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*per- (W3)

Die Wurzel ide. "*per-" hat eine große Bedeutungsvariante. Im Kern geht es dabei um die Bedeutung dt. "hinüberführen", "hinüberbringen", "übersetzen".

(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20080726143746/http://www.bartleby.com/61/roots/IE395.html

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000.

Appendix I: Indo-European Roots

ENTRY: "*per-" (1)

DEFINITION:

Base of prepositions and preverbs with the basic meanings of "forward", "through", and a wide range of extended senses such as "in front of", "before", "early", "first", "chief", "toward", "against", "near", "at", "around".

Derivatives include "far", "paradise", "afford", "first", "protein", "veneer", "probe", "privy", "pristine", and "priest".

I. Basic form "*per-" and extended form "*peri".

1a. "turnverein", from Middle High German "vereinen", "to unite", from Old High German "far-";

1b. "veer" (2), from Middle Dutch "vieren", "to let out", "slacken";

1c. Germanic compound "*fer-getan" (see "ghend-");

1d. "frump", from Middle Dutch "verrompelen", "to wrinkle".

1a–1d all from Germanic "*fer-", "*far-", used chiefly as an intensive prefix denoting destruction, reversal, or completion.

2. Suffixed (comparative) form "*per-ero-", "farther away". "far", from Old English "feor", "feorr", "far", from Germanic "*ferera", "*ferra".

3. "per", "per-"; "paramount", "paramour", "parget", "parterre", "parvenu", from Latin "per", "through", "for", "by".

4. "peri-"; "perissodactyl", from Greek "peri", "around", "near", "beyond".

5a. "palanquin", "puggree", from Sanskrit "pari-", "couch";

5b. "paradise", from Avestan "pairi-", "around";

5c. "bard" (2), "purdah", from Old Persian "pari", "around", "over";

5d. Old Iranian compound "*pari-varaka-" (see "wer-" (4)).

a–d all from Indo-Iranian "*pari-", "around".

6. "perestroika", from Old Russian "pere-", "around", "again", from Slavic "*per-".

II. Zero-grade form "*pi-".

1a. "for", from Old English "for", "before", "instead of", "on account of";

1b. "for-", from Old English "for-", prefix denoting destruction, pejoration, exclusion, or completion.

Both a and b from Germanic "*fur", "before", "in".

2. Extended form "*pit-". "forth"; "afford", from Old English "forth", from Germanic "*furth-", "forward".

3. Suffixed (comparative) form "*pi-tero-". "further", from Old English "furthra", "furthor", "farther away", from Germanic "*furthera-".

4a. Compound "*pi-st-i-" or "*por-st-i-", with o-grade form "*por-" (see "sta-");

4b. "porrect", from Latin "por-", "forth", "forward".

Both a and b from Latin "por-" from "*pi-".

5. Suffixed form "*pi-sod" "parget", from Latin "porro", "forward".

III. Extended zero-grade form "*pie-".

1. Suffixed (superlative) form "*pie-mo-".

1a. "former" (2), from Old English "forma", "first", from Germanic "*fruma-", "*furma-";

1b. "foremost", from Old English "formest", "first", from Germanic "*frumista-", "*furmista-";

1c. Latin compound "prandium", "first meal", "late breakfast", "lunch" (probably from "*pram-d-ium" from "*piem-(e)d-yo-"; second element "*-ed-", "*-d-", "to eat"; see "ed-").

2. Suffixed (superlative) form "*pie-isto-" "first", from Old English "fyrst", "fyrest", "first", from Germanic "*furista-", "foremost".

3. Suffixed form "*pie-wo-".

3a. "prow", from Greek "proira", "forward part of a ship", from analogically suffixed form "*prow-arya";

3b. "protein", "protist", "proto-", "proton", from Greek "protos", "first", "foremost", from suffixed (superlative) form "*prow-ato-".

Both a and b from Greek "*prowo-", "first", "foremost".

4. Suffixed form "*pie-i". "arpent", from Latin "arepennis", "half-acre" (second element obscure), from Gaulish "ari" (combining form "are-"), "before", from Celtic "*pari", "*ari", "*are".

IV. Extended form "*piea".

1a. "fore", "fore-"; "forefather", from Old English "fore", "for", "before";

1b. "vorlage", from Old High German "fora", "before";

1c. "before", from Old English "beforan", "before", from Germanic prefixed and suffixed form "*bi-fora-na", "in the front" ("*bi-", "at", "by"; see "ambhi").

1a–1c all from Germanic "*fura", "before".

