Etymologie, Etimología, Étymologie, Etimologia, Etymology
EI Alles ist im Eimer
Etymologische Verwandtschaften, Bekanntschaften und Assoziationen
ist, es, est, è, is

A

am (W3)

Engl. "am" (engl. "I am" = dt. "ich bin") wird auf eine Wurzel ide. "*es-" = dt. "sein", zurück geführt (weitere Formen: ide. "*esmi-" und germ. "*izmi-").

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/am

"am" (v.), first person singular present indicative of "be" (q.v.); Old English "eom" = "to be", "to remain", (Mercian "eam", Northumbrian "am"), from Proto-Germanic "*izm-", "*izmi-", from PIE "*esmi-" (source also of Old Norse "emi", Gothic "im", Hittite "esmi", Old Church Slavonic "jesmi", Lithuanian "esmi"), first person singular form of root "*es-" = "to be".

In Old English it formed only present tenses, all other forms being expressed in the W-BASE (see "were", "was"). This cooperative verb is sometimes referred to by linguists as "*es-*wes-". Until the distinction broke down 13c., "*es-*wes-" tended to express "existence", with "beon" meaning something closer to "come to be".

Old English "am" had two plural forms:

1. "sind"/"sindon", "sie" and

2. "earon"/"aron".

The s- form (also used in the subjunctive) fell from English in the early 13c. (though its cousin continues in German "sind", the 3rd person plural of "to be") and was replaced by forms of "be", but "aron" (see "are") continued, and as "am" and "be" merged it encroached on some uses that previously had belonged to "be". By the early 1500s it had established its place in standard English.

Related Entries


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=am
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "am" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1520 auf.

Erstellt: 2020-02

are (W3)

Engl. "are" (engl. "we are", "you are", "they are"), wird auf die Wurzel ide. "*es-" = dt. "sein" zurück geführt (mit Verschiebungen "s" - "z" - "r"), die auch für die Existenz von dt. "sein", "ist", "sind", "seid", verantwortlich gemacht wird.

In English, the complicated irregular verb "be" / "is" / "were" has forms from several different roots:

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/are

"are" (v.), present plural indicative of "be" (q.v.), from Old English "earun" (Mercian), "aron" (Northumbrian), from Proto-Germanic "*ar-", probably a variant of PIE "*es-" "to be" (see "am"). Also from Old Norse cognates.

In 17c. it began to replace "be", "ben" as first person plural present indicative in standard English. The only non-dialectal survival of "be" in this sense is "the powers that be". But in southwest England, "we be" (in Devonshire "us be") remains non-standard idiom as a contradictory positive ("You people aren't speaking correct English." "Oh, yes we be!"), and "we be" has reappeared in African-American vernacular.


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=are
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "are" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1520 auf.

Erstellt: 2020-02

B

be (W3)

Engl. "be" = dt. "sein", wird auf die Wurzel ide. "*bheu-" = dt. "wachsen", "gedeihen", "entstehen", "werden", "sein", "wohnen", "aufblasen", "schwellen" zurück geführt, die auch für die Existenz von dt. "(ich) bin", dt. "(du) bist", dt. "bauen" und dt. "Busen" verantwortlich gemacht wird.

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/be

"be" (v.)

Old English "beon", "beom", "bion" = "be", "exist", "come to be", "become", "happen", from Proto-Germanic "*biju-" = "I am", "I will be". This "b-root" is from PIE root "*bheue-" = "to be", "exist", "grow", and in addition to the words in English it yielded German present first and second person singular ("bin", "bist", from Old High German "bim" = "I am", "bist" = "thou art"), Latin perfective tenses of "esse" ("fui" = "I was", etc.), Old Church Slavonic "byti" = "be", Greek "phu-" = "become", Old Irish "bi'u" = "I am", Lithuanian "buti" = "to be", Russian "byt'" = "to be", etc.

