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parapherna (W3)

Das Substantiv frz. "parapherna" bezeichnet alles, was eine Frau als persönliche Mitgift in die Ehe mitbringt. Das Wort setzt sich zusammen aus griech. "pará" = dt. "neben", "über - hinaus" und griech. "pherne" = dt. "Mitgift", "Ausstattung", das weiter basiert auf griech. "pherein" = dt. "tragen", "bringen".

(E?)(L?) http://archimedes.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de/cgi-bin/archim/dict/hw?lemma=parapherna&step=entry&id=d002

"Parapherna", "paraphernorum", n. g. Vlpianus. Græci "parapherna" dicunt quæ Galli peculium appellant.

All things that the woman bringeth to hir husband beside hir dowry.


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/parapherna

"parapherna", oun

(law, historical, Ancient Rome) A woman's property which was not made a part of her marriage dower but remained her own.

Origin: Latin


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=parapherna
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "parapherna" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1830 auf.

(E?)(L?) http://corpora.informatik.uni-leipzig.de/


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordmap.co/#parapherna

This experiment brings together the power of Google Translate and the collective knowledge of Wikipedia to put into context the relationship between language and geographical space.


Erstellt: 2017-08

paraphernal (W3)

Das Adjektiv dt. "Paraphernal-", frz. "paraphernal", engl. "paraphernal" bezeichnet etwas, das sich auf die persönliche Mitgift einer Frau bezieht. Das Wort setzt sich zusammen aus griech. "pará" = dt. "neben", "über - hinaus" und griech. "pherne" = dt. "Mitgift", "Ausstattung", das weiter basiert auf griech. "pherein" = dt. "tragen", "bringen".

(E?)(L?) http://www.cnrtl.fr/etymologie/paraphernal

paraphernal


(E?)(L?) http://encyclopedie.uchicago.edu/node/175
(E?)(L?) http://artflsrv02.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.10:2731.encyclopedie0416.9470021

PARAPHERNAL, Boucher d'Argis, [Jurisprudence; Jurisprudence; Jurisp.]

PARAPHERNAL, (Jurisp.) [Jurisprudence] Boucher d'Argis (Page 11:918)

PARAPHERNAL, (Jurisp.) est un bien de la femme qu'elle n'a pas compris dans sa constitution de dot.

L'usage des paraphernaux ou biens paraphernaux, vient des Grecs, le mot "paraphernal" étant composé de deux mots grecs, "para", "praeter", & "phern", lat. "dos" [= dt. "Mitgift"], quasi bona quoe sunt praeter dotem.
...


(E2)(L1) http://www.kruenitz1.uni-trier.de/cgi-bin/callKruenitz.tcl

Paraphernalvermögen


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/paraphernal

paraphernal, Adjective


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=7&content=paraphernal
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Frz. "paraphernal" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1730 auf.

(E?)(L?) http://corpora.informatik.uni-leipzig.de/


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordmap.co/#paraphernal

This experiment brings together the power of Google Translate and the collective knowledge of Wikipedia to put into context the relationship between language and geographical space.


Erstellt: 2017-08

paraphernalia (W3)

Im rechtlichen Sinn waren dt. "Paraphernalien", span. "parafernalia", frz. "paraphernal", ital. "parafernale", ndl. "parafernalia", engl. "paraphernalia" (1791), die Dinge (Kleidung, Schmuck, evtl. auch Ländereien), die eine Frau als Erbe in die Ehe mitbrachte, aber - im Unterschied zur normalen Mitgift - das alleinige Verfügungsrecht darüber behielt. In der Regel bestanden diese Parafernalia allerdings wohl aus weniger wertvollen privaten Gegenständen. Und so nahm "Parafernalia" auch die Bedeutung "Utensilien" und "Kleinigkeiten" oder "Nebensächlichkeiten" an.

Die etymologische Betrachtung führt zu griech. "parápherna", "parapherna" mit der Bedeutung dt. "persönlicher Besitz einer Frau, den sie zusätzlich zur Mitgift in die Ehe mitbringt". Die Bezeichnung setzt sich zusammen aus griech. "pará" = dt. "neben", "über - hinaus" und griech. "pherne" = dt. "Mitgift", "Ausstattung", das weiter basiert auf griech. "pherein" = dt. "tragen", "bringen".