2. "para-" (1); "palfrey", from Greek "para", "beside", "alongside of", "beyond".

3. "Purana", from Sanskrit "pura", "before".

V. Extended form "*pro".

1a. "frae", "fro"; "froward", from Old Norse "fra", "from", from Germanic "*fra", "forward", "away from";

1b. Germanic "*fra-, "completely", in compounds (see "ed-", "aik-").

2. Suffixed form "*pro-mo-".

2a. "frame", "from", from Old English "fram", "forward", "from", from Germanic "*fram", "from";

2b. "furnish", "furniture", "veneer", from Old French "fournir", "furnir", "to supply", "provide", from Germanic derivative verb "*frumjan", "to further", from Germanic "*frum", "forward";

2c. "pram" 2, from Czech "prám", "raft".

3. Suffixed form "*pro-wo-".

3a. (i) "Frau", "Fräulein", from Old High German "frouwa", "lady";

3a. (ii) "Freyja", from Old Norse "freyja", "lady".

Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic "*frowo-", "lady", lengthened-grade feminine of "*frawan-"; "lord";

3b. "Frey", from Old Norse "Freyr", from Germanic "*frawa-", alteration of "*frawan-". "lord";

3c. form "*pro-wo-", independently created in Slavic. "naprapathy", from Old Church Slavonic "prav", "true".

4. "pride", "pro" (1), "pro-" (1), "prodigality", "proud", "prowess"; "improve", "purchase", from Latin "pro", "pro-", "before", "for", "instead of".

5. Suffixed form "*pro-no-". "prone", from Latin "pronus", "leaning forward".

6. Possible suffixed form "*pro-ko-". "reciprocal", from Latin compound "reciprocus", "alternating", "backward and forward" ("*re-ko-", "backward"; see "re-").

7. Suffixed adverb "*pro-kwe".

7a. "approach", "rapprochement", "reproach", from Latin "prope", "near";

7b. suffixed form "*prokw-inkwo-". "propinquity", from Latin "propinquus", "near";

7c. suffixed (superlative) form "*prokw-isamo-". "proximate"; "approximate", from Latin "proximus", "nearest".

8. Compound "*pro-bhw-o-", "growing well or straightforward" ("*bhw-o-", "to grow"; see "bheu-"). "probable", "probe", "probity", "proof", "prove"; "approve", "improbity", "reprove", from Latin "probus", "upright", "good", "virtuous".

9. "pro-" (2), from Greek "pro", "before", "in front", "forward".

10. Suffixed (comparative) form "*pro-tero-". "hysteron proteron", "Proterozoic", from Greek "proteros", "before", "former".

11. "Prakrit", from Sanskrit "pra-", "before", "forth".

12. Celtic "*ro-", intensive prefix. "galore", from Old Irish "roar", "enough", from Celtic compound "*ro-wero-", "sufficiency" ("*-wero-", see "were-o-").

VI. Extended forms "*prai-", "*prei-".

1a. "pre-"; "preterit", from Latin "prae", "before";

1b. compound "*prai-ghes-to-" (see "ghes-").

2. Suffixed (comparative) form "*prei-yos-". "prior" (2), from Latin "prior", "former", "higher", "superior".

3. Suffixed form "*prei-wo-".

3a. "private", "privilege", "privity", "privy"; "deprive", from Latin "privus", "single", "alone" (- "standing in front", "isolated from others");

3b. "proper", "property"; "appropriate", "expropriate", "proprioception", "proprioceptor", "proprium", from Latin "proprius", "one's own", "particular" (- "pro privo", "in particular", from the ablative of "privus", "single"; "pro", "for"; see V. 4.).

4. Extended form "*preis-".

4a. Suffixed (superlative) form "*preis-mo-".

4a (i) "premier", "primal", "primary", "primate", "prime", "primitive", "primo", "primus"; "imprimis", "primavera1", "primeval", "primipara", "primogenitor", "primogeniture", "primordial", from Latin "primus" (- "*prismus"; ablative plural "primis"), "first", "foremost";

4a (ii) "prince", "principal", "principle", from Latin compound "prnceps", "he who takes first place", "leader", "chief", "emperor" ("-ceps", "-taker"; see "kap-");

4b. suffixed form "*preis-tano-". "pristine", from Latin "pristinus", "former", "earlier", "original".

VII. Extended form "*pres-" in compound "*pres-gwu-", "going before" ("*gw-u-", "going"; see "gw-"). "presbyter", "Prester John", "priest"; "presbyopia", from Greek "presbus", "old", "old man", "elder".

