones can hang in the air. Words are similar, with opinion, assumption and, more to the point, bias as equivalents to the overtones. Crippled began as a sympathetic term. However, a sad reality of human society is that there are negative associations and even dismissal harboured against those with disabilities. Thus crippled became accreted with those overtones, so to speak, to the point that handicapped was fashioned as a replacement term free from such baggage.
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However, because humans stayed human, it was impossible that "handicapped" would not, over time, become accreted with similar gunk. Enter "disabled", which is now long-lived enough that many process it, too, as harbouring shades of abuse, which conditions a replacement such as "differently abled". Notably, the "International Society for the Rehabilitation of the Disabled" later changed its name again to "Rehabilitation, International"; today, the organisation prefers to be known simply as "RI", bypassing the inconvenience of actual words altogether. The story has been similar for "retarded" being replaced by cognitively "impaired"; for "welfare", which today is more often referred to as "cash assistance"; or by the faceless initials of programmes disbursing it, such as "TANF" ("Temporary Assistance for Needy Families").
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As a lad decades ago, I worked briefly in the production of a magazine about "family planning". Unfamiliar with the terminology, I spent months in this job before fully understanding that "family planning" referred to "contraception", not just people musing over when they ‘planned’ to have children. Why the obliqueness? Because "family planning" was a replacement euphemism for "birth control", coined in 1914 by the US contraception activist Margaret Sanger. Note that "birth control" was in itself as elliptical and abstract a terminology as "family planning". Yet today, "birth control" summons the concrete image of a contraceptive pill or other device. It was inevitable that this would become the case for "birth control" given the controversy over its use.
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The euphemism "treadmill", then, is neither just a form of "bureaucratese", nor of "identity politics". It is a symptom of the fact that, however much we would like it to be otherwise, it’s easier to change language than to change thought. Moreover, the euphemism "treadmill" is neither new nor does it churn faster than it once did. When you ask someone "Where’s the men’s?", you are using a replacement for the "restroom" that can summon a vision of a certain undersanitised room in the back of a Wendy’s fast-food restaurant. Yet the very idea of it being a ‘rest’ room began as an exquisite attempt to wave away miasmic associations after "bathroom" ceased to do the job any better than had "toilet" or "lavatory", deflecting attention to grooming and cleansing over what else happens in the room. Historically, "lavatory" is first attested in 1864, "restroom" followed hot on its heels a few decades later, at the turn of the 20th century, and then "men’s room" came into fashion in the 1920s.

This means that, in a linguistically mature society, we should expect that the terms we introduce to help us kick off new ways of thinking will require periodic replacement, like tyres. In our moment, special-needs student would appear about due for a swap-out. Meanwhile, the term innovation has been fashionable for just long enough among corporate and political types that it has taken on their hucksterish associations. Invention, for their purposes, would be better, although by about 2035 we can assume that this word too will sound, from the mouths of that era’s managers and mayors, equally fulsome.

Reality persists. It’s language we have control over - at least, for a while.


(E?)(L?) https://www.oedilf.com/db/Lim.php?Word=euphemise

Defines:
When poor Fido is "no longer here,"
We use words that are soft but less clear.
We may say he's "passed on,"
Or "put down" or just "gone" —
See, we've had the dog euphemized, dear.



Erstellt: 2016-12

ampersand (W3)

(E?)(L?) http://www.sex-lexis.com/Sex-Dictionary/ampersand

"ampersand": Children's fun word and "euphemism" for the "bottom" (the "ass" or "buttocks"), based on the symbol "&" placed after the letter "Z" in older alphabets, hence the bottom letter of the alphabet. See "ass" for synonyms.


Erstellt: 2020-01

B

bull (W3)

Das engl. "bull" wird oft auch euphemistisch für engl. "bullshit" gebraucht. Allerdings verweist der Artikel von Wikipedia darauf hin, dass es bereits im 17. Jh. ein engl. "bull" = engl. "nonsense" gab, während engl. "bullshit" erst im Jahr 1915 in Britannien und den USA aufkam.

(E?)(L?) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bullshit

"Bullshit" (also "bullcrap") is a common English expletive which may be shortened to the "euphemism" "bull" or the initialism "B.S.". In British English, "bollocks" is a comparable expletive. It is mostly a slang term and a profanity which means "nonsense", especially as a rebuke in response to communication or actions viewed as deceptive, misleading, disingenuous, unfair or false. As with many expletives, the term can be used as an interjection, or as many other parts of speech, and can carry a wide variety of meanings. A person who communicates nonsense on a given subject may be referred to as a "bullshit artist".

In philosophy and psychology of cognition the term "bullshit" is sometimes used to specifically refer to statements produced without particular concern of truth, to distinguish from a deliberate, manipulative lie intended to subvert the truth.[1]

While the word is generally used in a deprecatory sense, it may imply a measure of respect for language skills or frivolity, among various other benign usages. In philosophy, Harry Frankfurt, among others, analyzed the concept of bullshit as related to, but distinct from, lying.

As an exclamation, "Bullshit!" conveys a measure of dissatisfaction with something or someone, but this usage need not be a comment on the truth of the matter.

"Bull", meaning "nonsense", dates from the 17th century, while the term "bullshit" has been used as early as 1915 in British and American[3] slang, and came into popular usage only during World War II. The word "bull" itself may have derived from the Old French bole meaning "fraud, deceit".[3] The term "horseshit" is a near synonym. An occasionally used South African English equivalent, though more common in Australian slang, is "bull dust". The earliest attestation mentioned by the Concise Oxford English Dictionary is in fact T. S. Eliot, who between 1910 and 1916 wrote an early poem to which he gave the title "The Triumph of Bullshit", written in the form of a ballade. The word bullshit does not appear in the text of the poem, and Eliot himself never published the poem.[4] As to earlier etymology the Oxford English Dictionary cites bull with the meaning "trivial, insincere, untruthful talk or writing, nonsense". It describes this usage as being of unknown origin, but notes that in Old French, the word could mean "boul, boule, bole fraud, deceit, trickery; mod. Icel bull 'nonsense'; also ME bull BUL 'falsehood', and BULL verb, to befool, mock, cheat."[5] Although there is no confirmed etymological connection, these older meanings are synonymous with the modern expression "bull", generally considered and used as a contraction of "bullshit". Another proposal, according to the lexicographer Eric Partridge, is that the term was popularized by the Australian and New Zealand troops from about 1916 arriving at the front during World War I. Partridge claims that the British commanding officers placed emphasis on bull; that is, attention to appearances, even when it was a hindrance to waging war. The foreign Diggers allegedly ridiculed the British by calling it bullshit.[6] In George Orwell's Down and Out in Paris and London, Orwell writes that the insult bullshit stems from Bolshevik, and the association with communists is the source of the words insult.
...


Erstellt: 2020-01

buckingham.ac.uk
Linfoot-Ham, Kerry
Linguistics of Euphemism:
A Diachronic Study of Euphemism Formation

(E?)(L?) http://webspace.buckingham.ac.uk/kbernhardt/journal/4_2/linfoot_ham.pdf

Journal of Language and Linguistics - Vol. 4 No. 2 - 2005 - ISSN 1475 - 8989

The Linguistics of Euphemism: A Diachronic Study of Euphemism Formation

Kerry Linfoot-Ham University of Florida, USA

Abstract

This paper examines how very personal linguistic choices are actually products of societal mores and pressures. How people use "euphemism" to talk about sex is a direct reflection of these social concerns. In order to examine this sentiment in a diachronic methodology, examples of sexual euphemism are extracted from three British novels that span 180 years: Emma, by Jane Austen, Lady Chatterly's Lover, by D. H. Lawrence, and Well Groomed, by Fiona Walker.

Due to the nature of both pragmatics and "euphemism", it is first necessary to put these "euphemisms" into their historical contexts before any real conclusions may be drawn. This requires consideration of the culture and expectations surrounding each novel and encompasses research from the fields of sociology, history and philosophy. Only once the cultural conditions have been established is it possible to begin extracting and examining the "euphemisms". This data (over 250 sexual euphemisms from the three works) provides the basis for the discussion.

In studying euphemism formation, an existing model (Warren, 1992) is examined and the rules and categories suggested by this model are tested against "euphemisms" from the novels. It will be seen that improvements are required of the model in order for it to account for all examples. A modified version of this model is proposed to encompass all of these euphemisms, as well as other examples from notable sources.
...


Erstellt: 2020-01

C

cripes
crikey
crimbo
Jiminy (W3)

Ende des 19. Jh. - Anfang des 20. Jh. wurde engl. "Christmas" = dt. "Weihnachten" auch als Interjektion benutzt, etwa in engl. "Oh, Christmas" oder "Jiminy Christmas" - vielleicht auch mit Bezug zu den ebenfalls als Interjektion benutzten engl. "cripes" = dt. "Mensch!", "Mann!" und engl. "crikey" = dt. "Mensch!", "Mann!", die als "Euphemismus" (Hüllwort) zu "Christ" benutzt wurden. Auch engl. "crimbo" könnte in diesem Umfeld zu finden sein.

Im Deutschen könnte man vielleicht dt. "herrjemine!", auch verkürzt als dt. "jemine!" und "oje", vergleichen, das aus dt. "Herr Jesus", bzw. lat. "Jesu domine!" = dt. "Herr Jesus". Auch das schon genannte engl. "Jiminy" dürfte auf lat. "Jesu domine!" basieren.

Da es gerade um Weihnachten geht: Eine weitere Bezeichnung engl. "Yule" wurde von den Wikingern aus Skandinavien als altnord. "jol" und altengl., dän., norweg., schwed. "jul" = dt. "Christmas" oder "jultid" = dt. "Christmastime" eingeführt.

Das "Julfest" war eine altgermanische Feier zur Wintersonnenwende, die später mit dem christlichen Weihnachtsfest besetzt wurde.

Im heutigen England findet man "Yule" zwar nicht als Interjektion aber dennoch nicht als reguläre Bezeichnung sondern meist dann, wenn man damit wortspielerische Ausdrücke bilden kann wie in "Yule duel rage", "uncool Yule rules", "Yule feel fabulous". Die Tradition des Verbrennens des "Yule log" soll bis in das 6. Jh. zurück reichen.

(E?)(L?) http://challonge.com/y1025_yule_duel

Y1025 Yule Duel


(E?)(L?) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yule_log

A "yule log" is a large wooden log which is burned in the hearth as a part of traditional Yule or modern Christmas celebrations in several European cultures. It may also be associated with the "winter solstice" festival or the Twelve Days of Christmas, Christmas Eve, Christmas Day, or Twelfth Night.

The expression "yule log" has also come to refer to log-shaped Christmas cakes, also known as "chocolate logs" or "bûche de Noël". The "yule log" is related to other Christmas and Yuletide traditions such as the ashen faggot.
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Historical origins

The "Yule log" has been said to have its origins in the historical Germanic paganism which was practiced across Northern Europe prior to Christianization. One of the first people to suggest this was the English historian Henry Bourne, who, writing in the 1720s, described the practice occurring in the Tyne valley. Bourne theorised that the practice derives from customs in 6th to 7th century Anglo-Saxon paganism.

Robert Chambers, in his 1864 work, Book of Days notes that "two popular observances belonging to Christmas are more especially derived from the worship of our pagan ancestors — the hanging up of the mistletoe and the burning of the Yule log." James George Frazer in his work on anthropology, The Golden Bough (p. 736) holds that "the ancient fire-festival of the winter solstice appears to survive" in the Yule log custom. Frazer records traditions from England, France, among the South Slavs, in Central Germany (Meiningen) and western Switzerland (the Bernese Jura).

However, some historians have disagreed with this claim, for instance the Swedish folklorist Carl Wilhelm von Sydow (sv) attacked Frazer's theories, claiming that the Yule log had never had any religious significance, and was instead simply a festive decoration with practical uses.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.y1025.com/articles/y1025-yule-duel-444508/2014-yule-duel-semifinals-amy-grant-13082460/


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=cripes
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "cripes" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1820 auf.

Erstellt: 2020-01

D

E

Euphemia (W3)

Der weibliche Vorname "Euphemia" setzt sich zusammen aus griech. "eu" = dt. "schön", "gut" und griech. "phemi" = dt. "sprechen" und bedeutet somit dt. "gute Benennung", "Schönsprecherin", "Frau von gutem Ruf".

"Euphemia" fand im Mittelalter als Heiligenname Eingang in die deutsche Namengebung. Namensvorbild war die heilige Euphemia, Märtyrerin (3./4. Jh.); Namenstag: 16. September.

(E?)(L?) http://adb.anu.edu.au/biographies/name/




(E?)(L?) http://www.babynamewizard.com/baby-name/girl/euphemia

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Nicknames for "Euphemia": "Effie", "Effy", "Fifi", "Emmie", "Emma", "Mia", "Mimi"

Meanings and history of the name Euphemia: "Euphemia" is a Greek name meaning "well-spoken". Derived from the ancient greek words "eu "good" and "phemi" "to speak". The word "euphemism" derives from the same root.

Famous real-life people named Euphemia Euphemia in song, story & screen ...


(E?)(L?) http://www.behindthename.com/names/view.php?name=euphemia

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Meaning & History

Means "to use words of good omen" from Greek "eu" meaning "good" and "phemi" meaning "to speak", "to declare". Saint Euphemia was an early martyr from Chalcedon.

Related Names Diminutives: "Effie", "Eppie", "Femie", "Phemie" (English) Masculine Form: "Euphemios" (Ancient Greek) Other Languages & Cultures: "Efimia" (Greek), "Eufemia" (Italian), "Eufêmia" (Portuguese), "Jefimija" (Serbian), "Eufemia" (Spanish)
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(E?)(L?) http://www.ces.csiro.au/aicn/name_s/b_2052.htm

Hypocysta euphemia Westwood


(E?)(L?) http://dmnes.org/name/Euphemia

"Euphemia" f. Ancient Greek "eu" "good", "well" + Ancient Greek "phemi" "to speak".

The name of a 4th C saint, a 6th C empress consort of the Byzantine Empire, a 12th C queen consort of Kiev, a 14th C queen consort of Norway, and a 14th C queen consort of Scotland.