Geht man vom griech. "pherne" = dt. "Mitgift", "Ausstattung" weiter zurück, stößt man auf die Wurzel ide. "*bher-" mit der Bedeutung dt. "bringen", "führen", "tragen", auch "austragen" bzw. "(ein Kind) gebären". Demnach kann die Mitgift als "Mitgebrachtes" verstanden werden. Im dt. "Mitgift" steckt dies auch drin nur aus einer anderen Perspektive, als "das (von den Eltern der Frau) Mitgegebene".

Übrigens steckt auch in dt. "Gift" ursprünglich "das (bei einer Krankheit vom Arzt) Gegebene". Aber anscheinend traute man den Ärzten schon lange nicht so ganz und so wurde durch falsche Verabreichung von Medikamenten (Zusammensetzung und Menge) das "Gift" in der heutigen Bedeutung.

Im Folgenden seien einige Originalzitate aus verschiedenen Nachschlagewerken angeführt:

Bei Adelung findet man:


Das "Nebengut", des -es, plur. die "Nebengüter", ein von dem Hauptgute abhängiges, demselben nach und untergeordnetes Gut. (S. "Hauptgut") In den Rechten werden zuweilen auch die zugebrachten Güter, "Jura paraphernalia", "Nebengüter" genannt, und alsdann den Erbgütern entgegen gesetzt.


Im Folgenden seien einige Originalzitate aus verschiedenen Nachschlagewerken angeführt:

Quelle: ein alter Newsletter von Merriam-Webster:


...
We've talked before about how "para" can mean "beside", "alongside of". And it can mean "beyond", "outside of". It can mean "abortive", and it can mean "perversion". "Para" can mean "faulty", "abnormal". And it also can mean "associated in a subsidiary or accessory capacity".

And that's to say nothing of the "para" that comes from "parachute" and the "-para" born of the Latin verb meaning "to bring forth", "bear offspring".

So your challenge today is this: which of these various "para" meanings is associated with the word "paraphernalia"? "Paraphernalia", of course, refers to "personal belongings", "articles of equipment" or "accessory items".

If you know the earliest meaning of "paraphernalia" in English, you can probably pick out the "para" ancestor: it's the sense meaning "beyond". Originally, "paraphernalia" named "the separate real or personal property of a married woman that she can dispose of by will (and sometimes according to common law) during her life". "Paraphernalia" comes ultimately from the Greek word meaning "bride's property beyond her dowry".


Quelle: Trésor de la Langue Francaise:


"PARAPHERNAL", -ALE, -AUX adj.

DR., vieilli. Biens paraphernaux. Biens qui sont la possession d'une femme mariée sans faire partie de sa dot et qu'elle peut administrer à sa convenance. Propriété, rente paraphernale. Section IV. Des Biens paraphernaux. 1554. Tous les biens de la femme qui n'ont pas été constitués en dot, sont paraphernaux (...). 1576. La femme a l'administration et la jouissance de ses biens paraphernaux. Mais elle ne peut les aliéner ni paraître en jugement à raison desdits biens, sans l'autorisation du mari (Code civil, 1804, p.291). Le mari est responsable du défaut d'emploi du prix de l'immeuble paraphernal qu'il a autorisé sa femme à aliéner (BACH.-DEZ. 1882).

[P. ell. de biens] Des paraphernaux:

... il s'agit de vos paraphernaux, de votre position et de votre indépendance (...). Renoncez à votre salut en deux minutes, s'il vous plaît de vous damner; d'accord! mais réfléchissez bien quand il s'agit de renoncer à vos rentes.

BALZAC, Langeais, 1834, p.327.

[P. méton. du subst.] Qui concerne ce type de biens. L'amour, la haine, la mort, les passions se manifestent chez nous sous leurs aspects mobiliers et immobiliers, synallagmatiques et paraphernaux, s'enferment à l'état de grosses et de minutes, d'actes, de papier timbré dans nos dossiers (ARNOUX, Crimes innoc., 1952, p.296).