VIII. Extended form "*proti". "pros-", from Greek "pros", "against", "toward", "near", "at".

(Pokorny 2. A. per 810.) Other possibly related forms are grouped under "per-" (2), "per-" (3), "per-" (4), and "per-" (5).


(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20080726143746/http://www.bartleby.com/61/roots/IE396.html

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000.

Appendix I: Indo-European Roots

ENTRY: "*per-" (2)

DEFINITION:

"To lead", "pass over". A verbal root belonging to the group of "per" (1).

Derivatives include "fjord", "welfare", "emporium", "opportune", "important", and "sport".

I. Full-grade form "*per-".

1. Suffixed form "*per-tu-". "firth", "fjord", from Old Norse "fjördhr", "an inlet", "estuary", from Germanic "*ferthuz", "place for crossing over", "ford".

2. Suffixed form "*per-ona-". "peroneal", from Greek "perone", "pin of a brooch", "buckle" (- "that which pierces through").

3. Suffixed form "*per-yo-". "diapir", from Greek "peirein", "to pierce".

4. Suffixed form "*per-tra-". "petro-", "petrous", "pier"; "parsley", "petrify", "petroleum", "saltpeter", from Greek "petra", "cliff", "rock" (dissimilated from "*pertra-"), with possible earlier meaning "bedrock" (- "what one comes through to").

5. Suffixed form "*per-wi", "*per-wn-", "bedrock", "a coming through", "what one comes through to", and derived adjective "*per-wn-to-", "rocky". "Parvati", from Sanskrit "parvatah", "mountain".

II. O-grade form "*por-".

1a. (i) "fare"; "warfare", "wayfarer", "wayfaring", "welfare", from Old English "faran", "to go on a journey", "get along";

1a. (ii) "fieldfare", from Old English "feldeware", possibly altered by folk etymology in Old English from an earlier "*feldefare", from "*fare", "a goer", from "faran" (see (i) above);

1b. "gaberdine", from Old High German "faran", "to go", "travel";

1c. "fartlek", from Old Norse "fara", "to go", "move".

a–c all from Germanic "*faran", "to go".

2. Suffixed form "*por-o-", "passage", "journey". "pore" (2); "aporia", "emporium", "poromeric", from Greek "poros", "journey", "passage".

3. Suffixed (causative) form "*por-eyo-", "to cause to go", "lead", "conduct".

3a. "ferry", from Old English "ferian", "to transport", from Germanic "*farjan", "to ferry";

3b. "guar", from Sanskrit "parayati", "palayati", "he leads across", "brings to safety".

4. Lengthened-grade form "*por-".

4a. "fere", from Old English "fera", "gefera", "fellow-traveler", "companion" ("ge-", "together", "with"; see "kom"), from Germanic suffixed form "*for-ja-";

4b. "führer", from Old High German "fuoren", "to lead", from Germanic suffixed (causative) form "*for-jan".

5. Possibly suffixed form "*por-no-", "feather", "wing" (- "that which carries a bird in flight").

5a. "fern", from Old English "fearn", "fern" ("having feathery fronds"), from Germanic "*farno", "feather", "leaf";

5b. "pan" (2), from Sanskrit "param", "leaf", "feather".

III. Zero-grade form "*pi-".

1. Suffixed form "*pi-tu-", "passage".

1a. "ford", from Old English "ford", "shallow place where one may cross a river", from Germanic "*furdu-";

1b. "port" (1); "importune", "opportune", "passport", from Latin "portus", "harbor" (- "passage").

2. Suffixed form "*pi-ta-". "porch", "port" (3), "portal", "portcullis", "porter" (2), "portico", "portière", "portulaca", "purslane", from Latin "porta", "gate".

3. Suffixed (denominative) form "*pi-to-". "port" (5), "portable", "portage", "portamento", "portative", "porter" (1); "comport", "deport", "export", "import", "important", "portfolio", "purport", "rapport", "report", "sport", "support", "transport", from Latin "portare", "to carry". (Pokorny 2. B. per 816.)


(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20080726143746/http://www.bartleby.com/61/roots/IE397.html

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000.

Appendix I: Indo-European Roots

ENTRY: "*per-" (3)

DEFINITION:

"To try", "risk" (- "to lead over", "press forward"). A verbal root belonging to the group of "per-" (1).

1. Lengthened grade "*per-". "fear", from Old English "f?r", "danger", "sudden calamity", from Germanic "*feraz", "danger".