England France Germany Italy Scotland


(E?)(L?) http://ca.epodunk.com/profiles/Ontario/Dawn-Euphemia/2005770.html

Dawn-Euphemia (township), Lambton County


(E?)(L?) https://www.helpmefind.com/peony/l.php?l=2.48265

"Euphemia" peony Description


(E?)(L?) https://www.nordicnames.de/wiki/Euphemia

"Euphemia" Combination of Greek "eu" = "good", "well" and "phemi" = "to speak" Related Names


(E?)(L?) http://www.oocities.org/edgarbook/names/e/euphemia.html

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"Euphemia" comes from a Greek name meaning "Well Regarded", from the words "eu" ("good") and "phenai" ("to speak well of").
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It was introduced to England by the Normans. It lasted until the 16th century, before dying out everywhere except Scotland, where it was treated as an Anglicized form of the Scottish Gaelic name "Oighrig".

In the United States, Euphemia has always been rare, except among early Scottish immigrants.

Diminutives: English: "Effie", "Eppie", "Eppy", "Femie", "Phemie".

Alternates: See also: "Effie".
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.rampantscotland.com/forenames/blnames_de.htm

"Euphemia"

The name comes from a Greek word meaning "fair of speech" and appears in the New Testament. "St Euphemia" was a 4th century Christian martyr (the lions refused to devour her so she was burnt at the stake instead). The name became popular in Scotland from about the 12th century (more so in Scotland than in, say, Ireland or England). In the 13th century, "Euphemia", Countess of Ross founded Fortrose Cathedral. The name became popular in the 19th century but has since fallen out of favour. There were a number of variations in spelling and it was often shortened to a pet name of "Effie" and "Fay" is also a short form of the name.


(E?)(L?) http://www.sacklunch.net/personalnames/E/Euphemia.html

Euphemia: From the Greek, Euphemia, "words of good omen, or good report."


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=Euphemia
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "Euphemia" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1630 auf.

Erstellt: 2019-11

Euphemism (W3)

Der "Euphemismus", span. "eufemismo", frz. "Euphémisme", port. "eufemismo", engl. "euphemism", ("Unangenehmes mit angenehmen Worten sagen") ist eine "beschönigende oder verhüllende Umschreibung für ein anstößiges oder unangenehmes Wort" und geht zurück auf griech. "euphemein" = dt. "gut reden" ("Worte von guter Vorbedeutung gebrauchen", "Unangenehmes angenehm sagen") von griech. "eu" = dt. "gut", "schön" und griech. "pheme" = dt. "Kunde", "Ruf", "Sprache" (zu griech. "phanai" = dt. "sagen", "sprechen").

Das Wort engl. "euphemism" (engl. "circumlocution" = dt. "Umschreibung") erscheint zum ersten mal in "Thomas Blount: Glossographia" im Jahr 1656 mit der Definition: "Euphemism", a good or favourable interpretation of a bad word.

"Euphemismen" sind sogenannte "Hüllwörter", die uns ermöglichen, über Tabus zu reden. Viele "Euphemismen" gehen auf abergläubische Vorstellungen zurück, die besagen, daß man etwas Schlimmes oder Böses herbeischwört, wenn man dessen Namen ausspricht. Wenn man etwa "zum Kuckuck" (statt "zum Teufel") sagt, glaubt man, das Böse überlisten zu können.

(E?)(L?) https://www.alphadictionary.com/goodword/date/2015/06/02

...
On a side note, the surname of the third president of Russia, Dmitri Medvedev, is based on medved "a bear". "Medved" was originally a euphemism meaning "honey eater", used at a time when Russian bear hunters considered the name of their target a taboo word that would jinx the hunt.
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Word History: Today's Good Word is a thinly disguised copy of Greek "euphemismos". The Greek noun comes from the verb "euphemizein" "to use auspicious (lucky) words". "Euphemismos" was compounded from "eu-s" "good" + "pheme" "speech", "saying" + the noun suffix "-ism-os" (the origin of the English suffix "-ism"). The word for "speech" in Greek shares its source with Latin "fari" "to speak". The present participle of "fari" is "fans", "fants" "speaking", the negative of which is "infans", "infants" "not speaking". Guess which English word came from this Latin term.
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(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20080718023146/https://www.bartleby.com/68/

Kenneth G. Wilson (1923–). The Columbia Guide to Standard American English. 1993.

"euphemism", "euphuism" (nn.)

Although they both have to do with diction and therefore with style, there is little reason for confusion of these words. "Euphemisms" are words substituted for others because they are thought to be less offensive, distasteful, crude, or ugly than the originals.

"Euphuism" was the extremely artificial, pretentious, and high-flown style espoused in sixteenth-century Britain by the novelist John Lyly and his imitators. It was full of elaborate similes, extreme balance and antithesis in syntax, and a generally self-conscious elegance in every aspect of its language. Today a euphuistic style can also refer to any such artificial, consciously ornate, decorative style of prose.

"EUPHEMISMS", "GENTEELISMS"

"Euphemisms" (Fowler’s term was "genteelisms") are words with meanings or sounds thought somehow to be nicer, cleaner, or more elevated and so used as substitutes for words deemed unpleasant, crude, or ugly in sound or sense. It can be argued, perhaps cynically, that whatever we dislike but conclude that we cannot make better, we rename euphemistically instead. But renaming a "slum" an "inner city" does not improve living conditions there. Certainly renaming the world in order to make it seem less unpleasant need not be considered a base activity unless our purpose is deliberately to conceal ugliness that we might be able to amend were we to face up to it. Perhaps therefore, since we cannot stop death, it is not so cowardly of us to refer to someone’s recent passing. But none should countenance the impersonal disguises that "euphemisms" often seek to provide for killing and other horrors, such as the Persian Gulf War’s "collateral losses" for "deaths and injuries to civilians". And all should be able to penetrate the flimsiness of revenue enhancement as a disguise for tax increases or "urban renewal" for what used to be called "slum clearance". "Euphemisms" are sugarcoatings, and sometimes they try to hide things that ought not to be hidden.

See "DOUBLESPEAK"; "NEWSPEAK"; "WEASEL WORDS".


(E?)(L?) https://www.bartleby.com/185/

H.L. Mencken (1880–1956). The American Language. 1921.

4. Euphemisms

But such euphemisms as "lady-clerk" are, after all, much rarer in English than in American usage. The Englishman seldom tries to gloss menial occupations with sonorous names; on the contrary, he seems to delight in keeping their menial character plain. He says "servants", not "help". Even his railways and banks have "servants"; the chief trades-union of the English railroad men is the Amalgamated Society of Railway "Servants". He uses "employé" in place of "clerk", "workman" or "laborer" much less often than we do. True enough he often calls a "boarder" a "paying-guest", but that is probably because even a lady may occasionally take one in. Just as he avoids calling a "fast train" the "limited", the "flier" or the "cannon-ball", so he never calls an "undertaker" a "funeral director" or "mortician", or a "dentist" a "dental surgeon" or "odontologist", or a "real estate agent" a "realtor", or a "press-agent" a "publicist", or a "barber shop" (he always makes it barber’s shop) a "tonsorial parlor", or a "common public-house" a "café", a "restaurant", an "exchange", a "buffet" or a "hotel", or a "tradesman" a "storekeeper" or "merchant", or a fresh-water "college" a "university". A "university", in England, always means a "collection of colleges". He avoids displacing terms of a disparaging or disagreeable significance with others less brutal, or thought to be less brutal, e.g., "ready-to-wear", "ready-tailored", or "ready-to-put-on" for "ready-made", "used" or "slightly-used" for "second-hand", "popular priced" for "cheap", "mahoganized" for "imitation mahogany", "aisle manager" for "floor-walker" (he makes it "shop-walker"), "loan-office" for "pawn-shop". Also he is careful not to use such words as "rector", "deacon" and "baccalaureate" in merely rhetorical senses. Nor does he call "mutton lamb", or "milk cream". Nor does he use "cuspidor" for "spittoon", or "B. V. D."’s as a euphemism for "underwear", or "butterine" for "oleomargarine".
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(E2)(L1) https://www.dictionary.com/browse/euphemism

euphemism
...
Words related to euphemism

"grandiloquence", "circumlocution", "delicacy", "inflation", "pomposity", "pretense", "purism"

Words nearby "euphemism"

"eupatrid", "eupen and malmédy", "eupepsia", "eupeptic", "euphausiid", "euphemism", "euphemize", "euphonia", "euphonic", "euphonious", "euphonium"

Origin of "euphemism"

1650–60; Greek "euphemismós" the use of words of good omen, equivalent to "eu-" "eu-" + "phem(e)" "speaking", "fame" + "-ismos" "-ism"
...


(E?)(L?) https://www.dictionary.com/e/list/word-trends/

Political Euphemisms: The Good, the Bad, the Ugly


(E?)(L?) https://www.dictionary.com/e/word-of-the-day/aesopian-2018-02-13/

aesopian: conveying meaning by hint, euphemism, innuendo, or the like. (Thursday August 04)


(E?)(L?) http://www.english-for-students.com/eu.html




(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*es-

ide. "*es-", "*es-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to be".

It forms all or part of:

"absence"; "absent"; "am"; "Bodhisattva"; "entity"; "essence"; "essential"; "essive"; "eu-"; "eucalyptus"; "Eucharist"; "Euclidean"; "Eudora"; "Eugene"; "eugenics"; "eulogy"; "Eunice"; "euphemism"; "euphoria"; "euthanasia"; "homoiousian"; "improve"; "interest"; "is"; "onto-"; "Parousia"; "present" (adj.) "existing at the time"; "present" (n.2) "what is offered or given as a gift"; "proud"; "quintessence"; "represent"; "satyagraha"; "sin"; "sooth"; "soothe"; "suttee"; "swastika"; "yes".

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by:

Sanskrit "asmi", Hittite "eimi", Greek "esti-", Latin "est", Old Church Slavonic "jesmi", Lithuanian "esmi", Gothic "imi", Old English "eom", German "ist".


(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*bha-

ide. "*bha-", "*bha-" (2) : "*bha-"; Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to speak", "tell", "say".

It forms all or part of:

"abandon"; "affable"; "anthem"; "antiphon"; "aphasia"; "aphonia"; "aphonic"; "apophasis"; "apophatic"; "ban" (n.1) "proclamation" or "edict"; "ban" (v.); "banal"; "bandit"; "banish"; "banlieue"; "banns" (n.); "bifarious"; "blame"; "blaspheme"; "blasphemy"; "boon" (n.); "cacophony"; "confess"; "contraband"; "defame"; "dysphemism"; "euphemism"; "euphony"; "fable"; "fabulous"; "fado"; "fairy"; "fame"; "famous"; "fandango"; "fatal"; "fate"; "fateful"; "fatuous"; "fay"; "gramophone"; "heterophemy"; "homophone"; "ineffable"; "infamous"; "infamy"; "infant"; "infantile"; "infantry"; "mauvais"; "megaphone"; "microphone"; "monophonic"; "nefandous"; "nefarious"; "phatic"; "-phone"; "phone" (n.2) "elementary sound of a spoken language"; "phoneme"; "phonetic"; "phonic"; "phonics"; "phono-"; "pheme"; "-phemia"; "Polyphemus"; "polyphony"; "preface"; "profess"; "profession"; "professional"; "professor"; "prophecy"; "prophet"; "prophetic"; "quadraphonic"; "symphony"; "telephone"; "xylophone".

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by:

Greek "pheme" = "speech", "voice", "utterance", "a speaking", "talk", "phone" "voice", "sound", "phanai" = "to speak"; Sanskrit "bhanati" = "speaks"; Latin "fari" = "to say", "fabula" = "narrative", "account", "tale", "story", "fama" = "talk", "rumor", "report"; "reputation", "public opinion"; "renown", "reputation"; Armenian "ban", "bay" = "word", "term"; Old Church Slavonic "bajati" = "to talk", "tell"; Old English "boian" = "to boast", "ben" "prayer", "request"; Old Irish "bann" = "law".


(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/euphemism

"euphemism" (n.), 1650s, from Greek "euphemismos" = engl. "use of a favorable word in place of an inauspicious one, superstitious avoidance of words of ill-omen during religious ceremonies", also of substitutions such as "Eumenides" for the "Furies". This is from "euphemizein" = engl. "speak with fair words", "use words of good omen", from "eu-" = engl. "good", "well" (see "eu-") + "pheme" = engl. "speech", "voice", "utterance", "a speaking", from "phanai" = engl. "speak" (from PIE root "*bha-" (2) = engl. "to speak", "tell", "say"). See also "Euxine", and compare Greek Greek "aristeros" = engl. "the better one", a "euphemism" for "the left (hand)". In English, a rhetorical term at first; broader sense of "choosing a less distasteful word or phrase than the one meant" is first attested 1793. Related: "Euphemistic"; "euphemistically".

All the ancients, but most of all the Athenians, were careful not to use ill-omened words; so they called the prison "the chamber", and the executioner "the public man", and the "Furies" ("Erinyes") they called "Eumenides" ("the kindly ones") or "the Venerable Goddesses". [Helladius of Antinoopolis, 4 c. C.E., quoted by Photius]

Thus, in our dialect, "a vicious man" is "a man of pleasure", "a sharper" is "one that plays the whole game", a lady is said "to have an affair", a gentleman "to be a gallant", a rogue in business "to be one that knows the world". By this means, we have no such things as "sots", "debauchees", "whores", "rogues", or the like, in the beau monde, who may enjoy their vices without incurring disagreeable appellations. [George Berkeley, "Alciphron or the Minute Philosopher," 1732]


(E?)(L?) http://www.grammarbook.com/newsletters.asp

09/09 - Euphemisms: Lying to Us Gently

Let’s talk about "euphemisms", those soothing words meant to assure us that something’s not as bad as we know it is. A "euphemism" is a lullaby, a sedative, a velvet glove enfolding reality’s iron fist. In a way, the word "euphemism" is itself a "euphemism" — so much kinder and gentler than "cop-out".
...


(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/euphemisms.htm

162. Language has its Powers

There are some words we often avoid saying (Jan 06)

A common feature of the way all of us speak is the use of euphemisms, words that deliberately avoid some less pleasant or 'stronger' word. We ask what impels us to use euphemisms, and look at examples from the area of religion.