Prononc. et Orth.: [], plur. masc. [-o]. Ac. 1740-1798: paraphernaux, adj. plur.; dep. 1835: paraphernal, -ale, adj. Étymol. et Hist. XVes. biens dotaulx et parapharnelz (Coutumes de Bourges ds Nouv. Coutumier gén., t.3, p.905b); 1510 biens parafernaux (Coutumes d'Auvergne, ibid., t.4, p.1169b); 1765 subst. sing. et plur. paraphernal, -aux (Encyclop.). Du lat. médiév. paraphernalis même sens (déb. XIIIes. ds BLAISE Latin. Med. Aev.), formé au moyen du suff. -alis (-al*) à partir du gr. "parápherna" «biens particuliers de la femme, en dehors de la dot» (Ier s., LIDDELL-SCOTT), comp. de - «auprès de, à côté de, en dehors de» (cf. élém. para-1) et de gr. "pherne" «dot». Fréq. abs. littér.: 13.


Quelle: Langenscheidt Wörterbücher:





Quelle: Duden Wörterbücher:





(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20120323161532/http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Paraphernalia

"PARAPHERNALIA" (Lat. "paraphernalia", sc. bona, from Gr. ""; "para", "beside", and "pherne", "dower"), a term originally of Roman law, signifying all the property which a married woman who was sui juris held apart from her dower (dos). A husband could not deal with such except with his wife's consent. Modern systems of law, which are based on the Roman, mainly follow the same principle, and the word preserves its old meaning. In English and Scottish law the term is confined to articles of jewelry, dress and other purely personal things, for the law relating to which see Husband And Wife. The word is also used in a general sense of "accessories", "external equipment", "cumbersome or showy trappings".


(E?)(L?) http://www.alphadictionary.com/sounds/paraphernalia.mp3

Hear "paraphernalia"


(E?)(L?) http://www.alphadictionary.com/goodword/word/paraphernalia

"paraphernalia"

Meaning: 1. (Law) That property of a woman that does not pass to her husband by marriage, but remains her own. 2. Personal belongings, your things–clothing, jewelry, accessories. 3. Equipment required by a certain profession or activity, such as sound, mountain-climbing, or baseball paraphernalia.

Notes: Although many English-speakers have given up on preserving the second "R" in this Good Word, we think it deserves further consideration. Those of us who pronounce "R"s at the end of syllables should pronounce this one. Pronounce it or not, it must be included in the correct spelling of this word. However, you do not have to worry about related words: this one is an orphan with no adjectives or verbs derived from it.

In Play: The implication of the second and third senses of today's word is that paraphernalia is equipment supporting some activity: "Rhonda Block considered her toy boy just another part of her traveling paraphernalia." More commonly this word is used today to refer to the tools of some activity: "Lacie Shortz considered class, professors, and books the paraphernalia of the education system to be used to enrich sorority life."

Word History: The Latin word "paraphernalia", which English simply confiscated on one of its raids of that language, meant "of or related to the parapherna". "Parapherna" was a Greek word made up of "para" "beyond" + "pherne" "dowry" and referred to a bride's property beyond her dowry. The Greek root "pher-", as in "pherein" "to carry", comes from PIE "bher-" / "bhor-" "carry", "bring" and so fits a word meaning what a woman brings to a marriage. But it also turns up in "amphora", from "amphi" "both sides" + "phoreus" "bearer", the large oval containers with a handle on either side that the Greeks used for transporting goods. PIE "bher-" / "bhor-" came through the Germanic languages to English as "bear" which, with the suffix "-ing" later developed into "bring", the same meaning implicit in "parapherna". (Today we thank Kathy Garrett for suggesting a word with such interesting historical paraphernalia as today's Good Word.)


(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20080821125316/http://bartleby.com/61/39/P0063900.html

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition.  2000.

"paraphernalia"

PLURAL NOUN: (used with a sing. or pl. verb) 1. Personal belongings. 2. The articles used in a particular activity; equipment: a photographer's paraphernalia. See synonyms at equipment. 3. A married woman's personal property exclusive of her dowry, according to common law.

