Etymologie, Etimología, Étymologie, Etimologia, Etymology
UK Vereinigtes Königreich Großbritannien und Nordirland, Reino Unido de Gran Bretańa e Irlanda del Norte, Royaume-Uni de Grande-Bretagne et d'Irlande du Nord, Regno Unito di Gran Bretagna e Irlanda del Nord, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Region, Región, Région, Regione, Region
50states - States and Capitals
Britische Inseln in Luftaufnahmen.
by Pascal Le Fichant - 850 aerial photos of the Channel Islands
Les îles Anglo-Normandes
Plus proches de la France que de l'Angleterre, les îles Anglo-Normandes forment un univers ŕ part, tant sur le plan des paysages, mélange de falaises, de plages et de campagne anglaise, que sur le plan politique: elles sont rattachées ŕ la Couronne Britannique depuis 1204, mais ne font pas partie de l'Angleterre ni de l'Europe. Ce site a pour but de vous faire découvrir, grâce ŕ des photos aériennes, Jersey et Guernesey, les îles les plus connues, mais aussi Aurigny, la plus au Nord, Sercq et Herm, les plus petites, et de l'étonnant plateau des Minquiers, souvent absent des cartes.
befindet sich seit dem Spanischen Erbfolgekrieg in englischem Besitz.
(s.a. Gibraltar ("GI").
Kanalinseln und Isle of Man (W3)
Diese Inseln besitzen einen Sonderstatus. Sie sind unmittelbar der Krone unterstellt, ohne dass sie jedoch dem Vereinigten Königreich angehören.
Grossbritannien besteht aus vier Landesteilen.
Regions of England (W3)
Great Britain from 800 to 1499; maps with the location of castles, abbeys, cathedrals in England, Scotland, Wales; Architecture, images; Glossary of terms;
Etymological list of counties of the United Kingdom
Etymological list of counties of the United Kingdom is a list of the origins of the names of counties of the United Kingdom. For England and Wales it includes ancient and contemporary counties.
- 1 Background
- 2 England
- 3 Northern Ireland
- 4 Scotland
- 5 Wales
- 6 References
- 7 See also
Throughout the histories of the constituent countries of the United Kingdom a variety of languages have been used to name places. These languages were often used in parallel with each other. As a result it is often difficult to assess the genuine etymology of a placename, hence some of the entries below are assigned more than one meaning, depending on which language was used to originally give the place its name. One of the most common words used in county names in the United Kingdom is the suffix shire. This is a West Saxon word meaning division.
- County name Language of origin Meaning
- Avon Brythonic After the River Avon (Avon is a Brythonic word meaning river)
- Bedfordshire Old English Shire of Bedford: Bieda's ford (OE Beadafordscir
- Berkshire Brythonic After Berrock Wood (OE Bearrucscir). Poss. from Brythonic "Hilly place"
- Buckinghamshire Old English Shire of Buckingham: Home of Bucca's people (OE Buccingahamscir)
- Cambridgeshire Old English Shire of Cambridge: The city was previously known as Grantbridge (OE Grantanbrycg), meaning Bridge on the River Granta. There is a reference in Gildas to Caer Grawnt indicating an earlier Brythonic origin. The name of the city became Cambridge due to the Norman influence within the city in the 12th century. The name of the river Cam within Cambridge is a backwards derivation. (Earliest English appearance is as Grantabrycgscir.)
- Cheshire Old English Shire of Chester: From the Old English ceaster meaning Roman town or city. This itself stems from the Latin word for a fortress. The city's former name Legacćstir (circa 8th century) means literally 'City of the legions'. (OE Legeceasterscir, later Ceasterscir)
- Cleveland Old English Cliff land (Until 1974 "Cleveland" was understood as the hills and coast of the Whitby area, south of what became the County of Cleveland.)
- Cornwall compound of Brythonic and Old English (Territory of) Brythons of the Cornovii Tribe (Cornovii is a Brythonic word meaning people of the peninsula), with OE wealas meaning "foreigners" or "Welshmen"
- Cumberland Welsh + Old English Region of the Cumbrian Brythons (OE Cumbraland)
- Cumbria Latin Territory of the Cymry (Cymry was the Brythonic word to describe Brythons, similar to 'Cymru' (Wales))
- Derbyshire Old Norse Shire of Derby: Animal village (OE Deorbyscir)
- Devon Brythonic Territory of the Dumnonii (The Celtic tribal name Dumnonii is of unknown origin) (OE Defnascir, Welsh Dyfnaint)
- Dorset Old English Settlement of Dorchester: from a lost Brythonic name meaning fist (possibly place with fist-sized pebbles). Compare with Roman-period Latin name Durnovaria.) (OE Dorsćt.)