When someone has "passed away", the "grief therapist "receives the "client" and prepares that" loved one," makes arrangements, and soon the "dearly departed" is "interred". Or in a more jaunty mood you might say that someone "bought the farm" and is soon "pushing up daisies". All this might sound a little circumspect or evasive, when we really mean that when someone has "died", the "funeral director receives the corpse" and sees to it that the "dead body" is soon "buried".

All of us routinely avoid speaking words that have to do with "death", but in many other areas we also seem to be reluctant to say something that is too strong.

"rest room", "powder room"

"differently-abled", "mentally challenged"

"collateral damage", "device"

"pre-owned"

"sanitation worker", "sanitation engineer"

"B.S.", "freakin"

"the C-word"

"gosh darned", "jiminy"

Without much effort you'll quickly think of hundreds more expressions that show a caution avoiding strong words. But what makes these words strong? That's the question we'll come back to at the end of this "Miniature".

The language is full of this kind of pussy-footing, some of which you may not even recognize as such. We're talking of course about "euphemism", which we can define something like "a word or expression intended by the speaker to be less offensive or objectionable than what it replaces".

Our purpose here is not to collect them, which would be fun but does not give us much further insight. We don't need to anyway, because you can easily find several good dictionaries of euphemisms. Instead we want to think about a more interesting question: "Why do we use euphemisms at all?" To look at this, we'll take only "religious euphemisms", a good example of which is that last example above. What means do we have if we want to circumspectly use "God", "Jesus Christ", the "devil", "hell" and "damnation" in some sort of mild oath? The following words and expressions are a mere sampling of the most widespread euphemisms. There are many more for these and related words.

"GOD" we usually say "golly", "gosh", "ye gads"; "by God" is often "by gum", "begorrah", "my goodness", "goodness gracious", "good grief".

Some old ones that now merely sound quaint are "egad", "gadzooks" ("God's Hooks", referring to the nails on the cross), "odds bodkins" ("God's Body"), "zounds" (rhymes with "wounds"; "God's Wounds").

"GOD-DAMNED" in "polite society" most of us will say "gosh darned", "gol-darned" or a Spoonerized version like "doggone", "dadgum", "dadburn", "dadblast", "dingbust".

"JESUS "Jeez", "Jeepers", "Jiminy", "by Jesus": "by George", "by Jingo", "bejabbers". Probably the most common religious euphemism is "Gee!" Is this the first letter of "God", or the first syllable of "Jesus"? Because in some religious traditions "Jesus" is called "God", it is plain that the latter word often means the former (certainly in the above "Gadzooks" and "Odds Bodkins").

"CHRIST" "cripes", "criminy", "Christmas", for "cryin' out loud".

"JESUS CHRIST" "Jiminy Crickets", "Judas Priest", "Judas Christopher", "Jeezy Creezy", "Jason Crisp", probably also "Gee whiz", "Gee willikers"

"LORD" this word and the next do not figure in nearly as many euphemisms: "my land", "lordy"

"MARY" "Mother Macree", "Cripes Mariah".

"HOLY GHOST" "holy smokes", "holy Moses", "holy moley"

"DAMNED "darn(ed)", "durn", "dang", "dash", "drat", "darnation", "tarnation". The first five often with "it" added: "darn it" etc.

"HELL" "what the heck", "what the Sam Hill"

"DEVIL" "what the deuce", "what the dickens"

"SWEAR" even this relatively mild word is occasionally avoided: "I suwanee". Also the folksy expression "I swan to John", probably "I swear by Jesus".

A reader of this essay sent in the one-liner "Heck is where you go if you don't believe in Gosh, Jeepers Creepers or the Holy Moley."

Now, are there any of these you didn't even realize were euphemisms?

Back to the question of why we use euphemisms. The main reason, already part of the definition above, is to sidestep possible social consequences. We simply don't want to risk offending other people - or sugar-coat the reality - by saying something "crude" such as "toilet", "crippled", "retarded", "civilian deaths" or "bombs". Some are what we now call "politically correct", others simply sound more prestigious such as replacements of the older "second-hand, garbage man, janitor. "

Some cannot even be written here because they are "flag" words that will trigger blocking of this whole "Miniature". Some readers will never even see this essay because of the bold-face four-letter words above.

A deeper reason why words such as religious terms are avoided - particularly in mild oaths - is that some are felt have a power to invoke the attention of what is spoken: "God" and "Jesus Christ" possibly out of a fear of using them inappropriately or the risk of calling forth too-powerful religious forces, and "hell", "damnation", "devil" out of a fear of invoking the adversaries themselves. This is equally true of "death", "cancer" and many others.

Even in our modern secular society, some words possess a unique but largely unacknowledged power to call forth both good and evil. In this we're very little different from our most distant ancestors. People throughout recorded history have shown awe of the force of certain "magic" words.

Copyright 2006 by William Z. Shetter


(E?)(L?) https://eggcorns.lascribe.net/english/1106/youthamism/

"euphemism" - "youthamism"


(E?)(L?) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/hiding-behind-euphemisms

Hiding behind euphemisms

by Sharon Creese

The Guardian‘s Mind your Language blog came up with an interesting post the other day, on "euphemisms" and the way they can be used to "desensitize" us from the horrors of what’s really going on. The example it uses is "friendly fire", a pretty horrible image, when you think about it. As the post says, there’s nothing "friendly" about being shot by mistake by your own troops!

It’s true that this happens a lot with "military speak", and our exposure to it is mostly through the movies – remember the film Broken Arrow, with John Travolta? "Broken arrow" is actually code for "oops, we’ve lost a nuclear weapon" – you can’t get much more euphemistic than that. "Euphemisms" are a useful tool for talking about difficult subjects, but I do think we have to be careful not to let them excuse us into not addressing the issues we should be talking about.


(E1)(L1) https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/euphemism

"euphemism"
...
Did You Know?

"Euphemism" derives from the Greek word "euphemos", which means "auspicious" or "sounding good". The first part of "euphemos" is the Greek prefix "eu-", meaning "well". The second part is "pheme", a Greek word for "speech" that is itself a derivative of the verb "phanai", meaning "to speak". Among the numerous linguistic cousins of "euphemism" on the "eu-" side of the family are "eulogy", "euphoria", and "euthanasia"; on the "phanai" side, its kin include "prophet" and "aphasia" ("loss of the power to understand words").
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.odlt.org/

"euphemism"

Definition - The act of substituting a less offensive word or phrase for another more disconcerting word or phrase.

Example - Saying "passed away" instead of "died".

Etymology - The word derives from the Greek "euphemismos", using an auspicious word in place of an inauspicious one (from the Greek "eu", "good" + "pheme", "speaking").

Note: The existence of the Greek term shows their strong desire to avoid using inauspicious words during religious ceremonies.

Oxford English Dictionary - Its first citation is from 1656:

"Euphemism, a good or favorable interpretation of a bad word."

(Blount, Glossographia )

"euphemism treadmill"

Definition - A process of language change where a "euphemism" that has been coined to allow speakers to avoid saying a disreputable or unpleasant term itself becomes so associated with the disreputable or unpleasant thing that a new "euphemism" is coined to replace it - and so on and so on.

Example - "crippled" - "handicapped" - "disabled" - "physically challenged" - "differently abled"

Etymology - According to the Wikipedia, the term was coined by Steven Pinker.

Note: I decided to follow-up on this, so I emailed Dr. Pinker and asked him if it was true that he had coined the term. He replied: "As far as I know I did, in a New York Times oped in 1994: http://pinker.wjh.harvard.edu/articles/media/1994_04_03_newyorktimes.pdf"


(E?)(L?) http://www.odlt.org/docs/is_the_word_euphemism.pdf

Is the word “euphemism” a euphemism?
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(E?)(L?) https://www.oedilf.com/db/Lim.php?Word=euphemism

A euphemism lightens the mood.
It's polite around people, not crude:
If your mate should pass gas
On a date, she has class
If the bunny she shot was subdued.


In the UK, the euphemism "shot a bunny" might be used for "passing gas".


(E?)(L?) http://perfectyourenglish.com/blog/tag/euphemism?print=pdf-page

Euphemisms


(E?)(L?) http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/searchresults?target=en&collections=Perseus%3Acollection%3AGreco-Roman&collections=Perseus%3Acollection%3AArabic&collections=Perseus%3Acollection%3AGermanic&collections=Perseus%3Acollection%3Acwar&collections=Perseus%3Acollection%3ARenaissance&collections=Perseus%3Acollection%3ARichTimes&collections=Perseus%3Acollection%3APDILL&all_words=euphemism&phrase=&any_words=&exclude_words=&search=Search

"euphemism": Showing 1 - 10 of 72 document results in English.


(E?)(L?) https://www.phrases.org.uk/meanings/euphemisms.html

English has a wealth of "euphemisms". They are coded expressions that we use when whatever we are referring to is considered inappropriate for the circumstances or when we are embarrassed or uncomfortable with the literal version. As one might expect, many "euphemisms" relate to death or to what a true euphemist would refer to as "the trouser region".

"Euphemisms" go back to the beginnings of the language but the word "euphemism" itself wasn't defined until Thomas Blount included it in his Glossographia in 1656: "Euphemism", a good or favourable interpretation of a bad word.

The English have been using "euphemisms" since 1656.

Many "euphemisms" are old but new ones continue to be coined: for every Shakespearian "beast with two backs" there's a 20th century "knee trembler".

The "euphemisms" that people have adopted in order to avoid saying "Jesus" or "God" are called minced oaths.


(E?)(L?) https://www.questia.com/read/59505698/english-words-and-their-background



English Words and Their Background

By George H. McKnight

Chapter XIX: Euphemism and Hyperbole


(E?)(L?) http://dictionary.reference.com/help/faq/language/t17.html

...
"euphemism": substitution of a mild, vague, or indirect term for a more harsh or offensive term; e.g., personal hygiene, light housekeeping, the trots, white elephant.

A "euphemism" is an inoffensive expression that is substituted for one that is considered offensive, e.g., "ladies' room" instead of "bathroom."
...


(E?)(L?) https://glossary.sil.org/term/euphemism

Euphemism


(E?)(L?) http://www.takeourword.com/et_e-g.html#euph

"euphemism" dates from the mid 17th century. It was borrowed from Greek "euphemismos" "use of a favorale word in place of a less auspicious one", which came from "euphemizein" "speak with fair or good words" - "eu-" "good" + "pheme" "speaking", from "phanai" "to speak". "Affectation" and "preciosity" are considrered synonyms for "euphemism", though they do not necessarily reflect accurately its meaning today.


(E?)(L?) https://nancyfriedman.typepad.com/away_with_words/euphemisms/

Euphemisms


(E?)(L?) https://mcl.as.uky.edu/glossary-rhetorical-terms

"Euphemism": substitution of an agreeable or at least non-offensive expression for one whose plainer meaning might be harsh or unpleasant.

When the final news came, there would be a ring at the front door - a wife in this situation finds herself staring at the front door as if she no longer owns it or controls it - and outside the door would be a man... come to inform her that unfortunately something has happened out there, and her husband's body now lies incinerated in the swamps or the pines or the palmetto grass, "burned beyond recognition", which anyone who had been around an air base very long (fortunately Jane had not) realized was quite an artful "euphemism" to describe a human body that now looked like an enormous fowl that has burned up in a stove, burned a blackish brown all over, greasy and blistered, fried, in a word, with not only the entire face and all the hair and the ears burned off, not to mention all the clothing, but also the hands and feet, with what remains of the arms and legs bent at the knees and elbows and burned into absolutely rigid angles, burned a greasy blackish brown like the bursting body itself, so that this husband, father, officer, gentleman, this ornamentum of some mother's eye, His Majesty the Baby of just twenty-odd years back, has been reduced to a charred hulk with wings and shanks sticking out of it.

Tom Wolfe, The Right Stuff


(E?)(L?) http://linguistik.uni-regensburg.de:8080/lido/Lido

"euphemism" - Definition:

a metaphorical or metonymic use of an expression, in place of another that is disagreeable or offensive, cf. „those that are afar off“ in Acts 2:39 and Ephesians 2:13,17 in place of a term of direct reference to the Gentiles (example from Beekman & Callow 1974: 120).


(E?)(L?) https://www.usingenglish.com/glossary/euphemism.html

English Grammar: "Euphemisms"

Definition: A "Euphemism" is when you substitute language that is less direct and vague for another that is considered to be harsh, blunt, or offensive.

When talking or writing about subjects that we find embarrassing or unpleasant, we often use "euphemisms"; rather than say that somebody has died, we might say that they "have passed away". Some hospitals have "Special Clinics", where sexually transmitted infections are treated.

See Also: "Swear Word"; "Minced Oath"; "Slang"; "Colloquial"; "Standard English"; "Acronym"; "Palindrome"; "Synecdoche"; "Oxymoron"


(E1)(L1) http://www.visualthesaurus.com/cm/evasive/

Evasive Maneuvers - Euphemisms old and new


(E?)(L?) http://learningenglish.voanews.com/content/they-wins-linguists-word-of-the-year/3138699.html



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Words in this Story ...


(E1)(L1) http://www.wordsmith.org/awad/archives.html




(E1)(L1) http://www.wordsmith.org/words/euphemism.html

euphemism
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EXAMPLES: ...


(E?)(L?) http://wordsmith.org/awad/archives/0910

Sep 2010 Words related to censorship: fatwa | custos morum | excommunicate | euphemism | samizdat


(E2)(L1) https://www.wordspy.com/index.php?search=euphemism&type=everything&match=exact-phrase

Your search matched 20 words:


(E?)(L?) https://xkcd.com/168/

2006 "Reverse Euphemisms"


(E?)(L?) https://www.yourdictionary.com/euphemism

The definition of a euphemism is a polite, vague word or phrase that is used in place of word or phrase that might be considered offensive, harsh, unpleasant or inappropriate to say.
...


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=Euphemism
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "Euphemism" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1800 auf.