ETYMOLOGY: Medieval Latin "paraphernalia", neuter pl. of "paraphernalis", pertaining to the "parapherna", a married woman's property exclusive of her dowry, from Greek : "para-", "beyond" + "pherne", "dowry"; see "*bher-" (1) in Appendix I.


(E?)(L1) http://www.atlasobscura.com/places/buckland-gallery-of-witchcraft-magick

Cleveland, Ohio
Buckland Gallery of Witchcraft and Magick
A collection of Wiccan artifacts and occult paraphernalia started by the leader of the Long Island Coven.


(E?)(L1) http://www.atlasobscura.com/places/nuclear-bunker-museum

Nuclear Bunker Museum
Prague, Czech Republic
Buried 5 stories underground, this Soviet bunker is jampacked with gas masks and Cold War paraphernalia.


(E?)(L1) http://www.atlasobscura.com/places/magic-circle-museum

Magic Circle Museum
London, England
This collection of illusory paraphernalia has been culled from the history of London's premier magician's club
magic, museums, museums and collections


(E?)(L1) http://www.atlasobscura.com/places/gothenburg-medical-history-museum

Gothenburg Medical History Museum
Gothenburg, Sweden
A 200 year old collection of medical paraphernalia in a historic home
Medical Museums


(E?)(L1) http://www.atlasobscura.com/places/hunterian-museum-glasgow

Hunterian Museum, Glasgow
Glasgow, Scotland
200 year old collection of oddities and medical paraphernalia
Strange Science, Natural History, Medical Museums, Unique Collections


(E1)(L1) http://www.bartleby.com/81/12764.html

E. Cobham Brewer 1810–1897. Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. 1898.

"Paraphernalia" means all that a woman can claim at the death of her husband beyond her jointure. In the Roman law her paraphernalia included the furniture of her chamber, her woaring apparel, her jewels, etc. Hence personal attire, fittings generally, anything for show or decoration. (Greek, "parapherne", "beyond dower").


(E?)(L?) http://www.businessballs.com/clichesorigins.htm

"paraphernalia" - personal belongings, or accessories, equipment associated with a trade or hobby - original meaning from Roman times described the possessions (furniture, clothes, jewellery, etc) that a widow could claim from her husband's estate beyond her share of land, property and financial assets. Derived from the Greek, "parapherne" meaning "beyond dower" ("dower" meaning a widow's share of her husband's estate).


(E2)(L1) http://www.dictionary.com/browse/paraphernalia

paraphernalia
...
Origin of "paraphernalia"

1470-80; from Medieval Latin "paraphernalia (bona)" a bride's goods, beyond her dowry, equivalent to Late Latin "paraphern", "parapherna" a bride's property (from Greek "parápherna", equivalent to "para-" + "phern", "pherné" dowry, derivative of "phérein" to bear + "-a" neuter plural noun suffix) + Latin "-alia", noun use of neuter plural of "-alis" "-al".
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=paraphernalia

"paraphernalia" (n.): 1650s, "a woman's property besides her dowry," from Medieval Latin "paraphernalia" (short for "paraphernalia bona" "paraphernal goods"), neuter plural of "paraphernalis" (adj.), from Late Latin "parapherna" "a woman's property besides her dowry", from Greek "parapherna", neuter plural, from "para-" "beside" (see "para-" (1)) + "pherne" "dowry", related to "pherein" "to carry", from PIE root "*bher-" (1) "to carry". Meaning "equipment", "apparatus" is first attested 1791, from notion of odds and ends.


(E?)(L?) http://wordcraft.infopop.cc/Archives/2008-3-Mar.htm

Para-words

Recall our recent word "palfrey" ("a docile horse ridden especially by women", as distinguished from a "warhorse”). The "pal-" part comes from Greek "para-" "beside", "secondary"; thus at root a "palfrey", a woman’s horse, was a "secondary" horse. Tells you something about the status of women.

