Etymologie, Etimología, Étymologie, Etimologia, Etymology
FR Frankreich, Francia, France, Francia, France
Jugendsprache, Lenguaje juvenil, Langue des jeune, Linguaggio giovanile, Teenage slang

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ku-eichstaett.de - FJi
Französische Jugendsprache in französischen Jugendzeitschriften

(E?)(L?) http://www1.ku-eichstaett.de/SLF/EngluVglSW/schule.htm
(E?)(L?) http://www1.ku-eichstaett.de/SLF/EngluVglSW/schule15.doc

Französische Jugendsprache in französischen Jugendzeitschriften (Seminararbeit von Sarah Schmiedekind -- Word-Dokument -- mit Arbeitsblatt für den Unterricht)


Erstellt: 2019-10

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Uni Eichstätt - LLdJ
Le Langage des Jeunes

(E?)(L?) http://www1.ku-eichstaett.de/SLF/EngluVglSW/schule15a.htm

LE LANGAGE DES JEUNES


Erstellt: 2019-10

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Verlan (W3)

In Frankreich wird das Vertauschen von Buchstaben im großen Stil gepflegt. Die Bennnung der Jugendsprache / Geheimsprache frz. "Verlan" ist durch Silbenvertauschung von frz. "l'envers" = etwa dt. "das Umgekehrte" gebildet worden (frz. "à l'envers" = dt. "umgekehrt").

"Verlan" ist die Inkarnation seiner selbst. Es ist die "Fleisch gewordene" Übereinstimmung von Form und Inhalt. "Verlan" ist die Umkehrung (der Silben) von "l'envers" = dt. "Umkehrung" ("à l'envers" = "umgekehrt", "verkehrt").

Diese Umkehrungen sind aufgekommen in den 60er Jahren und lebten dann Ende der 1990er Jahre wieder neu auf.

Dass dieses Verfahren aber keine Erfindung der Jugendkultur ist, zeigt das Beispiel "Ampel" - "Lampe" die beide auf die lat. "Ampulle" zurückgehen und in denen das "L" von vorne nach hinten springt und es sich sogar in der "Pulle" in der Mitte gemühtlich macht.

"Une variante de l'argot s'est maintenue jusqu'à nos jours: le "verlan" ("la langue à l'envers"). Pour parler "verlan", il suffit d'inverser les syllabes. Ainsi, "pourri" devient "ripou", "tomber" devient "béton", "femme" devient "meuf", etc. Il y a cependant plusieurs codages possible: "papier" peut donner "piépa" ou "pièp". Même si tout le monde, en France, comprend quelques mots de verlan, cette langue est restée une langue des minorités, celle des jeunes de banlieues et des "beurs". Le mot "beur" lui-même est issu du verlan "reubeu" pour "arabe"." (Quelle: écoute 8/2001)

Ein paar Beispiele:

"Verlan" hat selbst wieder weitere Ableitungen hervorgebracht wie "Verlanization" oder engl. "verlanized".

(E?)(L?) http://www.cnrtl.fr/etymologie/verlan

"VERLAN", subst. masc.

Étymol. et Hist. 1968 (J. Monod, Les Barjots, p. 165). Inversion de (à) "l'envers"*.


(E?)(L?) http://monsu.desiderio.free.fr/curiosites/verlan1.html

Le verlan: 1. Qu'est-ce que c'est ?