Erstellt: 2020-01

F

F-word (W3)

Unter dem engl. "F-word", "F word", versteht man den Ausdruck engl. "fuck", der seit dem 14. Jh. nachweisbar ist. Es wird zurück geführt auf lat. "futuere" und althdt. "ficken", "fucken" mit der Bedeutung dt. "schlagen", "treffen", "stoßen", "durchdringen", "eindringen", und wurde umgangssprachlich schon früh mit der Bedeutung dt. "kopulieren", "sich paaren" belegt. Ursprünglich war das Wort wohl durchaus akzeptabel. Aber mit der Zeit wurde es als unschicklich angesehen und heute spricht man deshalb euphemistisch von dem "F-word".

Diese Umschreibung hat nun weitere Umschreibungen nach dem gleichen Muster hervorgebracht wie etwa: "A-word" für engl. "arsehole", "asshole", "ass", "C-word" für engl. "cunt" = "vagina", "F-word" für engl. "fuck", "L-word" für engl. "", "N-word" für engl. "", "P-word" für engl. "pussy", "S-word" für engl. "shit", "" für engl. "", "" für engl. "", "" für engl. "", "" für engl. "", "" für engl. "",

(E?)(L?) http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/magazine/3755482.stm

A study of when new words became common during the past century has had some surprising findings, such as the word "celebs" being used in 1913, the word "sex" meaning sexual intercourse being first used in 1929, and "mobile phone" dating from 1945.

1973 "F-word"


(E?)(L?) https://www.dailywritingtips.com/25-idiomatic-phrases-that-include-single-initials/

14. "F-word": a euphemism for a specific form of profanity that begins with the letter "f"; the "[letter]-word" form is also used to refer to any serious or jocular vocabulary evasion, as in The "L Word", the title of a television series about "lesbians and bisexual women" (similarly, some offensive terms that consist of compound words are disguised by eliding all but the first letter of the first element of the word and inserting a hyphen, as in "a-hole")


(E?)(L?) https://www.dictionary.com/e/origin-of-the-f-word/

What’s The Origin Of The F-word?

It’s one of the most versatile words in the English language, but where did the "F-word" really come from? Originally, the naughtiest of naughty words was actually quite an acceptable word, though no English speaker would say that today. "F-ck" is believed to have first showed up in written form some time in the 1400s, and it was disguised in a cypher, although it was in use well before then.

The F-word in the dictionary

The F-word was recorded in a dictionary in 1598 (John Florio’s A Worlde of Wordes, London: Arnold Hatfield for Edw. Blount). It is remotely derived from the Latin "futuere" and Old German "ficken" / "fucken" meaning "to strike" or "penetrate", which had the slang meaning to "copulate". Eric Partridge, a famous etymologist, said that the German word was related to the Latin words for "pugilist", "puncture", and "prick". One folk etymology claims that it derives from "for unlawful carnal knowledge", but this has been debunked by etymologists.

The word became rarer in print in the 18th century when it came to be regarded as vulgar. It was even banned from the Oxford English Dictionary. In 1960, Grove Press (in the US) won a court case permitting it to print the word legally for the first time in centuries — in D.H. Lawrence’s Lady Chatterley’s Lover (written in 1928).

WATCH: How "Shut Up" Became So Mean

"Shut up" began as a verb phrase meaning "to secure something away in a receptacle". "Shut it up!" By the 1500s, it meant "to confine someone", "to close a door or window", or "to bring to a conclusion". Creepy ... Then Jane Austen and Charles Dickens came around, and they used it a bit more rudely.

F-word euphemisms

The taboo nature of "f-ck" has given rise to a slew of euphemisms — or mild, indirect, or vague expression substituted for one thought to be offensive, harsh, or blunt. "Frig", "frack", "frick", "fork", and "fug", "d’fuq", "fux", and "WTF" (or "whiskey tango foxtrot") are all popular substitutions, especially for the spoken "f-word".

We also now have "eff" and "effing", as well as "f-word" and "f-bomb". All of these alternates give us ways to get around using everyone’s favorite four-letter word.

Want to know how some other curse words originated … flip through the slides in "Where The Bleep Did That Curse Word Come From?"


(E?)(L?) https://www.dictionary.com/e/s/bleep-curse-word-come/#the-f-word

The "F word"

There are a lot of theories behind the origins of the swear word, "f*&#" (meaning "to have sex" or "to meddle"). It is believed that it originated from the Middle Dutch "fokken", meaning "to thrust", "copulate with". However, the truth behind the word still remains unknown because it was banned by the dictionary at the time it originated.

What we do know is the word was first seen written in 1495–1505. In the second edition of the Oxford English Dictionary it appeared as "fukkit" and was later seen written by the poet Sir David Lyndesay as we know it today. In the 1900s, it grew into a word used to describe a very bad mistake and to tell someone to leave you alone.


(E?)(L?) http://www.fbomb.co/

See where in the world the "F Bomb" is being dropped on Twitter

This is an interactive map that shows where people are using the "F-word" on Twitter.

I created this application to expand my development skills and to tinker with some public APIs


(E?)(L?) https://wordcraft.infopop.cc/Archives/2006-6-Jun.htm

F-word thoughts

This week's theme is not what you might have thought from the title!

So many "f-words" are funny just to hear. You can laugh at the sound of "filibuster", and "fi-fi-fo-fum", and the cartoon name Elmer Fudd. And many "f-words" have a 'light' meaning. You can be a "frivolous" "fool" or a "fuddy-duddy". You can be a "figdety" "fuss-budget" or, quite the converse, a "fickle" "flighty" "fanciful" "floozy". You can "fiddle around", "fribble away your time" or "fritter away your money" on "frippery". You can "flim-flam" and "finagle".

This week we'll take a lingering look at light, laughing "f-words".

"flibbertigibbet" – a frivolous and restless person, silly and flighty, scatterbrained or constantly talking

How do you solve a problem like Maria?
How do you catch a cloud and pin it down?
How do you find the word that means Maria?
A flibbertigibbet;
A will-o'-the-wisp;
A clown.
Many a thing you know you'd like to tell her.
Many a thing she ought to understand.
But how do you make her stay and listen to all you say?
How do you keep a wave upon the sand?
How do you solve a problem like Maria?
How do you hold a moonbeam in your hand?


– The Sound of Music

Shakespeare used the word differently, to mean a demon (King Lear: "This is the foul fiend Flibbertigibbet"), but that usage remains distinctly secondary.


(E?)(L?) https://www.jessesword.com/writing.html#books

The F-Word, 3rd ed., 2009. New York: Oxford University Press.

Extremely heavy revision of 1999 edition.


(E?)(L?) http://languagehat.com/?s=THE+F-WORD

Search Results for: THE F-WORD


(E?)(L?) https://languagemonitor.com/page/5/

The ‘f-word’ is (unfortunately) the Top Hollyword of 2013

The Year in Film as Reflected in the English Language

...
11th Annual Global Survey by the Global Language Monitor

Austin, Texas, March 11, 2013.

The word euphemistically described as the "f-word" has been named the Top Hollyword of the 2013 season by the Global Language Monitor, in its eleventh annual survey. Gravity came in second followed by slavery, minion, and operating system (OS). Rounding out the Top Ten were melancholia, secret identity, Lone Star, ‘sense of place’, and recurrence. Each year, GLM announces the words after the Oscars at the conclusion of the awards season. The 86th Annual Academy Awards ceremony was held at the Dolby Theatre in Hollywood, CA, Sunday, March 2, 2014. Ellen Degeneres was the host for the second time.

“The word euphemistically described as the "f-word" is our Top Hollyword of the Year. The seemingly all-persuasive word can be found in all major Western Cinema, evidenced by the majority of this year’s Best Picture Nominees.” said Paul JJ Payack, president and chief word analyst for the Global Language Monitor. “Though the word was first introduced onto the screen in an apparent effort to shock the audience, the word is now used for various parts of speech with several dozen differing senses (or definitions). In literature, the word was identified in the mid-1600s peaking in the 1730s. The word then re-emerged in the 1960s and its use has increased exponentially ever since.”
...
The Top Hollywords of the 2013 season with commentary follow.

Rank / Word or Phrase / Commentary

The "F-Word" (Wolf of Wall Street, American Hustle, etc.) — Not an endorsement but can’t ignore the preponderance of the word in contemporary film-making. Historically it was first used extensively in the late 1600s and was revived in the early 1960s.

"Gravity" (Gravity) — Unarticulated protagonist of the film defined: Any two bodies in the universe attract each other with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Just sayin’.

"Slavery" (12 Years a Slave) — There are said to be more slaves in the 21st c. than anytime in history. Many conjecture what they would have done during the earlier periods of human trafficking. They have the same opportunity today for that time is now.

"Minion" (Despicable Me 2) — Literally, a servile follower or inferior. Not the aspiration of any B-School grad but much more humorous.

"Operating System" (Her) — Breaking new ground here; not an Operating System as a protagonist (that would be 2001: a Space Odyssey’s HAL), but, rather, the first OS as a romantic lead.

"Melancholia" (Blue Jasmine) — Kate Blanchett’s masterful rendition of what the Ancient’s considered a preponderance of ‘black bile’: melancholia.

"Secret Identity" (Hunger Games) — Plutarch Heavensbee’s secret identity was to the benefit of millions in the Hunger Games; in real life the secret identity of Philip Seymour Hoffman led to his untimely death.

"Lone Star" (Dallas Buyers Club) — Like Mr. McConaughey, all things Texas (to admire or disparage), the Lone Star State are hot.

"Sense of Place" (American Hustle, Nebraska, August (Osage County) — The world may be ‘flat’ but the sense of place appears to getting stronger in film.

"Recurrence" (About Time) — An equation that defines a sequence recursively; e.g., something occurring again and again, and so on. An old screen formula, applied gently and lovingly here. Previous Top Hollyword Winners include:

...


(E?)(L?) http://listserv.linguistlist.org/pipermail/ads-l/2012-September/122228.html

...
In 2006, Jon Lighter made an important discovery - a use of "fucked up" in an 1863 court-martial record: The use was confirmed by the OED and now is included as the first cite for sense 1 (with the meaning "ruined", "broken"; "of poor quality", "awful"; "messed-up"). According to JL, the next known use is from 1929.

Now comes word of another surprisingly early use of "fucked up", from an 1865 letter to Andrew Johnson. Greg Downs sends along this example appearing in "The Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 8", ed. by Paul Bergeron, p. 457:
...


(E?)(L?) http://listserv.linguistlist.org/pipermail/ads-l/2004-December/subject.html




(E?)(L?) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/an-f-word-in-the-news

An f-word in the news

This week’s English language in the news microblog post looks at the recent use of the word "feral" and how its true meaning has been distorted to describe rioters, the media, and the global economic market.

The Guardian considers: The "f-word" that’s suddenly everywhere – quite literally, the word in the news!


(E?)(L?) http://nowiknow.com/whats-so-french-about-the-f-word/

What’s So French About the F-Word?
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.oedilf.com/db/Lim.php?Word=F-word

Limericks on "F-word"


(E?)(L?) https://www.oedilf.com/db/Lim.php?Word=F-word%2C%20the

Limericks on "F-word, the"


(E?)(L?) https://www.phrases.org.uk/meanings/127800.html

The "f-word"

Eff off

Other phrases about: Euphemism

What's the meaning of the phrase "Eff off"?

Euphemistic version of "fuck off".

What's the origin of the phrase "Eff off"?

"Eff" is of course the proper spelling of the sixth letter of the alphabet and so, as well as being a euphemism, it is also an abbreviation of "fuck".

"Effing" has been known as a euphemism for "fucking" in the UK from the 1920s. Robert Graves used it in his autobiographical novel Good-bye to all that in 1929. Presumably, for it to be used in that context, it had existed as street slang for some years before 1929.

"Eff off", and "effing and blinding", were coined a little later. Early examples of them are found in print from the 1940s and, like "effing", were probably in circulation earlier.

The "f-word" is an American extension of the same euphemism and arose in the 1950s.


(E?)(L?) https://www.poynter.org/reporting-editing/2014/medias-new-darling-the-c-word/

Could the c-word soon be finding its way into news headlines?

July 30, 2014 Roy Peter Clark

If orange is the new black, then the "c-word" may be becoming the new "f-word"? It certainly seems that way. With the "f-word" drifting to more common usage, we need another word for its shock value.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.sex-lexis.com/F-Word-Dictionary/0

Words in the Dictionary of the "F" Word

3-Fs / Three Fs / THREE Fs | 4-K / 4K | 4-F(s) / Four F(s) / FOUR F(s) | 4-letter word / four-letter word | 4-Fer / 4-F-er | 4QU2 / 4Q2 | 4-Fs / Four Fs / FOUR F'S |

a.f.o. / A.F.O. | Afuckayu! | anal fuck(ing) / ass fuck(ing) | as all fuck | ass fuck(ing) / anal fuck(ing) | Aylesbury Duck | abso-fucking-lutely! | all-she-needs-is-a-good-fuck | Anglo-Saxon monosyllable | as fuck / like fuck / than fuck | ass-fuck / assfuck | ace fuck / ace fucking | Always fuck up, never (fuck) down | Arschficker | as slowly as old people fuck | ass-fucker | AFU | AMF | arse-fuck | ASAFP | asshole fucking |

bad-ass mf | Baron von Fuck | beast-fuck | BF | Big Fucking Deal / BFD | bom | buddy-fuck week | bug-fuck / bugfuck | bum-fuck / bumfuck | Bumble Fuck Egypt | Butt Fuck Egypt / BFE | badassmofo | base-fuck | begat | BFD / B.F.D. | Bigsix | bong fucked | BUF | bug-fucker / bugfucker | bum-fucker / bumfucker | bumholerous fuckerous | butt-fuck buddy | BAMF | beans and motherfurcker | belly-fuck(ing) | BFE / Butt Fuck Egypt | bleep | boring as fuck | BUFF | bullfuck | bum-fuckidus | bunny fuck | butt-fucking | bareback fucking | bearfuck | belly-fucker | BFI | BMD | buddy-fuck | bufu | Bum Fuck Egypt | bum-fucking | butt fuck / buttfuck |