Many "para-" words have an obvious connection with "beside" or "secondary": "paramedic" and like terms ("paranormal", "paralegal", "paramilitary"), "parallel" and even "parenthetical". This week we'll look at ones where the connection is less obvious.

  We’ll begin with one which, like "palfrey", is originally rooted in the status of women. Until 1882, English law provided when a woman married her property automatically became owned by her husband. He could sell it without her consent, and upon his death it would pass to his heirs, not to hers. There was one exception: the rule did not apply to miscellaneous, personal items, such as jewelry or clothing, which remained her property. (My understanding the English gave women less rights than did laws derived from the Romans, where her "retained property" included the furniture she brought with her.)

This miscellaneous property she had "besides her dowry" was given a name from the Greek "para-" "beside" + "pherne" "dowry". It was called "paraphernalia".

"paraphernalia" – miscellaneous articles, especially the equipment needed for a particular activity

  An acquaintance inflicted the gift of a piranha with appropriate aquarium and paraphernalia on me. For six or seven months now I have had to put up with the gurgling water, whirring motors, and the uneasy feeling that I am a potential meal.

– William F. Buckley, Cancel Your Own Goddam Subscription: Notes & Asides from National Review


(E?)(L?) http://www.kuriositas.com/2011/05/paraphernalia.html

Paraphernalia


(E?)(L?) http://www.lateinlexikon.com/lexicon_latinum_hodiernum_07_uvwxyz.pdf

"Vorbehaltsgut", n merx proprietatis servatae, f [~LEA p.598]; ~ der Frau, n peculium, i, n [vet.; LEA p.598]; "parapherna", orum, n pl [vet.]; "paraphernalia" (importata), n pl [med.; LEA p.598]


(E?)(L?) http://www.learnersdictionary.com/definition/paraphernalia

Learner's definition of "PARAPHERNALIA": objects that are used to do a particular activity : objects of a particular kind


(E?)(L?) https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/paraphernalia

...
Did You Know?

In current use, "paraphernalia" is typically encountered in its "equipment" sense in such contexts as "arrested for possession of drug paraphernalia". But the word hasn't always been used in that way. Originally, "paraphernalia" was property that a married woman owned herself - as opposed to her husband's property or the dowry she brought to the marriage. "Paraphernalia" came to English, via Medieval Latin, from Greek "parapherna", meaning "bride's property beyond her dowry" (from "para-", meaning "beyond", and "pherne", meaning "dowry"). Although "paraphernalia" was plural in Medieval Latin, it can take either a singular or plural verb in English.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.owad.de/owad-archive-quiz.php4?id=192

paraphernalia


(E?)(L?) http://www.owad.de/owad-archive-quiz.php4?id=1120

paraphernalia


(E?)(L?) http://www.owad.de/owad-archive-quiz.php4?id=3504

"paraphernalia" = engl. "bits and pieces" = dt. "Zubehör", "Ausrüstung", "Utensilien", "Drum und Dran", "Krimskrams".

There are three meanings associated with this interesting word: From Medieval Latin "paraphernalia", neuter pl. of "paraphernalis", relating to a married woman's property exclusive of her dowry, from Late Latin "parapherna", a married woman's property exclusive of her dowry, from Greek: "para-", "beyond" + "pherne", "dowry".

Paraphernalia is a collection of objects, esp. equipment needed for or connected with a particular activity (Cambridge Dictionary)

Paraphernalia is apparatus, equipment, or furnishing used for a particular activity. For example, an avid sports fan may cover his walls with football or basketball paraphernalia. In legal jargon, paraphernalia stems from family law and literally refers to "things beyond the dowry".

Paraphernalia were the separate property of a married woman, such as clothing and jewellery appropriate to her social standing, but excluding the assets that may have been included in her dowry. The term originated in Roman law, but ultimately comes from the Greek "parapherna" (from "para" = "beside" + "pherne" = "dowry"). A husband could not sell, appropriate, or convey good title to his wife's assets considered paraphernalia without her separate consent. They did not become a part of her husband's estate upon his death, and could be conveyed by a married woman's will.

Changes in family and inheritance law that mirror broader societal trends have made the legal concept of paraphernalia more or less obsolete.