2. Suffixed form "*peri-tlo-". "parlous", "peril", from Latin "periclum", "periculum", "trial", "danger".

3. Suffixed form "*per-yo-". "experience", "experiment", "expert", from Latin "experiri", "to try", "learn by trying" ("ex-", "from"; see "eghs").

4. Suffixed form "*per-ya". "pirate"; "empiric", from Greek "peira", "trial", "attempt". (Pokorny 2. E. "per" 818.)


(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20080726143746/http://www.bartleby.com/61/roots/IE398.html

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000.

Appendix I: Indo-European Roots

ENTRY: "*per-" (4)

DEFINITION:

"To strike". A verbal root possibly belonging to the group of "per-" (1). Extended forms "*prem-", "*pres-". "pregnant" (2), "press" (1), "pressure", "print"; "appressed", "après", "compress", "depress", "espresso", "express", "impress" (1), "imprimatur", "imprint", "oppress", "repress", "reprimand", "reprisal", "reprise", "suppress", from Latin "premere" (past participle "pressus"), "to press". (Pokorny 3. "per-" 818.)


(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20080726143746/http://www.bartleby.com/61/roots/IE399.html

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000.

Appendix I: Indo-European Roots

ENTRY: "*per-" (5)

DEFINITION:

"To traffic in", "sell" (- "to hand over", "distribute"). A verbal root belonging to the group of "per" (1). Base of two distinct extended roots.

I. Root form "*pret-".

1. "interpret", from Latin compound "inter-pres" (stem "inter-pret-"), "go-between", "negotiator" ("inter-", "between"; see "en").

2. Suffixed form "*pret-yo-". "praise", "precious", "price"; "appraise", "appreciate", "depreciate", from Latin "pretium", "price".

II. Variant root form "*pero-". Suffixed form "*per-n-o-", "*pr-n-o-", with o-grade "*pore-na-", "*por-na-". "pornography", from Greek "porne", "prostitute", from "pernanai", "to sell". (In Pokorny 2. C. "per" 817.)


(E?)(L?) http://www.ety.nl/etywrdfam.html

"*per" indoeuropees (oversteken ["tauschen", "überqueren", "gehen über", "fahren über"], doorreizen ["durchreisen"], beproeven ["versuchen", "ausprobieren", "erproben", "prüfen", "heimsuchen"])


(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*per-

"*per-" (1)

Proto-Indo-European root forming prepositions, etc., meaning "forward", and, by extension, "in front of", "before", "first", "chief", "toward", "near", "against", etc.

It forms all or part of: "afford"; "approach"; "appropriate"; "approve"; "approximate"; "barbican"; "before"; "deprive"; "expropriate"; "far"; "first"; "for"; "for-"; "fore"; "fore-"; "forefather"; "foremost"; "former" (adj.); "forth"; "frame"; "frau"; "fret"; "Freya"; "fro"; "froward"; "from"; "furnish"; "furniture"; "further"; "galore"; "hysteron-proteron"; "impervious"; "improbity"; "impromptu"; "improve"; "palfrey"; "par" (prep.);

"para-" (1) "alongside", "beyond"; "altered"; "contrary"; "irregular", "abnormal";

paradise"; "pardon"; "paramount"; "paramour"; "parvenu"; "pellucid"; "per"; "per-"; "percent"; "percussion"; "perennial"; "perestroika"; "perfect"; "perfidy"; "perform"; "perfume"; "perfunctory"; "perhaps"; "peri-"; "perish"; "perjury"; "permanent"; "permeate"; "permit"; "pernicious"; "perpendicular"; "perpetual"; "perplex"; "persecute"; "persevere"; "perspective"; "perspire"; "persuasion"; "pertain"; "peruse"; "pervade"; "pervert"; "pierce"; "portray"; "postprandial"; "prae-"; "Prakrit"; "pre-"; "premier"; "presbyter"; "Presbyterian"; "preterite"; "pride"; "priest"; "primal"; "primary"; "primate"; "primavera"; "prime"; "primeval"; "primitive"; "primo"; "primogenitor"; "primogeniture"; "primordial"; "primus"; "prince"; "principal"; "principle"; "prior"; "pristine"; "private"; "privilege"; "privy";

"pro" (n.2) "a consideration or argument in favor";

"pro-"; "probably"; "probe"; "probity"; "problem"; "proceed"; "proclaim"; "prodigal"; "produce"; "profane"; "profess"; "profile"; "profit"; "profound"; "profuse"; "project"; "promise"; "prompt"; "prone"; "proof"; "proper"; "property"; "propinquity"; "prophet"; "prose"; "prostate"; "prosthesis"; "protagonist"; "Protean"; "protect"; "protein"; "Proterozoic"; "protest"; "proto-"; "protocol"; "proton"; "protoplasm"; "Protozoa"; "proud"; "prove"; "proverb"; "provide"; "provoke"; "prow"; "prowess"; "proximate"; "Purana"; "purchase"; "purdah"; "reciprocal"; "rapprochement"; "reproach"; "reprove"; "veneer".