CABFU | celebrity fucker / star fucker | Chuck you, Farley! | cluster-fuck party | college fuck | come-fuck-me eyes | courtesy fuck | cum-gargling fucker | Captain Fuckit / Cap'n Fuck-It | chain fuck | Cinderfuckingrella / Cinder-fucking-rella | Cogito, ergo est | Colonel Puck | come-fuck-me's | cranked on the fuck | cunt-fuck | Catch me fuck me | chicken fucker / chickenfucker | circle fuck | Coito, ergo sum | colonial puck | come-fuck-me-pumps | craphole fuck | cyberfuck | cattle truck | chinga su madre | cluster fuck / clusterfuck | coke fuck | Colorado Mother Fucker | COMMFU | crazy as fuck |

Damn it to fuck! | DILLIGAF | Donald Duck | drug-fucked | ducking the fog | DFL | dog-fuck | Donald Fuck | dry fuck | dumb fuck / dumbfuck | Dial 3-8-2-5 | Don't drink water, fish fuck in it | double fuck | duck fucker | dumb-fuckery | dildo fucking | Don't fuck with me / my / the / it... | drop an / the F-bomb | Duck McFuck | Dutch fuck |

east butt-fuck | Eff off! | eye-fuck | easy fuck | effing around | ebony fuck | egg for fuck | eff / effing | em-eff / m. f. |

F factor, the | F-all / f-all | F-off / f-off | F-you! | F.U.C.K. / FUCK | faggot fucker | fast fuck | feather plucker | ferk / firk | FFF | fico | Fighting for peace is like fucking for virginity | finger fuck(ing) | fish | fist-fuckee | FK | flicking | fluff off! | FNT | focative | Fondue a la Fuck | force-fuck | fotuere | four-letter word / 4-letter word | freaking | French-fried-fuck | frick / fricking | FTW | FUBB | fuck | Fuck 'em if they can't take a joke | fuck (someone's) mind (up) / fuck with his/her mind | fuck (with) someone's mind | fuck a Jesuit | fuck all else / fuck-else | fuck anything (fill in the blanks) | fuck anything that moves, I/he/she'll | Fuck art, let's dance | fuck book | fuck by the book / fuck legit | fuck eye, the | fuck film | Fuck for Peace Campaign | fuck hatch | fuck in the ass | fuck in the mouth | fuck it! | fuck like a champ | fuck like a stoat | fuck luck | fuck me 'til I scream | Fuck me gently! | Fuck me plenty! | fuck me with a lumber prick! | fuck Mrs. Palmer | Fuck my old boots! | fuck of the (fill in the blank) | fuck on the run | fuck out | fuck passage | fuck pole | fuck sandwich | fuck spider | Fuck that/this for a game of soldiers! | fuck the dog (and sell the pups) | fuck the parson | fuck tits | fuck up (someone's) pussy | fuck up the ass | fuck where the devil fears to tread | fuck without a raincoat | Fuck you, Charley! / Fuck you, Charlie! | fuck-a-doo-da-day / fuckadoodaday | fuck-a-licious / fuckalicious | fuck-arm | fuck-brained | fuck-face geek | fuck-focused eroticism | fuck-happy | fuck-hole / fuckhole | fuck-in-a-fog | fuck-me boots | fuck-me shoes | fuck-nutty | fuck-off money | fuck-plug | fuck-slut | fuck-talk | fuck-truck | fuck-your-buddy week | fuckabilly | Fuckadilla | fuckation | fuckball | fucked | fucked fore and aft | fucked over | fucked with no Vaseline | fucken / fuckin' / fuck'n | fuckery | Fucking A | fucking bone | fucking stick / fuck-stick / fuck stick | fucking tool | fucking-A-OK / fucking-A-right | Fuckingly yours | fuckle | fuckload | fucknut | Fuckory-duckory-dock! | fucks anything with a hole in it | fucks trucks | fuckster | fucktacular | fuckwithable | fucky | fuddle duddle | FUJIGMO | fukkit | full of fuck | FUQ | futter | Fuuuuuuuck! | F**K | F-him / F-her | F-plan | F.I.N.E. | face fucking | Fake cupcake deputy dog toy cop motherfucker | fat fuck | feck | fetish fuck | FFRD | fiddle-fuck (around) / fiddlefuck (around) | FIGJAM | finger scale | fist fucking the old piss pump | fist-fucker | FKS | flip and fuck | flying fuck | FOAD | FOFN | foot fucking | fork | FOUR F(s) / Four F(s) / 4-F(s) | foutre | free fuck pic(s) / free fuck picture(s) | freshman fuckbook | frig / frigging | FUB | FUBIO | Fuck 'em all bar/but six (and they can be the pallbearers) | Fuck 'n' Roll | fuck (someone) blue | fuck a bearskin | fuck a wet blanket | Fuck all y'all | fuck anything and everything, I/he/she'll | fuck anything with a crack | fuck ass / fuckass | fuck bunny | Fuck Congress! | fuck face / fuckface | fuck finder | fuck freak / fuckfreak | fuck her while she's still hot | fuck in the brown | fuck in the teeth | fuck job | fuck like a minx | fuck like bunnies | fuck machine | Fuck me and marry me young! | Fuck me hard! / Fuck me harder (and no lubricants) | Fuck me rigid! | Fuck me! | fuck muscle | fuck naked | fuck off | fuck one's brains out | fuck over | fuck pig / fuckpig | fuck princess | Fuck scatology | Fuck that for a comic song! (or a top hat!) | fuck the ass/arse off | fuck the duck | Fuck the past, kiss the future! | fuck to kill | fuck up / fuck-up | Fuck up, move up | fuck wise / fuck-wise | Fuck you and the horse you rode in on! | fuck your fist / fuck one's fist | Fuck-a-doodle-doo! / Fuckadoodledoo! | fuck-a-thon / fuckathon | fuck-beggar | fuck-buddy | fuck-fest / fuckfest | fuck-free | fuck-happy rabbit | fuck-house / fuckhouse | fuck-in-law | fuck-me eyes | fuck-meat | fuck-o / fuckoh / fucko | fuck-off slippers | fuck-pump | fuck-stick / fuckstick | fuck-thing | fuck-up quotient | fuck-yourism | fuckable | fuckard | Fuckaty-fuck! | Fuckburg | fucked by a German | fucked in the car | fucked to boredom | fucked without getting kissed | fucker | fuckfaced | fucking around | Fucking hell! | fucking the dog | fucking triangle | fucking-A-right / fucking-A-OK | fuckish | Fuckle-doodle-doo! | fuckmaster | fucko-punch | fuckoscope | fucks like a minx | fuckshitwankcunts | Fuckstones, The | fucktion | fuckwittage / fuckwittery | fucky-talky | fug / fugging | fuk / fukin | FUKKN | FUMTU | Fuque you! | futuere | fuzzy fuck | F**K word, the | F-ing | F-U2 | F.O. | faceless fuck | Fanfuckingtastic! / Fan-fucking-tastic | father-fucker / fatherfucker | fed up, fucked up and far from home | FF | FFS / ffs | fiddle-fuck / fiddlefuck | FIIK | firk / ferk | fist fucking the piss pump | fist-fucking | flak | flipping | FMH | FOC | foken / fokken | For fuck's sake! | Fork you! | FOUR FS / Four F's / 4-Fs | Fox Oscar! | free-fucking | Friar Fuck | FTA | FUBAB | FUBIS | Fuck 'em all! | fuck (someone's) ass out | fuck (someone) over | fuck a brisket | fuck a woodpile on the chance there's a snake in it, He'd | fuck and run guy | fuck anything in trousers, she'll | fuck around | fuck at the altar | fuck buttock(s) | fuck dry | fuck feast | fuck flaps | fuck fur | fuck hot and cold | fuck in the face | Fuck intercourse! | fuck legit / fuck by the book | fuck like a rabbit | fuck like crazed weasels | fuck Mary Fist (and her (four) sisters) | Fuck me and the baby's yours! | Fuck me if I'm wrong, but isn't your name Gretchen | Fuck me straight to the point | Fuck me! said the Duchess more in hope than in anger | fuck music | fuck nob / fucknob | Fuck off and die! | fuck one's fist / fuck the fist | fuck pad | fuck pix / fuck picture | fuck rag | fuck site(s) | Fuck that for a top hat! | fuck the bergruders | fuck the fist / fuck one's fist | fuck the rest | Fuck U / FUCK U / Fuck U-niversity / Fuck University | fuck up a two car funeral | FUCK UTU / FUCK U-2 / FUCK U2 | fuck with | Fuck you! | fuck, tickle balls and rim | Fuck-a-duck! / Fuck a duck! | Fuck-A-Vision / fuckavision | fuck-boy / fuckboy | fuck-crazy | fuck-finger | fuck-free and fancy-loose | fuck-head / fuckhead | fuck-hungry | fuck-ism / fuckism | fuck-me grin | fuck-monster | fuck-o-meter | fuck-off-ing | fuck-rod | fuck-stress | fuck-toy / fucktoy | fuck-wit / fuckwit | fucka | fuckaby | fuckaround | fuckaus | fuckchop | fucked by the fickle finger of fate | fucked off | fucked up | fuckee | fucker soldiers | fuckinest dame | fucking around (on) | fucking lotion | fucking the pink | fucking without complications | Fuckingham Palace | fuckjoy | Fuckleberry Finn | fuckmeister | fuckoid | fucks anything in trousers | fucks like a rattlesnake | fuckslot | fuckstrated | fuckwad | fuckwitted | fucla | fugle | Fuking / Fukin | fukuoku | funch | furry finger fuck | futz | fvk / FVK | F-A-B | F-ing around | F-word | F.U. / FU | fact | fank you | FEAR | fence fucker | FFA | fickey fick | fifteen fucker | Findum Fuckum & Flee | firkin(g) | fist-fuck | fisting / fist-fucking | flat fuck | fluff | FNG(s) | focal | follow me and fuck-me shoes | For the fuck of it! | fottere | four-letter euphoria | frap | French fuck | Friar Tuck | FTL | FUBAR | fuccant | Fuck 'em and leave 'em | fuck (someone's) brains out | fuck (someone) rotten | fuck a day keeps the doctor away, a | fuck about | fuck and suck flick | fuck anything on two legs, I/he/she'll | fuck arse | fuck away | fuck by e-mail / fuck via e-mail | fuck ebony | fuck fetish | fuck for gravy | fuck handles | fuck in absentia | fuck in the head | Fuck it all! | fuck like a bunny | fuck like a rattlesnake | fuck like minxs | fuck Mary Palm (and her (four) sisters) | Fuck me gently with a chainsaw! | Fuck me pink! | fuck me to tears | fuck movie | Fuck my (bad) luck! | fuck of a... | fuck on a dime | fuck oneself | fuck palmala / fuck palmela | fuck pixs / fuck pixes / fuck pics / fuck pictures | fuck rubber / fucking rubber | fuck something up | fuck that noise | fuck the deck | fuck the lady of the house | Fuck The World | fuck udders | fuck up and down | fuck via e-mail / fuck by e-mail | fuck with a raincoat | fuck you, (Jack,) I'm all right | fuck-a-buck | fuck-a-holic / fuckaholic | fuck-all | fuck-brain / fuckbrain | fuck-else / fuck all else | fuck-fist | Fuck-fuckety-fuck-fuck-fuck | fuck-headed / fuckheaded | fuck-in | fuck-log | fuck-me pumps | fuck-nuts | fuck-o-rama | fuck-offs | fuck-shit | fuck-struck | fuck-toys / fucktoys | fuck-you money | fuckability | fuckadelic | fuckasm | fuckbag | fuckdust | fucked duck | fucked out | fucked up and far from home | Fuckemos | fuckerware party | fucking | fucking asshole | fucking rubber / fuck rubber | fucking the thighs | fucking, mumbling, stuttering little fuck | fuckingly | fuckknuckle | Fucklesticks! | fucknik | fuckology | fucks anything on two legs | fucks on rubber sheets | fucksome | fuckstress | fuckwank | fuckwittery / fuckwittage | fucus | fugly | fukka | fulke | Funfuckingtastic! | futhermucker | futzing around | FYFI |

gang-fuck | get fucked | GFU | GMFU | goatfuck / goat fuck | guaranfuckingtee | gender fuck / genderfuck | Get the fuck outa here | gin-and-fuck-it | Go fuck a duck | goose and duck | gut-fucker | GENERATION FUCK YOU | GFF | Give me a fucking break! | Go fuck yourself! / Go get fucked! | GPU | guy-fucking | George Carlin's Seven Dirty Words | GFO | give-a-fuck | Go to fuck! | green motherfucker |

hand fuck | Hawaiian muscle fuck | hit and run fuck | honey fuck / honeyfuck | handfucking | head fuck / headfuck | hit and run fuck, bing bang, thank you, ma'am (kind of guy) | horse-fuck | hard as fuck | headfucker | Holy fuck! | horse-fucking | hardcore fucking | HFH | Holy fuckup! | hotter than a fresh-fucked fox in a forest fire |

I (just) don't give a fuck | I fuck your sunshine | IFO | infucktion | I couldn't give two fucks | I'm too fucking busy, and vice versa | IMFU | International fuck-your-buddy week | I don't give a flying fuck | If that don't fuck all! | incestuous sideways fuck | Is it fuck! | I don't give a French-fried fuck | If you see Kay | Infamous Seven Words |

JAFU | jug fuck | JANFU | JULF | Jesus Herald Christ on a fucking rubber crutch! | jumble fuck | Joe Buck |

Kenifa Kerr | Kung Fuck Master | Kenny Fakur | kick the fuck out of (someone) | Kinnell! |

lame duck | like old people fuck | leg fuck | little fucker | Let me check the zip code: 212 fuck you | little monkey fucker | like fuck / as fuck |

m.f. / M.F. / Mf / em eff | mammy-humping / -er | marathon fuck | mofo / mofuck | motherfrigger | Mr. Fuck 'em and Forget 'em | muh fuh / mah fah | mah fah / mofo / mofuck / muh fuh | mammy-jabbing / -er | mcfuck | monkey fuck | motherfucker | Mrs. Duckett | muscle fuck | Make love and war: fuck your enemy | mammy-jamming / -er | mercy fuck / pity fuck | most foul of the foul words, the | motherplugger | mudda phuqin / mutha fukin | mutha fucker / mutha fucka | mammy-dodging / -er | mammy-jumping / -er | mind fuck | mothereffer | mouth fuck(ing) | muddy fuck / shitty fuck | mutha fukin / mudda phuqin |

naff / NAFF | No fucking way! | NFG | ot give a (flying) fuck | NFI | not-to-be-fucked-with | NFW |