(E?)(L?) http://blog.oxforddictionaries.com/2016/02/unusual-etymologies/

"metaphor" / "paraphernalia"

Why do both "metaphor" and "paraphernalia" have the Greek "pherein", "to bring", "bear", "carry" lurking in their etymology? You have to look a little closer at the words. A "metaphor" ("meta" = "with") carries extra meaning with it, transferring meaning from one sphere to another; "metaphor" is aptly itself a "metaphor". "Paraphernalia", on the other hand, now means "miscellaneous articles" but was originally the property owned by a married woman besides her dowry. "Para" is ‘distinct from’ and "pherna" is "dowry" which, in turn, comes from "pherein", "to bring", "bear", "carry", for what a woman brought to marriage.


(E?)(L?) http://users.tinyonline.co.uk/gswithenbank/curiousm.htm#paraphernalia

"paraphernalia": "miscellaneous things". Originally a legal term for the "personal goods such as clothes and jewellery which a married woman was allowed to keep as her own" - i.e. they were not included in her dowry, which passed into the ownership of her husband. The words literally means "beside or beyond the dowry" and the modern meaning comes from the idea of personal belongings being a miscellany of articles.


(E1)(L1) http://www.visualthesaurus.com/portlets/wod/?y=2015&m=03&d=1&mode=m
(E1)(L1) http://www.visualthesaurus.com/portlets/wod/?y=2007&m=11&d=1&mode=m

Tuesday, November 6th 2007 / Saturday, March 21st 2015

"paraphernalia"

This word today usually denotes the kit that accompanies a particular activity and is sometimes used with an ironic twist, perhaps to characterize equipment as excessive or silly. Its origins, however, were no joke: the Greek roots mean essentially "besides the dowry" and denoted a woman's property that was not part of the marriage deal.


(E?)(L?) http://www.visualthesaurus.com?word=Paraphernalia

Paraphernalia


(E?)(L?) http://www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/phylum#word=A




(E?)(L?) http://www.word-detective.com/back-i2.html#paraphernalia

...
It is true, as you note, that "paraphernalia" comes from a Latin root meaning "the bride's possessions", but there's more to the story than that brief definition indicates. The root is actually "parapherna", from the Greek words meaning "beside the dowry". The "paraphernalia", in Roman and, later, English marriage law, were the possessions a bride brought to the marriage and kept as her own personal property. The key distinction was that the "paraphernalia" were considered the bride's personal property, not part of the dowry (the money and property the bride's family gave to the groom). If the husband later died, the wife kept her "paraphernalia", while the dowry and all other property went to the husband's male heirs.

As marriage law in England became a bit more equitable, the more general use of "paraphernalia" to simply mean "personal belongings" arose in the 18th century. This usage paved the way for the term to be applied to, as the Oxford English Dictionary puts it, "the articles that compose an apparatus, outfit, or equipment; the mechanical accessories of any function or complex scheme; appointments or appurtenances in general".


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordsmith.org/words/paraphernalia.mp3

Pronunciation: "paraphernalia"


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordsmith.org/words/paraphernalia.html

"paraphernalia" (a words that is formed as a plural but is now used as singular.)

MEANING:

ETYMOLOGY:

Plural of "paraphernalis", from "parapherna" (a woman's property besides her dowry), from Greek "para-" ("beyond") + "pherne" ("dowry"). Ultimately from the Indo-European root "bher-" ("to carry", "to bear children") that gave birth to "basket", "suffer", "fertile", "burden", "bring", "bear", "offer", "prefer", "birth", "periphery", "phosphorus" (literally "bringing light"), "adiaphorism", "delate", and "sufferance". Earliest documented use: 1478.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordsmith.org/words/paraphernalia1.html

...
[Medieval Latin "paraphernalia", neuter pl. of "paraphernalis", pertaining to a married woman's property exclusive of her dowry, from Late Latin "parapherna", a married woman's property exclusive of her dowry, from Greek : "para-", "beyond" + "pherne", "dowry".]
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.worldwidewords.org/weirdwords/ww-par2.htm

"Paraphernalia"

We’re most familiar with this word to describe the equipment or materials that are used in some activity or craft. But it also has a negative meaning: of things that are unnecessary or superfluous, the trappings and impedimenta that have accreted around something as blown sand might collect around a pebble.