- County Durham Old English from Dunholm: Island with a hill
- Essex Old English Eastern Saxons (OE East Seaxe)
- Greater Manchester Compound of English, Brythonic and Latin Greater county of Manchester: Roman town at Mamm (Mamm was the Brythonic name for Manchester and means breast-like hill)
- Hampshire Old English Shire of Southampton (the county has occasionally been called the 'County of Southampton'. Southampton was known in Old English as Hamwic or Hamtun (home town). (Old English Hamtunscir)
- Hereford and Worcester English Combination of Herefordshire and Worcestershire
- Herefordshire Old English Shire of Hereford: Ford suitable for the passage of an army. (OE Herefordscir)
- Hertfordshire Old English Shire of Hertford: Ford frequented by harts or stags. (OE Heortfordscir)
- Humberside English Beside the River Humber (Humber is a Brythonic word and is of unknown origin)
- Huntingdonshire Old English Shire of Huntingdon: Hunters' hill (OE Huntadunscir)
- Isle of Wight Compound of English and Brythonic Island at the place of division. More likely to be Old British "eight-sided", cf Modern Welsh wyth - eight. (Latin name Vectis and Old English name Wiht.)
- Kent Brythonic
- or earlier (Land of the) Cantii or Cantiaci: a Celtic tribal name possibly meaning white, bright OE Cent or Centlond)
- Lancashire compound of Brythonic and Old English Shire of Lancaster: Roman fort on the River Lune (Lune is a Brythonic word meaning pure)
- Leicestershire Old English Shire of Leicester: Roman town of the people called Ligore (Ligore is a Celtic tribal name of unknown origin) (OE Lćgreceastrescir)
- Lincolnshire Compound of Brythonic and Latin Shire of Lincoln: Roman colony by the pool, or colony in the territory of Lindum. (OE Lincolnescir)
- Merseyside English Beside the River Mersey (Mersey is an Anglo Saxon word meaning boundary river)
- Middlesex Old English (Place of) the Middle Saxons (OE Middelseaxe)
- Norfolk Old English Northern people (OE Norţfolc)
- Northamptonshire Old English Shire of Northampton: Home farm (with "North" added later). (OE Norđhamtunescir)
- Northumberland Old English Territory of those living north of the River Humber (Humber is a pre-Celtic word of unknown origin.) (OE Norđhymbraland, and older Norţanhymbrarice for the Kingdom of Northumbria.)
- Nottinghamshire Old English Shire of Nottingham: Snot's home (OE Snotingahamscir)
- Oxfordshire Old English Shire of Oxford: Ford used by Oxen (OE Oxnafordscir)
- Rutland Old English Rota's territory (OE Roteland)
- Shropshire Old English Shire of Shrewsbury: Fortified place near scrubland (OE Scrobbesbyrigscir)
- Somerset Old English Settlers around Somerton ("Farm used in the summer"), or Summer land settlers (with Somerton derived from them) (OE Sumorsćt)
- Staffordshire Old English Shire of Stafford: Ford by a landing place (OE Stćffordscir)
- Suffolk Old English Southern people (OE Suţfolc)
- Surrey Old English Southern district. (OE Suţrige)
- Sussex Old English South Saxons (OE Suţ Seaxe)
- Warwickshire Old English Shire of Warwick: Dwellings by the weir or Village of Wćring's people (OE Wćringscir)
- West Midlands English West middle lands
- Westmorland Old English District west of the moors (OE Westmoringaland)
- Wiltshire Old English Shire of Wilton: Farm where willow trees grow. (OE Wiltunscir) (An older Old English name for the people of Wiltshire was Wilsćt)
- Worcestershire Old English Shire of Worcester: Roman town of the Weogora tribe (Weogora is a Brythonic name meaning from the winding river) (OE Wigreceastrescir and variants)
- Yorkshire Compound of Brythonic and Old Norse Shire of York: Originally Brythonic meaning yew tree, which was reinterpreted by the English and later the Norwegians to mean boar settlement. The Norse subsequently named it Jorvik meaning Boar Settlement. (OE Eoferwicscir)
- County name Language of origin Meaning
- Antrim Irish One house
- Armagh Irish Macha's height
- Londonderry Irish (excluding London) Derry from the Irish Doire, meaning oak grove and London from the Plantation of Ulster by the livery companies of the City of London.