O.F.D.s | old fuck | one minute fuck | Only the best, fuck the rest |

perfuck | Phu Q / Phu-Q | Phukett | phuque U / phuque kew | pity fuck / mercy fuck | prestige fuck / status fuck | pfc | phuc | phuque / PhuQue | pick 'em up, fuck 'em sillly | play fiddly-fuck | punch fucking | pheasant plucker | phucque / phucque 2 / PhuhKue | Phuque ewe | pig-fucker | portable fuck machine | push in the truck | PHKR | phuk / phuking | Phuque Hugh Tu / phuque UTU / phuque U2 | pillow fucker | pothead fuckbrain | pussy-fucker |

quick fuck |

R.A.F. | roasted duck | Russian duck | rat fuck | royal fucking, a | REMF | RTFM | RFF | rubber duck |

SAPFU | Seven Deadly Words | shit-fuck | skull-fuck | spit-fuck | STFB | suckum fuckum movie | sweet fuck-all / sweet F.A. | Scare the living fuck out of (someone) | Seven Dirty Words, The | shit-fucker | smeg | sport fuck(ing) | STFU | sucky-fucky | Sweet fucking Jesus! | science-fucktion | Seven No-No's | shitty fuck / muddy fuck | SNAFU | star-fucker | suck & fuck movie | SUSFU | Seduce my ancient footwear! | she's been fucked more times than she's had hot dinners | sick fuck | SNEFU | status fuck / prestige fuck | suck, fuck, tickle balls and rim | sweet F.A. / sweet fuck-all |

TAFUBAR | TFTF | The Capital F | This is pretty fucked up right here! | throws a mean fuck | tit-fucker | tom fuck | trolley and truck | Take a flying fuck (at/through a rolling doughnut/donut) | The Big F | The Crucifucks | THREE Fs / Three Fs / 3-Fs | throws a wicked fuck | titty fuck / tit fuck / tit fucking | tom fucker | tummy-fuck | talk fuck | The Big Space Fuck | The fuck off! | three-finger fuck around | tit fuck / titty fuck / tit fucking | TMF | tongue-fuck | TVF / Tit Valley Fuck | TARFU | the bird / the birdie | They FUCK YOU at the drive-thru | throw a fuck into | Tit Valley Fuck / TVF | TMFA | tranny fucker |

uck-fay | unfuck | UFO | unfuckable | ugly verb, the | up fucking | undefuckable |

V sign, the | vitamin F |

walk-up fuck | Well rob me up and fuck me over! | What the fuck! | Who the fuck cares!? | WTFRU | Wanna fuck? | Well, fuck my ozone! | what-in-the-fuck look | WOFTAM | wannafuck(s) | WFW | Who do I have to fuck to (fill in the blank)? | wonderfuck | wartime hero, peacetime fuck-up | What the fuck is fuck all about? | Who gives a (flying) fuck! | WTF / wtf |

Yuck Foo |

zinzanbruck | zipless fuck |


(E?)(L?) https://poseidon01.ssrn.com/delivery.php?ID=624013110082092078010025030099095011052056061029027087091073078125103067125122068074053002099029105061121066079031070077074043027037089055068079080026124099007087044126118099069007073012102027124097065127067107079102097112097091072030113000095&EXT=pdf

"Fuck"

Christopher M. Fairman

Public Law and Legal Theory Working Paper Series No. 59

Center for Interdisciplinary Law and Policy Studies Working Paper Series No. 39

March 2006

TABLE OF CONTENTS ...
II. FUCK HISTORY

A. Etymology

Dr. Leo Stone’s 1954 lamentation that “scholarly information about this important word is remarkable for its scarcity” remains true today. The first recorded use is disputed. Some sources point to the poem “Flen flyys” — a Latin and English mix satirizing the Carmelite friars of Cambridge composed before 1500. Others claim the first known use of "fuck" is in a Scottish poem by William Dunbar, “Ane Brash of Wowing,” in 1503. However, it took nearly another century for "fuck" to make its lexicographic debut in John Florio’s 1598 Italian-English dictionary. Not surprisingly, the etymology of "fuck" is unclear.

Some etymologists trace "fuck" to Germanic languages with an original meaning of “to knock” and cognates such as Old Dutch "ficken", Middle High German "vicken", and German "ficken". This widely accepted derivation, however, has its critics.

Another possible etymology is through the French "foutre" and Latin "futuere", but there are similar doubts and an absence of lineage for this derivation as well.

Possibly there is a hybrid derivation where "foutre" participated with "ficken" to produce "fuck".

Still other etymologies suggest a Celtic derivation.

Of particular interest to the lawyer-lexicographer is the suggestion of an Egyptian root "petcha" ("to copulate"). During the last Egyptian dynasties, legal documents were sealed with the phrase, “As for him who shall disregard it, may he be fucked by a donkey.” The hieroglyphic for the phrase — two large erect penises — makes the message clear.

Understanding the etymology of "fuck" is hampered because the word did not appear in any widely-read English dictionary from 1795 to 1965. The exclusion of "fuck" from the leading dictionaries illustrates a deliberate attempt to cleanse the language of this word. There is no consensus if "fuck" was ever acceptable or precisely when it became considered offensive. However, by the late 17th century a deliberate purge emerges that becomes well entrenched by the 18th century. By the late 18th century most dictionaries were being produced for use in schools; "fuck" was excluded over concerns of corrupting young minds. Not surprisingly, when the first American dictionary was published by Samuel Johnson, Jr. in 1798, it omitted "fuck" in order to inspire modesty, delicacy, and chastity of language. Noah Webster’s crusade against vulgar words sealed fuck’s fate in America: exclusion from his dictionaries of 1806, 1807, 1817, 1828, and 1841.

This Websterian tradition was carried back across the Atlantic when in 1898 the authoritative Oxford English Dictionary deliberately excluded "fuck". Indeed, its first appearance in the OED was not until 1972 where it gives the guarded “ulterior etymology unknown”.

Whatever its origins, fuck’s longevity in English is surprising given the condemnation and concerted efforts to stamp out its use that continued throughout the 20th century. It’s hard for me to believe that "fuck" was barely tolerable in print until the 1960s. The saga to preserve access to D.H. Lawrence’s classic, Lady Chatterley’s Lover, which unfolds on three continents, illustrates this point. The print media continues to agonize over the appropriate use of the word today. Similarly, most English-speaking countries still censor it on radio and television. Fuck’s continued vitality is even more amazing when compared to the fate of its 16th century synonyms: "jape" and "sarde" are virtually unknown; Chaucer’s "swive" is archaic; and "occupy" returns to English with a nonsexual meaning.

Why then is "fuck" so resilient?

B. Modern Usage
...


(E?)(L?) https://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/2011/sep/06/use-of-feral-suddenly-everywhere?INTCMP=SRCH

The "f-word" that's suddenly everywhere

It's been used to describe rioters, the media and the global financial sector. But what does "feral" actually mean?
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(E?)(L?) https://the-toast.net/2014/12/09/linguist-explains-syntax-f-word/

By Gretchen McCulloch on December 9, 2014 in A Linguist Explains

A Linguist Explains the Syntax of “Fuck”

By Gretchen McCulloch on December 9, 2014 in A Linguist Explains

Gretchen McCulloch’s previous work for The Toast can be found here.

Sometimes people tell me, as a linguist, that they’re surprised I swear so much. They think linguists must have a mystic access to the higher realms of the language and that we oughtn’t to sully ourselves with anything as profane as swearing.

But what makes swearing so profane is social factors, not linguistic ones, because linguistically, swear words are fucking fascinating. In fact, it’s a professional advantage for me to be fluent at swearing, because I have better access to my linguistic intuitions about them, which makes them easier to study.

I swear, I curse for entirely academic reasons. At least, this is what I tell my father. I’m not sure if he believes me.

I’m going to concentrate on "fuck", because it’s the most interesting, and also because there’s been enough research on it to more than fill an article. I could tell you origin stories about medieval monk cyphers and outlandish acronyms, and some of them (the monks) might even be true, but there are already several nice explanations of this side of the topic, so I’ll just point you here as a good start, and get on with the hardcore linguistics instead.

The seminal linguistics article about "fuck" is called “English sentences without overt grammatical subject” and was written by the suspiciously-named Quang Phuc Dong in the 1960s (we’ll come back to that). The article asks us, is "fuck" really a verb? That is, the command “close the door” is a classic transitive verb followed by its object, but is “fuck you” the same?
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(E?)(L?) https://theweek.com/articles/443481/dont-buy-into-nonsensical-etymologies-fword

Don't buy into nonsensical etymologies of the F-word

James Harbeck
...
The "F-word". "For Unlawful Carnal Knowledge" or "Fornication Under Consent of King"? No. It's from an old Germanic root. Early English spellings of it were different from the modern spelling anyway (two k's or two c's, for instance).
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(E?)(L?) https://solongasitswords.wordpress.com/2014/02/12/on-the-origin-of-fuck/

On the Origin of Fuck
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Instances of "fuck" before the fifteenth century are rare. Despite it commonly being classed as one of the Anglo-Saxon four-letter words, Jesse Sheidlower (author of an entire book on "fuck", and past editor of the OED so he knows what he’s talking about) suspects that it came into English in the fifteenth century from something like Low German, Frisian or Dutch. While "fuck" existed in English before then it was never used to mean "rogering", instead it typically meant "to strike" (which was, way-back-when, related to the word that became "fuck" because it’s a kind of hitting…). Anything that appears earlier is most likely to be the use of "fuck" to mean "to strike". If you wanted to talk about making whoopee in a dirty way, the Middle English word to use was "swive". [ETA: @earlymodernjohn asked if it’s related to Modern English "swivel" as in "go swivel" and it is! The more you know…]

Another theory for why there’s hardly any written record of "fuck" before the fifteenth century is because, if it was around before then, it was just too darn rude to write down. The coded example might have been an early way around actually writing it.

Another theory for its late arrival is that it’s a borrowing from Norse (the Vikings) via Scottish because several early instances are found in Scottish writing (such as the fifteenth-century one discounted in that other article). However, this is generally believed to be unlikely, in part because the Scottish weren’t considered influential enough for English to borrow words from them. Perhaps there were more early written examples in Scottish simply because they were less prudish about writing it.
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(E?)(L?) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_F-Word_(book)

"The F-Word" is a book by lexicographer and linguist Jesse Sheidlower surveying the history and usage of the English word "fuck" and a wide variety of euphemisms that replace it. Sheidlower examines 16th and 17th century poetry, 20th century literature, and 21st century media uses of the word.

The book was first published in 1995 by Random House, which also published the second edition in 1999. Oxford University Press published a revised and expanded third edition in 2009, featuring a foreword by comedian Lewis Black.


(E?)(L?) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1p6qZC084ew

Jesse Sheidlower Talks About The F Word


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=F-word
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "F-word" taucht in der Literatur nicht signifikant auf.

Erstellt: 2020-01

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Issue (W3)

Das engl. "issue" wurde im Jahr 2002 als Euphemismus für engl. "problem", "fault", eingestuft. Es war die Zeit, in denen in Firmen Probleme für nicht-existent erklärt wurden. Ich kenne die deutsche Variante. "... es gibt keine Probleme, es gibt nur Aufgaben ...".

Um 1155 findet man ein altfrz. "eissue" = dt. "Stelle an der man einen Ort verlassen kann". Im Jahr 1165 findet man es in der Bedeutung dt. "Aktion zum Verlassen eines Ortes". 1244 dt. "Ende", "Abschluß einer Sache", 1534 dt. "Ergebnis eines Unternehmens", 1560 frz. "faire issue" = dt. "verlassen eine nachteiligen position", 1671 dt. "Mittel um eine peinliche Situation zu verlassen", 1393 dt. "letzter Gang einer Mahlzeit", 1332 dt. "Eingeweide eines Tieres", 1751 frz. "issues du blé" = dt. "Rest beim Mahlen von Getreide".

Frz. "Issue" ist dabei das Part. passé fém. subst. von altfrz. "issir".

Um das Jahr 1300 findet man engl. "issue" mit der Bedeutung "Ausgang", übernommen vom altfrz. "issue" = dt. "Ausgang", "letztes Ereignis". 1520 findet man engl. issue" als dt. "Entnahme von Blut aus einem Körper", Ende 14. Jh. dt. "Nachkomme", "Kinder", "Ergebnis einer Aktion", "Auswirkung", "Folge", "Ergebnis", 1833 dt. "Veröffentlichung".

Als juristische Bezeichnung für engl. "end or result of pleadings in a suit", daher auch engl. "the controversy over facts in a trial" findet man engl. "issue" seit dem frühen 14. Jh., im frühen 15. Jh. als dt. "Streitpunkt zwischen zwei Parteien" 1836 dt. "wichtiger zu entscheidender Punkt", 1797 engl. "take issue with" = dt. "eine zustimmende oder ablehnende Position in einer Auseinandersetzung einnehmen". Im Jahr 1990 findet man schließlich engl. "to have issues" in der Bedeutung dt. "ungelöste Interessenkonflikte haben".

Das altfrz. "issir" geht weiterhin zurück auf lat. "exire" = dt. "hinausgehen", "öffentlich werden", "Abfluß", "sich ergießen aus", das sich zusammensetzt aus lat. "ex-" = dt. "aus" und lat. "ire" = dt. "gehen".

Als Wurzel wird ide. "*ei-" = dt. "gehen" postuliert.

Zur Verwandtschaft zählen ital. "uscire", katal. "exir" und natürlich eng. "exit".

Sucht man im Wörterbuch findet man, in unterschiedlichem Kontext, mindestens folgende Bedeutungen:

engl. "issue" = dt. und als Verb frz. "issue" = dt. und als Verb

Und es gibt viele feststehende Kollokationen mit engl. / frz. "issue".

(E?)(L?) https://www.cnrtl.fr/etymologie/issue

ISSIR, verbe intrans.