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Old Irish "air-", Gothic "fair-", German "ver-", Old English "fer-", intensive prefixes.


"*per-" (2)

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to lead", "pass over". A verbal root associated with "*per-" (1), which forms prepositions and preverbs with the basic meaning "forward", "through"; "in front of", "before", etc.

It forms all or part of: "aporia"; "asportation"; "comport"; "deport"; "disport"; "emporium"; "Euphrates"; "export"; "fare"; "farewell"; "fartlek"; "Ferdinand"; "fere"; "fern"; "ferry"; "firth"; "fjord"; "ford"; "Fuhrer"; "gaberdine"; "import"; "important"; "importune"; "opportune"; "opportunity"; "passport"; "porch";

"pore" (n.) "minute opening";

"port" (n.1) "harbor";

"port" (n.2) "gateway", "entrance";

"port" (n.3) "bearing", "mien";

"port" (v.) "to carry";

"portable"; "portage"; "portal"; "portcullis";

"porter" (n.1) "person who carries";

"porter" (n.2) "doorkeeper", "janitor";

"portfolio"; "portico"; "portiere"; "purport"; "rapport"; "report"; "sport"; "support"; "transport"; "warfare"; "wayfarer"; "welfare".

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "parayati" "carries over"; Greek "poros" "journey", "passage", "way", Sanskrit "peirein" "to pierce", "pass through", "run through"; Latin "portare" "to carry", Latin "porta" "gate", "door", Latin "portus" "port", "harbor", originally "entrance", "passage", Latin "peritus" "experienced"; Avestan "peretush" "passage", "ford", "bridge"; Armenian "hordan" "go forward"; Old Welsh "rit", Welsh "rhyd" "ford"; Old Church Slavonic "pariti" "to fly"; Old English "faran" "to go", "journey", Old Norse "fjörðr" "inlet", "estuary".

"*per-" (3)

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to try", "risk", an extended sense from root "*per-" (1) "forward", via the notion of "to lead across", "press forward".

It forms all or part of: "empiric"; "empirical"; "experience"; "experiment"; "expert"; "fear"; "parlous"; "peril"; "perilous"; "pirate".

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin "experiri" "to try", Latin "periculum" "trial", "risk", "danger"; Greek "peria" "trial", "attempt", "experience", Greek "empeiros" "experienced"; Old Irish "aire" "vigilance"; Old English "fær" "calamity", "sudden danger", "peril", "sudden attack", German "Gefahr" "danger", Gothic "ferja" "watcher".

"*per-" (4)

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to strike", an extended sense from root "*per-" (1) "forward", "through".

It forms all or part of: "compress"; "depress"; "espresso"; "express";

"impress" (v.1) "have a strong effect on the mind or heart";

"imprimatur"; "imprint"; "oppress"; "oppression";

"pregnant" (adj.2) "convincing", "weighty", "pithy";

"press" (v.1) "push against";

"pressure"; "print"; "repress"; "reprimand"; "suppress".

"*per-" (5)

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to traffic in", "to sell", an extended sense from root "*per-" (1) "forward", "through" via the notion of "to hand over" or "distribute".

It forms all or part of: "appraise"; "appreciate"; "depreciate"; "interpret"; "praise"; "precious"; "price"; "pornography".

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "aprata" "without recompense", "gratuitously"; Greek "porne" "prostitute", originally "bought", "purchased", Greek "pernanai" "to sell"; Latin "pretium" "reward", "prize", "value", "worth"; Lithuanian "perku" "I buy".

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(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/per-

"per-"

word-forming element meaning "through", "throughout"; "thoroughly"; "entirely", "utterly", from Latin preposition "per" (see "per" (prep.)).

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(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/per

"per" (prep.)

1580s (earlier in various Latin and French phrases), from Latin "per" "through", "during", "by means of", "on account of", "as in", from PIE root "*per-" (1) "forward", hence "through", "in front of", "before", "first", "chief", "toward", "near", "around", "against".