- Down Irish County of Downpatrick: Patrick's fort (formerly Dún Lethglaise or Fort by the stream)
- Fermanagh Irish Men of Manach (a tribal name)
- Tyrone Irish Territory of Eoghan (a personal name)
- County name Language of origin Meaning
- Aberdeenshire Pictish Shire of Aberdeen: Aberdeen originally spelled as Aberdon, meaning mouth of the River Don (Don refers to the Celtic goddess Devona)
- Angus Gaelic Oengus (8th century king of the Picts)
- Argyll Gaelic Earra-Ghaidheal - Coastland of the Gaels
- Ayrshire Brythonic Shire of Ayr: Old Welsh Aeron - The (River) Ayr.
- Banffshire Gaelic Shire of Banff: Possibly "piglet", though likely from Banba - a name for Ireland.
- Berwickshire Old English Shire of Berwick: Possibly meaning Barley farm. wick appears to be from a Norse word, vik, meaning bay, but also berewick, a term for farm or settlement dependent on a main settlement.
- Buteshire Gaelic Likely from bót - fire
- Caithness Old Norse and non-diagnostic Celtic Cat headland, from the tribal name of those who inhabited the area. The Gaelic name for Caithness is Gallaibh, meaning "among the Strangers" ie the Norse who extensively settled the area.
- Clackmannanshire Brythonic and Gaelic Shire of Clackmannan: "The stone of Manau", a district of the Brythonic people of the Forth area.
- Cromartyshire Gaelic Shire of Cromarty: Chrombaigh - crooked bay
- Dumfriesshire Brythonic or Gaelic Shire of Dumfries: Uncertain - perhaps Fort of the Frisians (Frisian is of uncertain origin but is thought to mean curly, as in curly hair) or Dun-phris (fort of the thicket), or Druim Phris (ridge of the thicket).
- Dunbartonshire Gaelic (Formerly spelled 'Dumbartonshire') Shire of Dumbarton: Důn Breatainn (fort of the Britons).
- East Lothian Possibly Brythonic with English ("East") Prob. named from a Gododdin chief, (whom medićval tradition named Leudonus) by way of Old English Lođene
- Fife Gaelic from Celtic Meaning unclear
- Inverness-shire Gaelic Shire of Inverness: Mouth of the River Nis. Nis is Gaelic, but the original (ancient) meaning of the river name is elusive. It is unrelated to the common suffix ~ness, found all over Scotland.
- Kinross-shire Gaelic Shire of Kinross: Cinn Rois - head of the wood (or possibly promontory)
- Kirkcudbrightshire Gaelic Stewartry of Kirkcudbright: Cill Chuithbeirt - Church of Saint Cuthbert; Kirk is either from Norse or Old/Middle English, but the word order is Celtic
- Lanarkshire Brythonic Shire of Lanark: (Place in the) glade
- Midlothian Brythonic with English (Mid) Prob. named from a Gododdin chief, (whom medićval tradition named Leudonus) by way of Old English Lođene
- Morayshire Non-diagnostic Celtic Moray: Sea settlement
- Nairnshire Non-diagnostic Celtic Shire of Nairn: Penetrating (river)
- Orkney Old Norse and non-diagnostic Celtic Islands of the Orkos (Orkos is suggested to have come from a Gaelic tribal name meaning boar)
- Peeblesshire Brythonic Shire of Peebles: Uncertain - possibly pebyll, "pavillions".
- Perthshire Probably Pictish Shire of Perth: (Place by a) thicket
- Renfrewshire Goidelic/Brythonic Shire of Renfrew: Rinn Friů - point of the current
- Ross-shire Gaelic Rois - either "forest" or "headland".