Étymol. et Hist. 1remoitié xes. (Fragm. de Valenciennes, éd. G. de Poerck, 136 : Si escit foers de la civitate); 1120-50 (Grant mal fist Adam, I, 28 ds T.-L. : Sui jo dunc eissuz D'icel parenté); ca 1200 fig. issir de (qqc.) « sortir, se tirer de, en finir avec quelque chose » (Aiol, 3219, ibid.); Rich. 1680 note ,,Ce mot... est hors d'usage à son inf. et n'est usité qu'à son préterit : je suis issu... je tire mon orig.``. Du lat. class. "exire" « sortir (d'un lieu) »; fig. « provenir, tirer son origine de; aboutir à; être écoulé (du temps) ».

ISSU, -UE, part. passé et adj.

ISSUE, subst. fém.

Étymol. et Hist. A. 1. 1155 "eissue" « endroit par où on peut sortir d'un lieu » (Wace, Brut, éd. Arnold, 408); 2. a) ca 1165 « action de sortir d'un lieu » (Benoît de Ste-Maure, Troie, 7160 ds T.-L.); b) 1244 dr. féod. (Cart. S. Vinc. de Metz, Richel. lat. 10023, fol. 91 rods Gdf.). B. 1. a) 3eme etiers xiies. « fin, conclusion d'une chose » (Chrétien de Troyes, Chans. I, 41 ds Perceval, éd. A. Hilka, p. 801); b) 1534 « résultat d'une entreprise » (Rabelais, Gargantua, XLV, éd. R. Calder et M.A. Screech, p. 265); c) av. 1560 faire issue « sortir d'un état, d'une situation préjudiciable » (Du Bellay, Sonnets divers, 3, éd. Chamard, II, 257 ds Hug.); 1671 « moyen de sortir d'une situation embarrassante » (Pomey); 2. ca 1393 « dernier service d'un repas » (Ménagier, II, 92 ds T.-L.). C. 1. xiiies. [date des mss] « viscères (ici, d'un combattant frappé d'un coup d'épée) » (Couronnement de Louis, éd. Y. G. Lepage, A 936; cf. var.); 1332 plur. « viscères, entrailles des animaux » (Jean Acart de Hesdin, Prise amoureuse, éd. E. Hoepffner, 1773); 2. 1751 issues du blé « ce qui reste de la mouture après la farine » (Encyclop. t. 1, p. 384 b, s.v. amydon). Part. passé fém. subst. de "issir*".


(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/issue

issue (n.)

c. 1300, "an exit", from Old French "issue" "a way out", "a going out", "exit"; "final event", from fem. past participle of "issir" "to go out", from Latin "exire" "go out", "go forth"; "become public"; "flow", "gush", "pour forth" (source also of Italian "uscire", Catalan "exir"), from "ex-" "out" (see "ex-") + "ire" "to go", from PIE root "*ei-" "to go".

Meaning "discharge of blood or other fluid from the body" is from 1520s; sense of "offspring", "children" is from late 14c. Meaning "outcome of an action", "consequence", "result" is attested from late 14c., probably from this sense in French. Meaning "action of sending into publication or circulation" is from 1833.

Legal sense developed from the notion of "end or result of pleadings in a suit (by presentation of the point to be determined by trial)", hence "the controversy over facts in a trial" (early 14c., Anglo-French) and transferred sense "point of contention between two parties" (early 15c.) and the general sense "an important point to be decided" (1836). Hence also the verbal phrase "take issue with" (1797, earlier "join issue", 1690s) "take up an affirmative or negative position in a dispute with another". "To have issues" "have unresolved conflicts" is by 1990.

Related Entries


(E?)(L1) https://www.yourdictionary.com/about/topten2002.html

Top Ten Words of 2002
... 9. "Issue": A great new euphemism for "problem", "fault" or any other type of misstep; we no longer repair the fault, we simply "resolve" the issue.
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(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=Issue
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "Issue" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1570 auf.

Erstellt: 2020-01

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macmillandictionaryblog
Euphemisms used when describing and discussing used cars

(E?)(L?) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/guide-to-buying-an-old-banger

Guide to buying an ‘old banger’

I recently bought a used car from auction and I have become enamoured of the specific vocabulary and euphemisms used when describing and discussing used cars. Buyers who are not au fait with this arcane language should beware, however, and I feel it my duty to publish this very necessary ‘guide’.

Type / condition of car:

My recently purchased car is about 10 years old and with no service history – as such it can be termed a dodgy motor, or at the very least an old banger. One hopes though, that at least it is not a ringer, a car that has been stolen and has been disguised as a legitimate vehicle; or even worse a cut and shut, a car that has been in a head-on collision and has had its undamaged rear-end welded to a different, undamaged front-end of the same model.

Make of car:

There are many makes and models of car and some of these have acquired their own soubriquets: Pug for a Peugeot; Beamer for a BMW and not forgetting the Dagenham Dustbin, a derogatory term for all Ford cars made in that area of London in the 1970s and 80s. I should say in Ford’s defence that they made some iconic cars during that period, not least the classic Ford Cosworth, workhorse of every self-respecting British police force and lovingly nicknamed the Cozzie.

Car parts:

Cars are, of course, complex machines and thus, second-hand buyers should be aware of the existing language for the various parts of a car. Here are a few of my favourites:
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Erstellt: 2020-01

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phrases.org.uk
What are euphemisms?

(E?)(L?) https://www.phrases.org.uk/meanings/euphemisms.html

...
Here's a select list of common euphemisms...


Erstellt: 2020-01

Phrops (W3)

Engl. "Phrops" bezeichnet "Euphemismen", die genau das Gegenteil in eine beschönigende Hülle kleiden. ("Im Moment habe ich wenig Zeit, aber wir müssen unbedingt mal zusammen Essen gehen.") "Phrops" setzt sich zusammen aus engl. "phrase" und engl. "opposite".

(E1)(L1) http://ngrams.googlelabs.com/graph?corpus=0&content=Phrops
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "Phrops" taucht in der Literatur nicht signifikant auf.

Erstellt: 2020-01

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shetter - No. 162
Language has its Powers
There are some words we often avoid saying

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/euphemisms.htm

When someone has passed away, the grief therapist receives the client and prepares that loved one, makes arrangements, and soon the dearly departed is interred. Or in a more jaunty mood you might say that someone bought the farm and is soon pushing up daisies.

All this might sound a little circumspect or evasive, when we really mean that when someone has died, the funeral director receives the corpse and sees to it that the dead body is soon buried.

All of us routinely avoid speaking words that have to do with death, but in many other areas we also seem to be reluctant to say something that is too "strong".
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Shit (W3)

Man vermutet, dass das heutige Unwort engl. "shit" und auch das entsprechende dt. "Scheiße" anfangs als "Euphemismus" entstanden, um "Fäkalien", "Kot" zu bezeichnen. Die postulierte Wurzel ide. "*skey", "*skeyd" hatte die Bedeutung dt. "schneiden", "trennen", "scheiden". Bis zum 16. Jh. wurde anscheinend engl. "shit" noch als neutral empfunden. Und wenn ein Arzt von dt. "Ausscheidung" spricht, hört sich das auch nicht allzu schlimm an. Aber nichts anderes bedeutete wohl engl. "shit" zu Anfang.

Und den vornehmen Verwandten engl. "science" kann man wörtlich als dt. "Unterscheidungsvermögen" auffassen.

Schließlich nahmen engl. "shit" und dt. "Scheiße" einen üblen Geruch an und mußten durch neue Euphemismen ersetzt werden.

(E?)(L?) http://www.arrantpedantry.com/2019/01/24/science-and-shit/

Science and Shit
...
The root [ide.] "*skey" meant "to cut", "split", "separate". The extended form "*skeyd" became "scit" in Old English. The "sc" sequence was originally pronounced /sk/ in Old English and other Germanic languages, but it eventually became pronounced /sh/ (the "sh" sound) in Old English. The "sh" spelling came later under the influence of French scribes. But despite those minor spelling changes, the word has remained virtually unchanged in over a thousand years. You could travel back to Anglo-Saxon times, and they would understand you if you said "shit".

So how did a root meaning "to cut", "split", "separate" come to mean "feces"? From the notion of separating it from your body. The same metaphor is found in the Latin "excrementum", which employs the unrelated root meaning "to sift", "separate".

This means that "shit" probably started out as a "euphemism". Speakers of Proto-Indo-European or Proto-Germanic may have talked about needing to go separate something rather than use a more unsavory term. In English, "shit" was fairly neutral for a long while and apparently didn’t become taboo until around 1600, at which point it mostly disappeared from print. It isn’t found in Shakespeare’s plays or in the King James Bible.

"Euphemisms" often become sullied by the connotations of the thing they’re euphemizing, which leads to the need for new "euphemisms", a process sometimes called the "euphemism" treadmill. So even if "shit" started life as a polite way to talk about defecation, it eventually became a rather crude one.
...
In Latin, the PIE root "*skey" gave rise to the verb "scire" = "to know", "to understand". It probably developed from "separate" to "distinguish" or "discern" (that is, "tell things apart") and then to the more general sense of "know".

A noun form of the present participle of "scire", "scientia", originally meant the state of knowing — that is, "knowledge". "Scientia" became "science" in French, which was then borrowed into English. In English it came to mean not just "knowledge" but the "body of knowledge" or the "process of gaining new knowledge" through the scientific method.

The Latin "scire" gives us a whole bunch of other words too, including "conscience" (from "conscire" "to know well", "to be aware", "to have on one’s conscience"), "conscious" (also from "conscire"), "prescient" ("knowing beforehand"), and "nescient" ("not knowing", "ignorant").

A related form, "nescius" is also, surprisingly, the origin of "nice", which is a great example of just how much meanings can change over time. Though it originally meant "ignorant", it shifted through "foolish" to "lascivious", "wanton" to "showy", "ostentatious" to "refined" and then "well mannered" or "kind". The Oxford English Dictionary records many more obsolete senses. A different descendent of "*skey" yielded the Latin "scandula", which later became "scindula" and was then borrowed into English, where it became "shincle" and then "shingle" (from the notion of splitting off a thin piece of wood).

In Ancient Greek, the root "*skey" yielded "schism" (meaning a division between people, often in a religious organization) and "shizo-", as in "schizophrenia" (literally "a splitting of the mind").

Back in English, "*skey" also yielded "shed" (meaning "to cast off", as in "shedding skin", but not the "shed" meaning a storage building).

It probably also gave us "sheath" (from the notion of a split piece of wood in which a sword is inserted).

The Online Etymology Dictionary says it also gives us "shin" (from the sense of "thin piece", though that’s a little opaque to me).

And it’s the source of the word "share", from the notion of dividing what you have with someone else.

It also gives us "shiver" (in the sense of a small chip or fragment of wood), which still appears as a dialectal word for "splinter".

In Old Norse, "*skey" yielded "skið" also meaning "piece of wood", which eventually gave us the word "ski".

And "*skey" appears to be a variant of another root, "*sek", meaning "to cut", which gives us a whole host of other words like "section" and "segment" and "saw", but I should probably cut this post off somewhere and save some things for another day.
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(E?)(L?) https://www.dictionary.com/e/s/bleep-curse-word-come/#sh

"Sh*&"

The word "sh*&" has been around since the early 1500s, and it is used mainly to describe an "obnoxious person". The word stems from the Middle Dutch "schiten" and the Middle English "shiten" (meaning "to defecate").

In the early 1920s, people began to use this curse word when describing something they don't care about (not giving a "sh*&"). Then, in the 60s, it was used to refer to someone who was drunk or "sh*&faced". And, these days people use it to describe countries and locations they find unappealing ("sh*&hole", anyone?)


(E?)(L?) https://theweek.com/articles/443481/dont-buy-into-nonsensical-etymologies-fword

...
The "S-word". The "Ship High In Transit" story is funny and all, but it's just a joke, for heaven's sake. This is another Anglo-Saxon word, and a thousand years ago it was spelled "scitte" or "scitta". Poop decks nothwithstanding, large quantities of manure were never a thing to ship. They make it everywhere, you know.
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(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=Shit
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "Shit" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1700 auf.

Erstellt: 2020-01

stout (W3)

Das engl. "stout" = dt. "dick", "beleibt", "stämmig", "kräftig", ausdauernd", "zäh", "mannhaft", "beherzt", "tapfer", "heftig" (Angriff, Wind), "kräftig", "robust" (Material etc.), als Substantiv engl. "Stout" = dt. "dunkles Bier" ist verwandt mit dt. "stolz". Beide sind verwandt mit mhdt. "stolz", mndt. "stolt" = dt. "stattlich", "prächtig", "hochgemut", spätahdt. "stolz" = dt. "hochmütig", ndl. "stout" = dt. "verwegen", "kühn", "hochmütig", ursprünglich jedoch "steif aufgerichtet". Damit gehört es zur Verwandtschaft von dt. "Stelze" und mndl. "stulten" = dt. "steif werden", "gerinnen", schwed. "stulta" = dt. "tappen", "trollen" = dt. "steif gehen".

Als "Euphemismus" steht engl. "stout" auch für dt. "sehr beleibt".

(E?)(L?) https://derstandard.at/2000051815270/Stolze-Leistung

Stolze Leistung

Blog, Sonja Winkler, 31. Jänner 2017

"Stolz" beschreibt nicht nur die Haltung einer Person, sondern hauptsächlich, wie sie sich bewegt, nämlich "steif". Auf den Wortspuren von "stolz" und "stelzen"

Stolz ist facettenreich. Am "arroganten" Ende der Bedeutungsskala reckt er seinen Kopf in die Höhe und strotzt vor Selbstüberschätzung und Überheblichkeit. Wehe, wenn er gekränkt wird! Aus verletztem "Stolz" geschehen Morde. "Stolz" führt die sieben Hauptsünden (1) an, hieß vormals "Hoffart" und übersetzte lateinisch "superbia". Er ist eitel und ein wenig borniert, wie uns ein altes Sprichwort versichert:

Dummheit und Stolz wachsen auf einem Holz.

Der gesunde Stolz hingegen ist ein Verbündeter der Freude. Er stellt sich ein, wenn uns etwas gelungen ist, wenn wir etwas geleistet haben.