(E?)(L?) http://monsu.desiderio.free.fr/curiosites/verlan2.html

Le verlan: 2. La verlanisation

La "verlanisation" consiste à inverser des syllabes, parfois des phonèmes ou des lettres purement graphiques, parfois des ensembles plus vastes comme des groupes verbaux ou des expressions. La "verlanisation" est une forme de "métathèse", ou déplacement des sons. Voir la page consacrée à la "métathèse". Plus généralement, la "verlanisation" utilise les "métaplasmes" comme l'apocope, l'aphérèse, la paragoge.
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(E?)(L?) http://www1.ku-eichstaett.de/SLF/EngluVglSW/schule16.htm

Le Verlan (Arbeitsmaterialien mit Auszügen aus Interviews mit Jugendlichen, die über die Verwendung des Verlan befragt wurden)


(E?)(L?) http://www.langue-francaise.org/Articles_Dossiers/Verlan_gaulois.php

VERLAN ET GAULOIS

La chaîne de télévision A2 a consacré le 17 février une étude, non sans intérêt mais brouillonne et tendancieuse, aux Croisés du français. On désignait ainsi, comme de pittoresques "visiteurs", ceux qui combattent l'anglicisation de la langue. De ce qui, selon la syntaxe sommaire du cinéma, parut leur répondre, j'extrais deux arguments. Le doyen de Paris-V, descendu des cimes d'un cours de "verlan" (!), enseigna (sans rapport avec l'anglais) cette vérité sans doute hors de portée du premier venu, que la langue "suit le mouvement de la société"; bien. Mais qu'est ce "mouvement", et qui le détermine? Pas le linguiste. Sa formule à la Diaforius présente plus d'intérêt qu'il n'y paraît. Elle revient en effet à distinguer deux plans en avouant que la question de la norme du langage n'est pas tant du ressort des linguistes, que de "société", c'est-à-dire politique. Elle ruine ainsi le discours anti-normatif vulgarisé depuis trente ans par les Robert Escarpit, Jacques Cellard, Alain Rey qui masquent cette distinction par celle du grammairien garde-chiourme du bon usage, ignorant de l'histoire (!), et du linguiste dont la Science libère les cancres de la persécution du premier, valet des élites assurant la sélection au profit des héritiers.
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(E?)(L?) http://listserv.linguistlist.org/pipermail/ads-l/2007-October/subject.html




(E?)(L?) http://listserv.linguistlist.org/pipermail/ads-l/2007-October/075164.html

Today a colleague drew my attention to French "Verlan" (derives from "l'envers" = "the reverse", and I immediately thought of the word-play that goes on in English (Cockney back slang, e.g. "yob" = "boy", Cockney rhyming slang, "Pig Latin", etc.). A comparative study along this line might be interesting.

Gerald Cohen


(E?)(L?) http://listserv.linguistlist.org/pipermail/ads-l/2007-October/075165.html

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Thus the standard greeting "Bonjour, ça va?" or "Good day, how are you?" becomes "Jourbon, ça av?" "Une fête" (a party) has become "une teuf"; the word for woman or wife, femme, has become "meuf"; a café has become "féca"; and so on. The word "Verlan" itself is a "Verlanization" of the term "l'envers", meaning "the reverse."
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The first documented uses of "Verlan" date to the 19th century, when it was used as a code language among criminals, said the French scholar Louis-Jean Calvet. But the current and most widespread use of "Verlan" has its origins in the growth of France 's banlieues, the peripheral areas outside major cities, where the government built high-rise housing for its immigrant worker population after World War II. In the 1960's and 70's, many North African workers were joined there by their wives and families.
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"Verlan" was discovered by mainstream French in the 1980's after a series of major riots and confrontations with police brought the problems of la Cité to the attention of most French.
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"Verlan" became so popular that even former French President François Mitterrand showed off his knowledge of it during a television interview several years ago. When he was asked whether he knew the word "chébran" (Verlan for "branché", which means "hip"), he answered, "of course", but added, "That's already passé; you should say câblé," which literally means "wired for cable," but means "plugged in" or with-it in current slang.
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(E?)(L?) http://listserv.linguistlist.org/pipermail/ads-l/2007-October/075167.html

Verlan has come up on Language Log from time to time, most recently in this post by Mark Liberman:


(E?)(L?) https://www.thoughtco.com/verlan-vocabulary-1371433

Verlan - French Slang

"Verlan" is a form of French slang that consists of playing around with syllables, kind of along the same lines as "pig Latin". Unlike "pig Latin", however, "verlan" is actively spoken in France. Many verlan words have become so commonplace that they are used in everyday French.