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| *per- | per- | par | par excellence | paradise | paramount | passe-partout | per annum | per capita | per diem | perceive | percent | peregrinate | peregrination | peregrine | peremptory | perfect | perfervid | perfuse | perhaps | periwinkle | perjury | permutation | permute | pernicious | perpendicular | perquisite | persevere | persuasion | pertinacity | pertussis | peruse | pervert


(E?)(L?) http://projetbabel.org/mots/index.php?p=port

Les grandes familles de mots par Jean-Claude Rolland

La famille "PORT"

Patriarche indoeuropéen : "*PER-", "*PER-T-", "traverser"; "risque", "épreuve"

Les branches

1. Les principaux ancêtres latins de cette famille sont le verbe "portare", « porter », et les noms "porta", « ouverture, porte de ville », et "portus", « passage, entrée d’un port, port ». En sont issus presque tous les mots français qui contiennent le radical "-port-" :

"port", "portable", "portail", "portatif", "portée", "porter", "porteur", "portier", "portière", "portillon", "portique", "portuaire", "Porto", "Portugal", ...

"aéroport", "apport", "colporter", "comportement", "comporter", "déportation", "emporter", "exporter", "important", "importer", "importun", "opportun", "opportuniste", "passeport", "rapport", "remporter", "report", "reportage", "reporter" (n.m.), "reporter" (v.), "sport", "support", "supporter" (n.m.), "supporter" (v.), "transport", ...

2. Un autre ancêtre latin de cette famille est le verbe "experiri", « essayer », participe passé "expertus", « éprouvé, qui a fait ses preuves ». En sont issus quelques mots français qui contiennent le radical "-per-" :

"expérience", "expérimenté", "expert", "péril", "périlleux", "péricliter", "impéritie", ...

3. Il y a aussi une branche grecque dans la famille, représentée d’une part par le radical "-peir-" tel qu’on le trouve dans "peira", « épreuve, tentative, expérience, essai », "peiran", « essayer, entreprendre », "empeira", « expérience », et d’autre part le nom "poros", « conduit, passage ». En sont issus quelques mots français qui contiennent les radicaux "-pir-" ou "-pore-" :

"pirate", "piratage", "pirater", "piraterie", "empirique", "empirisme", ...

"pore", "poreux", "porosité", "aporie"

L’invité masqué

Dans "port-", il cache son "t" : "porche", du latin "porticus". C’est donc un doublet de "portique". (Aucun rapport avec "porc" et "porcher" qui viennent du latin "porcus", « porc ».)

Curiosités

1. "sport" est un emprunt (1828) à l’anglais "sport" (XVe s.), d’abord « divertissement », puis, au pluriel (XVIe s.) s’appliquant à des activités corporelles effectuées par plaisir, souvent dans un esprit de compétition. L’anglais vient d’une aphérèse de "disport", « passe-temps, récréation, jeu » (XIVe s.), lui-même emprunté à l’ancien français "desport" (XIIe s.), variante de "deport", « divertissement », déverbal de l’ancien français "se desporter", « s’amuser, se divertir ». Ce dernier mot a suivi de ce côté-ci de la Manche une tout autre et moins réjouissante évolution, puisqu’il a abouti aux tristement célèbres "déporter" et "déportation".

2. Il y a d’autres mots que certains étymologistes rattachent à cette famille, notamment l’"Euphrates", « (le fleuve) bon à traverser » ou des descendants de la branche germanique comme "fjord", "Oxford", "ferry", les prénoms "Fernand" et "Ferdinand", ou encore le "Führer" de sinistre mémoire.

Faux frères

1. "empire" et "empirer" sont sans rapport avec "empirique". Pour le premier, voir la famille "PART", et pour le deuxième, voir la famille "PÉTITION".

2. "portion" et "proportion", du latin "portio", génitif "portionis", ne seraient liés ni à "port" ni même à "part", comme on l’a longtemps pensé, mais aux doublets "raison" et "ration" issus du latin "ratio", génitif "rationis".

3. "percer" : issu d’un latin populaire "*pertusiare", “faire un trou, perforer”, dérivé de "pertusum", supin du verbe classique "pertundere", même sens.

4. "repère" et "repaire" : "repaire", dérivé de l’ancien français "repairier", “rentrer chez soi”, du latin "repatriare" (fr. "rapatrier"), a d’abord signifié “retour chez soi”, puis “habitation”, puis “retraite de bêtes sauvages”, et enfin “retraite de malfaiteurs”. Quant à "repère", à l’origine simple variante orthographique de "repaire", il avait pris au XVIe s. le sens de “retour à un certain point”. Il signifie maintenant “marque, jalon” et s’emploie surtout dans le nom composé "point de repère". Dérivé : "repérer".