Sprachgeschichtlich jedenfalls kommt der "Stolz" etwas bewegungseingeschränkt mit einem Holzbein daher. Oder auf "Stelzen". Und trinkt in England mit Vorliebe obergäriges Starkbier. Das auf die germanische Sprachfamilie beschränkte Adjektiv "stolz" (mittelhochdeutsch "stolz" = "töricht", "übermütig", "stattlich", "hochgemut", mittelniederdeutsch "stolt" = "ritterlich" und "standesbewusst", "hochmütig") leitet sich von germanisch "*stult-" ab und findet sich heute noch stolz und selbstbewusst im Schwedischen, Norwegischen und Dänischen als "stolt".

Die Ausgangsbedeutung liegt in der Vollstufe germanisch "*stelt-" = "steif aufgerichtet" verborgen, daher Vorsicht! Über diese Wurzel stolpert man leicht, wenn man auf "Stelzen" geht (mittelhochdeutsch "stelze" = "Stelze", "Holzbein", "Krücke"; auch: "der schmal auslaufende Teil eines Ackers") oder so kurzbeinig und aufbrausend ist wie das Rumpelstilzchen im gleichnamigen Märchen der Gebrüder Grimm.

Dem ursprünglichen Wortsinn nach beschreibt also "stolz" nicht nur die Haltung einer Person, sondern hauptsächlich, wie sie sich bewegt, nämlich steif. Erhobenen Hauptes hält sie sich aufrecht und stelzt etwas unbeweglich daher. Schwedisch "stulta" = "watscheln" drückt eine andere, aber auch unbeholfen wirkende Gangart aus. Models watscheln jedenfalls nicht, sondern "stolzieren" (spätmittelhochdeutsch mit Fremdsuffix "-ieren" gebildet) mit Selbstbewusstsein, langen Beinen und Stöckelschuhen über den Laufsteg und präsentieren den letzten Modeschrei.

Das "Stelzengehen" ("walking on stilts") war im 16. Jahrhundert ein beliebter Zeitvertreib für Kinder, was das Gemälde "Kinderspiele" von Pieter Brueghel dem Älteren belegt. Gaukler und Zirkusartisten, unter deren bunt schillernden Hosenröhren sich endlos lange Stelzenbeine verbergen, nicken uns aus schwindelnder Höhe zu. Grad einen halben Meter über dem Boden waren die Trittklötze der Stelzen, die der Großvater uns Enkelkindern machte. Abwechselnd sind wir auf ihnen gegangen und waren stolz, wenn wir eine Strecke, ohne absteigen zu müssen, bewältigt hatten.

Auch Häuser können auf Stelzen stehen. "Stilt houses" sind "Pfahlbauten". Formal and stilted English ist förmlich und etwas gespreizt. Darf’s ein bisschen manieriert und gekünstelt sein? Jemand, der sich einer gestelzten Ausdrucksweise befleißigt, ist nicht gerade einer, der redet, wie ihm der Schnabel gewachsen ist.

Apropos Schnabel: "Bachstelzen" sind, sobald es Frühling wird, kaum zu überhören. Da bevölkern sie die Gewässer des Nationalparks Donau-Auen und zwitschern recht munter. Mit ihren Schnäbeln lesen sie vom Boden allerlei Kleingetier auf. Würmer, Käfer und Mücken sind wahre Leckerbissen für sie. Und wenn wir schon bei der Kulinarik sind, dann fällt vielen Wienern und Wienerinnen das traditionsreiche Schweizerhaus ein, denn dort soll’s angeblich die besten "Schweinsstelzen" geben. Aber auch von Kolariks Luftburg wird geschwärmt.

Gut gesättigt stelzen wir nun durch die Lande. Altniederdeutsch "stolt" (ohne zweite Lautverschiebung "t" zu "z") erscheint im modernen Niederländisch als "stout" und bezeichnet ein unartiges Kind, das elterliches Grenzen-Setzen geradezu herausfordert. Das Adjektiv stolzierte einst recht dreist ins romanisch sprechende Frankenland und erscheint altfranzösisch als "estout" = "keck", "stolz". Vom Altfranzösischen begibt sich das Wort um circa 1300 mit geschwellter Brust ins Mittelenglische ("stolz und wacker"), und diese Bedeutung finden wir konserviert in neuenglisch "stout-hearted" = "mutig".

In der Folge legt "stout" jedoch ziemlich an Gewicht zu, und heute bedeutet neuenglisch "stout" "untersetzt", "korpulent" und "stämmig" und hält auch als "Euphemismus" für "sehr beleibt" her.

A pint of stout, please! Ende des 17. Jahrhunderts ist "Stout" in der Bedeutung "dunkle Biersorte" belegt. "Stout" steht verkürzt für das "Stout Porter", ein schwarzbraunes Bier mit stark malzig-röstigem Geschmack und einem Alkoholgehalt zwischen drei und zehn Prozent.

Wenn Sie glauben, wir hätten auf den als obsolet geltenden "Hagestolz" vergessen, nein, haben wir nicht. Mit "Stolz" hat der kauzige Junggeselle allerdings nichts zu tun. Es handelt sich um eine volksetymologische Anlehnung an "stolz", weil das zugrundeliegende Verb, auf das sich der zweite Wortbestandteil zurückführen lässt, nicht mehr "verstanden" wurde. (2) Im 13. Jahrhundert ist neben mittelhochdeutsch "hagestalt" bereits "hagestolz" belegt. Die ursprüngliche Bedeutung erklärt sich wie folgt: Während der Erstgeborene den väterlichen Hof als Erbe bekam, fiel dem jüngeren Bruder, dem "Hagestolz", erbrechtlich "nur" ein "Hag" ("ein kleineres, umzäuntes Grundstück") zu, ein Umstand, der die Gründung eines eigenen Hausstandes sehr erschwerte. So entwickelte sich die Bedeutung "Junggeselle".

Auf eine stolze Anzahl von Ehefrauen, nämlich fünf, hat’s ein bekannter Operettenkomponist (1880-1975) gebracht, nach dem Motto: "Ob blond, ob braun, ich liebe alle Frau’n". Sie haben ihn sicher erraten: Robert Stolz!

Zum Schluss noch ein Literaturtipp: "Stolz und Vorurteil" (3), ein oft verfilmter Klassiker der englischen Literatur, erzählt, wie vor circa 200 Jahren in England junge Frauen unter die Haube gebracht wurden und welche Kriterien ein Junggeselle erfüllen musste, um in die engere Wahl zu kommen. Jane Austen, deren Todesjahr sich heuer zum zweihundertsten Male jährt, blieb übrigens zeitlebens unverheiratet. (Sonja Winkler, 31.1.2017)

Sonja Winkler ist aufgewachsen in der Dialektlandschaft Oberösterreichs, am Stadtrand von Linz. Lehramtsstudium in Wien. Mutterschaft. Lehrtätigkeit am Germanistischen und Anglistischen Institut der Uni Wien. Schuldienst. Pension. "Wörter haben mich schon von klein auf begeistert, wie sie sich verändern in ihrer Bedeutung und Lautgestalt, und diese Faszination hat bis heute angehalten."

(1) Der Benediktinerpater Anselm Grün bezeichnet die sieben Haupt- oder Todsünden als "Grundgefährdungen des Menschen", die weitere menschliche Verfehlungen beziehungsweise Schwächen (Sünden) sich ziehen:

(2) Es gibt ältere Belege, zum Beispiel althochdeutsch "hagustalt", altenglisch "hagusteald" = "(eheloser) Krieger", "Gefolgsmann", in denen die Ableitung vom starken Verb noch transparent ist. Gotisch "staldan" und altenglisch "stealdan" = "verwalten", "besitzen" sind belegt.

(3) "Pride and Prejudice", Roman von Jane Austen (1775-1817). "Stelzengänger" auf einer Parade in Port-of-Spain in Trinidad und Tobago. "Stelzenhaus" in Gilchrist, Texas. "Breakfast Stout", gebraut in Grand Rapids, Michigan. ‹Taufe, Partydip und Wundtupfer› Geschlechtliches in der Vanilleschote und im Penicillin.


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=stout
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "stout" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1520 auf.

Erstellt: 2019-12

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Bücher zur Kategorie:

Etymologie, Etimología, Étymologie, Etimologia, Etymology
UK Vereinigtes Königreich Großbritannien und Nordirland, Reino Unido de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda del Norte, Royaume-Uni de Grande-Bretagne et d'Irlande du Nord, Regno Unito di Gran Bretagna e Irlanda del Nord, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Euphemismus, Eufemismo, Euphémisme, Eufemismo, Euphemism

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Allan, Keith
Burridge, Kate
Euphemism & Dysphemism: Language Used As Shield And Weapon

(E?)(L?) https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/950932.Euphemism_Dysphemism

We all use "euphemisms". We ask for directions to the "ladies room" or convey the news that someone has recently "passed away". In fact, "euphemisms" have existed throughout recorded history: they are used by preliterate peoples, and have probably been around since human language first developed. And the same is true of offensive language, or "dysphemisms" - words used as weapons against others, or as release valves for anger and frustration.

In this fascinating study, Keith Allan and Kate Burridge examine the linguistic, social, and psychological aspects of this intriguing universal practice. They cover the many shapes "euphemism" can take, from circumlocution and acronym to hyperbole and understatement, metaphor, and even technical jargon (many medical terms ultimately derive from "euphemisms" - "stool", for instance, comes from "go to the stool", and "diabetes" comes from a Greek word meaning "to go a lot", since people with diabetes urinate frequently). They discuss the many "euphemisms" and "dysphemisms" for tabooed body parts (there are, the authors point out, at least 1,200 terms for "vagina" and 1,000 for 2penis"), bodily functions, death, and disease. They describe "euphemisms" used to avoid religious blasphemy, from the archaic "egad" and "zounds" and "gadzooks" to the modern equivalents, such as "Jiminy Cricket" and "golly" or "gosh". They even discuss the political use of "euphemism"; for instance, when at war, to shield the public from upsetting details (or shield politicians from the voter), "concentration camps" become "pacification centers", "bombing raids" become "surgical strikes", and "bombs dropped on our own troops" become "friendly fire". (President Reagan, a master of "euphemism", insisted that the attack on Grenada was not an "invasion", but rather a "rescue mission".) Along the way, the authors provide illuminating discussions of word origins, the use of bawdy language in Shakespeare, and many other fascinating topics.

With thousands of examples drawn from speech, literature, newspapers, television, and film, Allan and Burridge invite us all to ponder and enjoy the creative products of the human mind as it confronts the problem of talking in different contexts about sex, lust, disapproval, anger, disease, death, fear, and God.


Erstellt: 2020-01

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Games, Alex
Balderdash and Piffle
One Sandwich Short of a Dog's Dinner

(E?)(L?) http://www.abebooks.de/9781846072352/Balderdash-Piffle-Sandwich-Short-Dogs-1846072352/plp



A look at the English language in a fresh and revealing light. From the brash jargon of celebrity magazines to the delicacies and feints of the "euphemism", word-sleuth Alex Games has uncovered the remarkable stories behind some of our best-loved words and expressions.

One Sandwich Short of a Dog's Dinner is a thrilling ride through the provocative, bewildering and often downright bizarre world of language and etymology. From the brash jargon of celebrity magazines to the delicacies and feints of the "euphemism", author and word-sleuth Alex Games has uncovered the remarkable stories that lie behind some of our best-loved words and expressions.

Gebundene Ausgabe: 256 Seiten
Verlag: BBC Books (22. Mai 2007)
Sprache: Englisch
ISBN-10: 1846072352
ISBN-13: 978-1846072352


(E?)(L?) http://www.buecher.de/shop/englisch/balderdash-and-piffle-pt-2/games-alex/products_products/detail/prod_id/22845577/


(E?)(L?) https://www.jpc.de/jpcng/books/detail/-/art/Alex-Games-Balderdash-Piffle-One-Sandwich-Short-of-a-Dogs-Dinner/hnum/7331423

A look at the English language in a fresh and revealing light. From the brash jargon of celebrity magazines to the delicacies and feints of the "euphemism", word-sleuth Alex Games has uncovered the remarkable stories behind some of our best-loved words and expressions.

Einband: Gebunden
Sprache: Englisch
ISBN-13: 9781846072352
Bestell-Nr.: 7331423
Umfang: 240 Seiten
Gewicht: 290 g
Maße: 185 x 127 mm
Stärke: 28 mm
Erscheinungstermin: 15.5.2007


(E?)(L?) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balderdash_and_Piffle

Balderdash and Piffle was a British television programme made by Takeaway Media for the BBC. Presented by Victoria Coren, it was a companion to the Oxford English Dictionary's Wordhunt, in which the writers of the dictionary asked the public for help in finding the origins and first known citations of a number of words and phrases.

The OED panel consisted of John Simpson, the Chief Editor of the OED; Peter Gilliver, who was also the captain of the Oxford University Press team in University Challenge: The Professionals; and Tania Styles, who also appeared in "dictionary corner" in Countdown.
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Erstellt: 2014-07

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John (W3)

(E?)(L?) http://www.takeourword.com/et_h-j.html

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"John" is yet another "euphemism" for a "toilet", and while the exact reason for it being chosen as such a "euphemism" is not known, what is known is that it was originally "Cousin John", as evidenced by a rule published at Harvard College in 1735.
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(E1)(L1) http://www.waywordradio.org/tag/dictionary-of-american-regional-english/

"Johnny on the Spot"

Posted December 18, 2012

Does "johnny-on-the-spot" refer to a person or a porta-potty? Or both? The term "johnny-on-the-spot", meaning a fellow who helpfully shows up at just the right instant, dates to the 1870s. But in the early 1900s, the "john" became a common euphemism for the "outhouse". Today, there are several companies called "Johnny On The Spot" that [...]


Erstellt: 2020-01

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Rawson, Hugh
A dictionary of euphemisms & other doubletalk

(E?)(L?) https://chrismayfield.eu/a-dictionary-of-euphemisms-and-other-doubletalk-30/

A dictionary of euphemisms & other doubletalk: being a compilation of linguistic fig leaves and verbal flourishes for artful users of the English Language. Rawson’s Dictionary of Euphemisms and Other Doubletalk will appeal not only to those who use words with care and who care about how they are used by. In his Dictionary of Euphemisms and Other Doubletalk, Hugh Rawson explains, in clear language, what it means when we talk of an unusual occurrence, a crew.


Erstellt: 2020-01

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