To "verlan" a word, simply separate it into syllables, reverse them, and put the word back together. In order to maintain the correct pronunciation, the "verlaned" word often undergoes some spelling adjustments. Unnecessary letters are dropped, while other letters are added to make pronunciation logical. There are no real rules for this; it's just something to be aware of. Note that not every word can or should be "verlaned"; "verlan" is used essentially to emphasize or hide the meaning of the main word(s) in a sentence.
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(E?)(L?) http://itre.cis.upenn.edu/~myl/languagelog/archives/004497.html

May 15, 2007

Les quatre cents mots: "Querla" a l'envers

Walter "Laqueur" has a new book coming out, The Last Days of Europe: Epitaph for an Old Continent; and an essay based on it, "So Much for the New European Century", appears as the cover story in section B of The Chronicle of Higher Education (known as The Chronicle Review) for May 11, 2007.
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Today, if our friend really wanted to see the future, a short walk or bus ride would do in order to get a preview of the shape of things to come. An excellent starting point would be Neukölln or Cottbusser Tor in Berlin, or Saint-Denis or Evry in the Paris banlieues. In some ways, moving about European cities has become much easier. There are fewer language difficulties; the argot of the outlying areas of major cities populated by immigrants, the banlieues ("verlan"), we are told by Le Monde, consists of 400 words.

Overall, the business about "fewer language difficulties" is just a joke, for obvious reasons. Immigrants in Europe generally learn the languages of their host countries, and to the extent that they don't, they add more languages to the European mix, not fewer. But the claim about the impoverished lexicon of "verlan" is not a joke. Rather, it's somewhere between false and meaningless.

The first thing to say about "verlan" is that it's really not an argot or slang, as such, but rather a language game, something like "Pig Latin" or "Ubbi Dubbi", a way of transforming ordinary French words by re-arranging their sounds. The basic technique is to put things backwards: "verlan" itself is verlan for "l'envers", "reverse". Thus "fou" become "ouf", "pourri" becomes "ripou", "vérité" becomes "tévéri", and so on. But as Marc Plénat explains ("Une approche prosodique de la morphologie du verlan", Lingua 95 (1-3), March 1995, 97-129),

Ce retournement, cependant, n'a rien de méchanique. Les inititiés insistent souvent sur le fait qu'un même mot peut être codé de plusieurs façons et que l'acceptabilité d'une forme se juge 'à l'oreille'...

This reversal, however, is not at all mechanical. The initiates often stress the fact that the same word can be encoded in several ways, and that the acceptability of a forme is judged 'by ear'...

Some particular "verlanized" words have become common replacements for their originals. In some cases, there's a shift in meaning, so that "beur", which is verlan for "arabe", is used to refer second- or third-generation North African immigrants. But most common "verlanized" words are (as I understand it) just slangy and thus informal, like "meuf" for "femme" ("woman"), or "keum" for "mec" ("guy").

Given all this, to refer to "verlan" as an "argot of the outlying areas of major cities populated by immigrants", which "consists of 400 words", is a preposterous misunderstanding. "Verlan" is an open-ended process, that can be applied to any French word. The fraction of words in the speech of banlieue residents that is "verlanized" is in any case small. And I'm prepared to wager a year's salary that the overall vocabulary of "the outlying areas of major cities populated by immigrants", whether in France or elsewhere in Europe, is many times greater than 400 words.
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While we're here, let's look into "verlan" a bit further. It's been studied under that name at least since the mid-1980s (e.g. C. Bachmann. and L. Basier, "Le verlan: Argot d'école ou langue des Keums?". Mots 8, 1984; N.J. Lefkowitz, "Talking backwards and looking forwards. The French language game Verlan" Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Washington, 1987).