5. Pour d’autres mots en "-per-", voir la famille "PART".

Dans d’autres langues indoeuropéennes

esp. "aportar", "empírico", "emporio", "experiencia", "fiordo", "oportuno", "peligro", "periclitar", "perito", "pirata", "porche", "poro", "portal", "puerta", "puerto"

port. "aportar", "empírico", "empório", "experiência", "oportuno", "perícia", "periclitar", "perigo", "pirata", "poro", "porta", "porto", "reportar", "transportar"

it. "opportuno", "pericolo", "periglio", "perito", "perizia", "pirata", "porta", "porto", "portone", "portiera", "rapporto", "sperimento"

angl. "emporium", "export", "fare", "fear", "ferry", "firth", "fjord", "ford", "importunate", "Oxford", "porch", "pore", "port", "portal", "report", "sport", "support"

all. "fahren", "Fahrt", "Fährte", "Fuhre", "führen", "Führer", "Furt", "Gefahr", "gefährden", "Pforte", "Portal", "Portier"

rus. "???", ...


Erstellt: 2018-12

*pere- (W3)

Die Wurzel ide. "*pere" hat eine große Bedeutungsvariante. Im Kern geht es dabei um die Bedeutung dt. "hinüberführen", "hinüberbringen", "übersetzen".

(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20080624094416/http://www.bartleby.com:80/61/roots/IE401.html

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000.

Appendix I: Indo-European Roots

ENTRY: "*pere-" (1)

DEFINITION:

"To produce", "procure". Oldest form "*pere-"; possibly related to "*pere-" (2). See also "*per-" (5) II.

Derivatives include "parade", "parry", "emperor", "parachute", "sever", and "parent".

I. Zero-grade form "*pie-" (becoming "*par-" in Latin).

Ia. Suffixed form "*par-a". "parade", "pare", "parlay", "parry", "parure"; "apparatus", "apparel", "comprador", "disparate", "emperor", "imperative", "imperator", "imperial", "parachute", "parasol", "prepare", "rampart", "repair" (1), "separate", "sever", "several", from Latin "parare", "to try to get", "prepare", "equip";

Ib. suffixed form "*par-yo-". "–para", "parity" (2), "–parous", "parturient", "postpartum", "repertory", "viper", from Latin "parere", "parire", "to get", "beget", "give birth";

Ic. "parallel" suffixed (participial) form "*par-ent-". "parent", from Latin "parens", "parent";

Id. suffixed form "*par-o-", "producing":

Id.(i) "juniper", from Latin "iuniperus", "juniper", perhaps from compound "*yoini-paros", "producing juniper berries" ("*yoini-", "juniper berry");

Id.(ii) compound "*pau-paros" (see "*pau-");

Id.(iii) Italic compound "*wiwo-paros" (see "*gwei-");

Ie. suffixed form "*par-ika-". "Parcae", from Latin "Parcae", "the Fates" (who assign one's destiny).

II. Suffixed o-grade form "*poro-si-", "*por-si-". "heifer", from Old English "heahfore", "calf", a compound (with obscure first element) of "fearr", "calf", from Germanic "*farzi-". (Pokorny 2. D. "*per-" 818.)


(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20080625052844/http://www.bartleby.com:80/61/roots/IE402.html

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000.

Appendix I: Indo-European Roots

ENTRY: "*pere-" (2)

DEFINITION:

"To grant", "allot" (reciprocally, to get in return). Oldest form "*pere-". Possibly related to "*pere-" (1). See also "*per-" (5)

II. Zero-grade form "*pie-" (becoming "*par-" in Latin). IIa. Suffixed form "*par-ti-". "parcel", "parcener", "parse", "part", "particle", "partisan", "partita", "party"; "bipartite", "compart", "impart", "participate", "repartee", from Latin "pars" (stem "part-"), "a share", "part";

IIb. possibly suffixed form "*par-tion-". "portion", "proportion", from Latin "portio", "a part" (first attested in the phrase "pro portione", "in proportion", "according to each part", perhaps assimilated from "*pro partione");

IIc. perhaps Latin "par", "equal": "pair", "par", "parity" (1), "peer" (2); "compare", "imparity", "nonpareil", "pari-mutuel". (Pokorny 2. C. "*per-" 817.)


(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*pere-

ide. "*pere-" (1)

"*pere-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to produce", "procure" and yielding and derived words in diverse senses; possibly related to "*pere-" (2) "to grant", "allot".