- Roxburghshire Old English Shire of Roxburgh: Hroc's fortress
- Selkirkshire Old English Shire of Selkirk: Church by a hall
- Shetland Old Norse and non-diagnostic Celtic Origin disputed, but may be an Anglicisation of the Old Norse Hjältland (in the Scots Language a "z" is pronounced as a "y" in modern English), or suggested to refer to a personal name (Zet's land). Sealtainn in Gaelic. The old Gaelic name for the islands was Innse Cat, "islands of the Cats": the same people that Caithness is named after.
- Stirlingshire Non-diagnostic Celtic Shire of Stirling: Sruighlea in Gaelic. Origin uncertain. Folk Etymology has it as "dwelling place of Melyn".
- Sutherland Old Norse Southern territory. The Gaelic name for the region today is Cataibh ("among the Cats"), which refers to the same tribe that Caithness takes its name from, and was originally the name for both Caithness and Sutherland together.
- West Lothian Brythonic with English (West) Prob. named from a Gododdin chief, (whom medićval tradition named Leudonus) by way of Old English Lođene
- Wigtownshire Norse and/or Middle English Shire of Wigtown, from vik meaning a bay. In Gaelic, it is Baile na h-Ůige, "town on the bay".
- County name Language of origin Meaning
- Anglesey Old Norse Ongull's Island
- Brecknockshire Welsh Brycheiniog + shire : Brychan's territory
- Caernarfonshire Welsh Shire of Caernarfon: Fort opposite Fôn (Môn is the Welsh name for Anglesey, fon is its lenited form, used here after a preposition)
- Cardiganshire Welsh Ceredigion+shire (Cardigan town is a back-formation) : Ceredig's territory
- Carmarthenshire Welsh Shire of Carmarthen: Fort at Maridunum (the Roman place name Maridunum means fort by the sea)
- Clwyd Welsh from the River Clwyd (the river name means hurdle)
- Denbighshire Welsh Shire of Denbigh: Little fortress
- Dyfed Welsh (District of the) Demetae (Demetae is of unknown origin but describes the pre-Roman settlers of the area)
- Flintshire Old English Shire of Flint: (Place of) hard rock
- Glamorgan Welsh Morgan's land (Welsh Gwlad Morgan)
- Gwent Welsh From Venta (Silurum), perhaps originally meaning trading place, the name of the Roman administrative centre later known as Caerwent.
- Gwynedd Welsh According to folklore, after Cunedda. The Roman name for this district was Venedotia, seemingly cognate with Gwynedd, thus preceding Cunedda. More likely therefore to be "the place of white-topped mountains".
- Merionethshire Welsh Meirionnydd+shire : (Place of) Meirion
- Monmouthshire Old English Shire of Monmouth: Mouth of the River Monnow (Monnow is a Brythonic word meaning fast flowing)
- Montgomeryshire Norman Shire of Roger de Montgomery
- Pembrokeshire Welsh Shire of Pembroke: Land at the end
- Powys Compound of Latin and Welsh Provincial place
- Radnorshire Old English Shire of Radnor: Red bank
- Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
- Asser's Life of King Alfred
- Taliesin: Rheged Arise
- The Oxford Dictionary of Placenames by A.D. Mills and Adrian Room (1991) Oxford University Press
- Pŕrlamaid na h-Alba: Ainmean-ŕite le buidheachas do dh' Iain Mac an Tailleir
- The Celtic Place-names of Scotland by W.J. Watson (Birlin 2004) ISBN 1-84158-323-5
Regional accents of English speakers
- 1 British Isles
- 1.1 England
- 1.2 Scotland
- 1.3 Wales
- 1.4 Ireland
- 1.4.1 Southern Ireland
- 1.4.2 Northern Ireland
- 2 North America
- 2.1 Canada
- 2.2 United States
- 2.3 West Indies and Bermuda
- 3 Southern Hemisphere
- 3.1 Australia
- 3.2 New Zealand
- 3.3 South Atlantic
- 3.3.2 Saint Helena
- 3.4 Southern Africa
- 3.4.1 South Africa
- 3.4.2 Zimbabwe
- 3.4.3 Namibia
- 4 Asia
- 4.1 Hong Kong
- 4.2 Indian Subcontinent
- 4.3 Malaysia and Singapore
- 4.4 Philippines
- 5 External links