It surely has roots in a much older tradition of language games in France and elsewhere. See "Noi Lai and contrepets", 1/8/2005, for some more literary examples; and Natalie Lefkowitz ("Verlan: Talking Backwards in French", The French Review, 63(2), 1989), cites a 1985 TF1 interview with then-president François Mitterand, in which a bit of verlan came up ("chébran", from "branché", "plugged in"):
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(E?)(L?) https://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/world/2006-01-05-french-slang_x.htm

Posted 1/5/2006 1:01 AM

French youths speaking their own language

By Mary Papenfuss Special for, USA TODAY
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It's known as "Verlan", a centuries-old French form of wordplay that has been reinvented in the bleak apartment blocks crowded with immigrant families from North Africa and sub-Saharan Africa. To the horror of France's language purists, the fast-morphing street slang is everywhere — schoolyards, newspapers, the Internet, movies, ad campaigns, TV and radio.

Hanging out near his school with friends, Eli ticks off Verlan terms that are part of his daily vocabulary: "Mifa" ("family"), "oim" or "wham" ("me"), "oite" ("you"), "cimer" ("merci" or "thank you"), "zikmu" ("music"), "zibou" ("kisses"), "z'y va" ("let's go")."
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"Verlan" has grown to hundreds of words. Many are discarded or altered as quickly as their code is broken by mainstream society.
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"Verlan" has caught on elsewhere in Europe. In Britain, the BBC offers online instruction in "le français cool", taught by Algerian-born Hakim M'Barek.

France's government has long been obsessed with safeguarding elements of French identity. One result is that laws designed to protect the language — for instance, 40% of all music on the radio must be in French or by French-speaking artists — have inadvertently helped spread Verlan by effectively guaranteeing airplay for the homegrown hip-hop acts.

French politicians, often critical when foreign terms enter the popular lexicon, have been reluctant to criticize Verlan because it is seen as uniquely French.
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(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=7&content=Verlan
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Frz. "Verlan" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1780 auf.

Erstellt: 2019-11

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Bücher zur Kategorie:

Etymologie, Etimología, Étymologie, Etimologia, Etymology
FR Frankreich, Francia, France, Francia, France
Jugendsprache, Lenguaje juvenil, Langue des jeune, Linguaggio giovanile, Teenage slang

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Merle, Pierre
Argot, verlan et tchatches

Broché: 58 pages
Editeur : Milan; Édition : Nouv. éd (19 janvier 2006)
Collection : Les Essentiels Milan
Langue : Français


Comprendre les questions les plus diverses présentées par les meilleurs spécialistes. Des textes clairs, fiables et précis qui vont à l'essentiel. Une iconographie appropriée permettant de compléter l'information. Une présentation agréable pour faciliter la lecture. Les Essentiels Milan, une collection accessible à tous. Comme l'argot lui-même, la définition de l'argot varie d'une époque à une autre. Jadis, c'était la langue de la pègre. Aujourd'hui, il serait plus juste de parler d'un langage populaire dans lequel se reconnaissent une population donnée ou un groupe social. Il n'y a pas grand-chose de commun entre ces deux définitions si ce n'est la volonté, voire la nécessité, de s'exprimer de manière marginale, complice, codée. Des codes, il y en a toujours eu dans les argots de toutes les époques. Aujourd'hui, peut-être faute de lui avoir trouvé un successeur, le verlan règne encore, surtout parmi les jeunes. De l'argot au verlan en passant par nombre de façons de tchatcher anciennes et modernes, tel est le voyage auquel vous invite cet "Essentiel Milan".

Pierre Merle est écrivain. Spécialiste du langage, il a publié à ce jour une quarantaine d'ouvrages, dont une bonne moitié concerne l'évolution de la langue. Il est l'auteur notamment du Dictionnaire du français qui se cause et du Nouveau Charabia, parus aux éditions Milan.


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