It forms all or part of: "ante-partum"; "apparatus"; "apparel"; "biparous"; "disparate"; "emperor"; "empire"; "heifer"; "imperative"; "imperator"; "imperial"; "juniper"; "multiparous"; "nulliparous"; "oviparous";

ide. "*para-" (2) "defense", "protection against"; "that which protects from"; "Parabellum"; "parachute"; "parade"; "parados"; "parapet"; "parasol"; "pare"; "parent"; "-parous"; "parry"; "parturient"; "poor"; "post-partum"; "preparation"; "prepare"; "primipara"; "puerperal"; "rampart"; "repair" (v.1) "to mend", "put back in order"; "repertory"; "separate"; "sever"; "several"; "spar" (v.); "viper"; "vituperation"; "viviparous".

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "prthukah" "child", "calf", "young of an animal"; Greek "poris" "calf", "bull"; Latin "parare" "make ready", "prepare", "parire" "produce", "bring forth", "give birth to"; Czech "spratek" "brat", "urchin", "premature calf"; Lithuanian "periu", "pereti" "to brood"; Old High German "farro", German "Farre" "bullock", Old English "fearr" "bull".

ide. "*pere-" (2)

ide. "*pere-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to grant", "allot" (and reciprocally, "to get in return"); possibly related to "*pere-" (1) "to produce", "procure".

It forms all or part of: "apart"; "apartment"; "bipartient"; "bipartisan"; "bipartite"; "compartment"; "depart"; "department"; "ex parte"; "impart"; "jeopardy"; "multipartite"; "parcel"; "parse"; "part"; "partial"; "participate"; "participation"; "particle"; "particular"; "particulate"; "partisan"; "partition"; "partitive"; "partner"; "party"; "portion"; "proportion"; "quadripartite"; "repartee"; "tripartite".

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "purtam" "reward"; Hittite "parshiya-" "fraction", "part"; Greek "peprotai" "it has been granted"; Latin "partem" (nominative "pars") "a part", "piece", "portio" "share", "portion".


(E1)(L1) http://www.koeblergerhard.de/idg/4A/idg.html

"*pere-", idg., V.:

Verweise: s. "*per-" (2B)

"*pere-", idg., V.:

Verweise: s. "*per-" (1)

"*pere-", idg., V.:

Verweise: s. "*per"- (2C)




(E?)(L?) http://www.takeourword.com/TOW182/page2.html

...
"Separate" the verb comes from Latin "separat-", the past participle of "separare", which is formed from the prefix "se-" "without", "apart" and "parare" "make ready". The sense is "prepare something by parting it from something else" - pretty much what we mean by the verb "to pare". We first encounter "separate" in written English in the early 15th century. The Indo-European root of "parare" is "*pere-" "to produce", "procure", which also gave us the words "parade", "parlay", "parry", "apparel", disparate", "parachute", "parasol", "pare", and "prepare".

The Indo-European root of the prefix "se-" is "se-", "swe-" "pronoun of the third person", and the etymological sense in the Latin "se-" is "on one's own" and therefore "apart" from everyone else. Some derivatives of that root are "self", "gossip", "suicide", "secede", "seclude", "secret", "segregate", and "sever".

"Apart", on the other hand, comes from a different source. English borrowed it from French "à part" where "à" means "to" and "part" means "place", "side", so that "apart" is etymologically "to the side". It dates from the late 14th century in English. Calvert Watkins, who put together the American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, believes that "part" comes from a similar yet different Indo-European root than "parare "(though he does note that the two roots may be related to one another). He feels it comes from "*pere-" (2) "to grant", "allot".

Perhaps in a very broad sense you can think of "separate" and "apart" as related, ...
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.takeourword.com/TOW183/page4.html
Der span. "parasol" = dt. "Sonnenschirm", "Sonnenblende" ist nicht "für die Sonne" sondern "gegen die Sonne".


Your last issue of "Words to the Wise" listed "parasol" as coming from the Indo-European root "*pere-" "to produce", "procure". I once had a Mexican-born Spanish teacher who accredited "parasol" to a more modern Spanish construction: "para" meaning "for" and "sol" meaning "sun", or "for the sun". Much like the Spanish word for "umbrella", "paraguas" is "for the waters", more specifically, "rain". Perhaps he was just full of nationalistic hot air?

He may have simply assumed that "parasol" was formed on the same basis as "paraguas"; unfortunately, his assumption was not correct (though it is understandable!). It actually comes ultimately from Italian "para sole", where "para" comes from "parare" "to ward" or "defend", "to cover from", "to shield", "to shroud", "to shelter". "Sole" is, of course, the same as Spanish "sol": "sun".


Erstellt: 2018-12

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