Just look round your garden shed, or your kitchen, and work out quite how much of the paraphernalia you have there is essential, and the light may begin to dawn.

That makes the origin of the word deeply galling to those who are passionate about the rights of women. It derives from a term in Greek and Roman law; the root is the Greek "parapherna", from "para", "distinct from", plus "pherna", a "dowry", so it referred to "the bride’s personal property", things other than her dowry. All other goods became the property of her husband, as they did, for example, in England until the first Married Women’s Property Act was passed in 1870.

The legal sense was the first one that appeared in English, in medieval times; the senses of personal possessions or items of equipment or accessories only arose in the eighteenth century. By the time that Anthony Trollope wrote in 1862 about “the paraphernalia of justice: the judge, and the jury, and the lawyers”, it had begun to take on associations with outmodedness that it now sometimes has.


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/paraphernalia

paraphernalia


(E?)(L?) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pIBlme0VC3A

Paraphernalia


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=paraphernalia
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "paraphernalia" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1570 / 1750 auf.

(E?)(L?) http://corpora.informatik.uni-leipzig.de/


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordmap.co/#paraphernalia

This experiment brings together the power of Google Translate and the collective knowledge of Wikipedia to put into context the relationship between language and geographical space.


Erstellt: 2017-08

Paraphernalien (W3)

Im rechtlichen Sinn waren dt. "Paraphernalien", span. "parafernalia", frz. "paraphernal", ital. "parafernale", ndl. "parafernalia", engl. "paraphernalia" (1791), die Dinge (Kleidung, Schmuck, evtl. auch Ländereien), die eine Frau als Erbe in die Ehe mitbrachte, aber - im Unterschied zur normalen Mitgift - das alleinige Verfügungsrecht darüber behielt. In der Regel bestanden diese Parafernalia allerdings wohl aus weniger wertvollen privaten Gegenständen. Und so nahm "Parafernalia" auch die Bedeutung "Utensilien" und "Kleinigkeiten" oder "Nebensächlichkeiten" an.

Die etymologische Betrachtung führt zu griech. "parápherna", "parapherna" mit der Bedeutung dt. "persönlicher Besitz einer Frau, den sie zusätzlich zur Mitgift in die Ehe mitbringt". Die Bezeichnung setzt sich zusammen aus griech. "pará" = dt. "neben", "über - hinaus" und griech. "pherne" = dt. "Mitgift", "Ausstattung", das weiter basiert auf griech. "pherein" = dt. "tragen", "bringen".

Geht man vom griech. "pherne" = dt. "Mitgift", "Ausstattung" weiter zurück, stößt man auf die Wurzel ide. "*bher-" mit der Bedeutung dt. "bringen", "führen", "tragen", auch "austragen" bzw. "(ein Kind) gebären". Demnach kann die Mitgift als "Mitgebrachtes" verstanden werden. Im dt. "Mitgift" steckt dies auch drin nur aus einer anderen Perspektive, als "das (von den Eltern der Frau) Mitgegebene".

Übrigens steckt auch in dt. "Gift" ursprünglich "das (bei einer Krankheit vom Arzt) Gegebene". Aber anscheinend traute man den Ärzten schon lange nicht so ganz und so wurde durch falsche Verabreichung von Medikamenten (Zusammensetzung und Menge) das "Gift" in der heutigen Bedeutung.

Quelle: Conversations-Lexikon oder kurzgefaßtes Handwörterbuch (1809-1811):


Paraphernalien – Paraphernal-Vermögen heißt alles dasjenige, was die Frau außer der Mitgift, oder dem Heirathsgute dem Manne mitbringt, oder während der Ehe erwirbt.


Quelle: Theoder W. Adorno: Gesammelte Schriften:


...
Er kann es sich nicht einmal versagen, die Verschwendung zeremonialer Paraphernalien ökonomisch zu beklagen, die in den religiösen Kulten erfolgt.
...
Überwertig sind ihm die minderen Paraphernalien von Gesundheit. Er fürchtet aber nicht den Tod, sondern daß er mißlingen könnte; das Kafkasche Motiv des Jägers Grachus hallt nach.
...


Quelle: Wander: Deutsches Sprichwörter-Lexikon:


70. "Eingebracht Gut ergreift auch ererbtes Gut."

Pistor., V, 86; Eisenhart, II, 4, 22; Graf, 154, 97; Simrock, 1987; Hassl., 44.

Unter dem eingebrachten Gute werden die Güter verstanden, welche eine Ehefrau ausser dem Brautschatz dem Manne zubringt ("Paraphernalgüter"). Die Meinung des Sprichworts geht nun dahin, dass in den Fällen, wo man nicht weiss, ob etwas von dem zugebrachten Gute zum Brautschatz oder zu den Paraphernalgütern zu rechnen sei, stets das letztere angenommen werde, und dass unter den Paraphernalien, was der besondere Sinn des Sprichworts ist, auch die Güter begriffen sein sollen, die eine Ehefrau durch Erbschaft erhält.


Quelle: Bärenreiter-Verlag: Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart: Schamanentrommel:


...
Sofern sie beschädigt oder zerbrochen wurde, wurde er krank oder mußte sterben. Während seines Lebens wurde sie mit anderen Paraphernalien an einem besonderen Platz verwahrt, so z.B. bei den Lappen im hintersten und vornehmsten Tl. der Kote. Nach dem Tod des Schamanen wurde in Südsibirien die Trommel zerbrochen und ihr Fell unweit der Begräbnisstelle an einem Baum aufgehängt, bei den Lappen hingegen an die Nachkommen vererbt.
...


Quelle: Duden Wörterbücher:





Bei Adelung findet man:


Das "Frauengut", des -es, plur. die -güter, in den Rechten Güter, welche dem weiblichen. Geschlechte gehören, dergleichen der Brautschatz, die Spindelgelder, "Paraphernalien" u. s. f. sind.


(E?)(L?) https://www.peterlang.com/view/product/35131?rskey=rJJTmC&result=31

Oboe – Metalltuba – Trommel

Organologisch-onomasiologische Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der Paraphernalieninstrumente- Teil 1: Blasinstrumente- Teil 2: Trommeln

Maximilian Hendler

Die Phrase Mit Pauken und Trompeten umreißt den Gegenstand der Arbeit. Die Instrumente der älteren Hof- und Militärmusik werden in ihrer geographischen Verbreitung dargestellt. Sie umfaßt Europa, Asien ohne den subarktischen Norden und Nordafrika einschließlich der Sahelzone. Anhand einer umfangreichen Datensammlung werden Wanderung und Perfektionierung vom 3. Jahrtausend vor Christus bis zur Erfindung der Ventilinstrumente rekonstruiert. Die Paralleluntersuchung der Instrumententypen und ihrer Namen ermöglicht die Klärung historischer Prozesse, über die keine anderen Dokumente vorliegen.

Buch (Broschiert)
ISBN:9783631344873
Frankfurt/M., Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Wien, 2001. Teil 1: 618 S., Teil 2: 580 S., zahlr. Tab., 21 x 29,7 cm


(E3)(L1) http://drw-www.adw.uni-heidelberg.de/drw/

parapherna | paraphernal | paraphernalgeld | paraphernalgut | paraphernalien | paraphernalspruch


(E?)(L?) http://drw-www.adw.uni-heidelberg.de/drw-cgi/zeige?term=Paraphernalien&index=lemmata

"Paraphernalien", pl.

wie "Paraphernalgut"
...


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=8&content=Paraphernalien
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Dt. "Paraphernalien" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1800 auf.

(E?)(L?) http://corpora.informatik.uni-leipzig.de/


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordmap.co/#Paraphernalien

This experiment brings together the power of Google Translate and the collective knowledge of Wikipedia to put into context the relationship between language and geographical space.


Erstellt: 2017-08

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