The modern verb "to be" in its entirety represents the merger of two once-distinct verbs, the "b-root" represented by "be" and the "am/was" verb, which was itself a conglomerate. Roger Lass ("Old English") describes the verb as "a collection of semantically related paradigm fragments", while Weekley calls it "an accidental conglomeration from the different Old English dial[ect]s." It is the most irregular verb in Modern English and the most common. Collective in all Germanic languages, it has eight different forms in Modern English:

The paradigm in Old English was:

The "b-root" had no past tense in Old English, but often served as future tense of "am/was". In 13c. it took the place of the infinitive, participle and imperative forms of "am/was". Later its plural forms ("we beth", "ye ben", "they be") became standard in Middle English and it made inroads into the singular ("I be", "thou beest", "he beth"), but forms of "are" claimed this turf in the 1500s and replaced "be" in the plural. For the origin and evolution of the "am/was" branches of this tangle, see "am" and "was".

That but this blow Might be the be all, and the end all. ["Macbeth" I.vii.5]

Related Entries


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=be
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "be" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1520 auf.

Erstellt: 2020-01

be
Konjugationstabelle und Zuordnung zu ide. Wurzel (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://english.cactus2000.de/showverb.php?verb=be

Konjugationstabellen


engl. "to be" ide. "*es-" ide. "*bheu-" ide. "ues-" / "*wes-"
Bedeutung der ide. Wurzel dt. "sein" dt. "wachsen"
dt. "werden"
dt. "sein"
dt. "verweilen"
dt. "wohnen"
dt. "übernachten"
Infinitive Present
to be x
Indicative Present
I am (aind. "ásmi") x
you are x
he/she/it is x
we are x
you are x
they are x
Indicative Past Tense
I was x
you were x
he/she/it was x
we were x
you were x
they were x


Erstellt: 2020-01

been (W3)

Das Verb engl. "been" (Partizip Perfekt von engl. "be" = dt. "sein") wird auf die Wurzel ide. "*bheu-" = dt. "wachsen", "gedeihen", "entstehen", "werden", "sein", "wohnen", "aufblasen", "schwellen" zurück geführt.

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/been

"been" (v.), past participle of "be". Dismissive slang phrase "been there, done that" attested from 1994 ("been there" "had the experience", usually of something disreputable, is from 1880s).

Related Entries


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=been
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "been" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1520 auf.

Erstellt: 2020-02

*bheu- (W3)

Auf die Wurzel ide. "*bheu-" = dt. "wachsen", "gedeihen", "entstehen", "werden", "sein", "wohnen", "aufblasen", "schwellen" werden folgende Worte und Konjugationsformen von "sein" zurück geführt:

(E?)(L?) https://ahdictionary.com/word/indoeurop.html

ide. "*bheue-", Also "*bheu-"

"To be", "exist", "grow". Oldest form "*bheuhx".

Derivatives include "be", "husband", "imp", "physics", "future", "neighbor", and "beam".

I. Extended forms "*bhwiy-", "*bhwiyo-", "*bhwi-".

1. "be"; "forebear", from Old English "beon" = "to be", from Germanic "*biju" = "I am", "will be".

2. "fiat", from Latin "fieri" = "to become".

3. Possibly suffixed form "*bhwi-lyo-", seen by some as the source of Latin "filius" = "son", but this is more likely from "dhe-", "dhei-".

II. Lengthened o-grade form "*bhow-".

a. "bondage", "bound" (4); "bustle" (1), "husband", from Old Norse "bua" = "to live", "prepare", and "buask" = "to make oneself ready" ("-sk", reflexive suffix; see "se-", "swe-");

b. "Bauhaus", from Old High German "buan" = "to dwell";

c. "booth", from Middle English "bothe" = "market stall", from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Danish "both" = "dwelling", "stall".

II a-c from Germanic "*bowan".

III. Zero-grade form "*bhu-".

1a. "build", from Old English "byldan" = "to build", from "bold" = "dwelling", "house", from Germanic "*buthla-";

1b. "boodle", from Middle Dutch "bodel" = "riches", "property", from alternate Germanic form "*bothla".

2. "physic", "physics", "physio-", "physique", "-phyte", "phyto-", "phyton"; "apophysis", "diaphysis", "diphyodont", "epiphysis", "euphuism", "hypophysis", "imp", "Monophysite", "neophyte", "periphyton", "symphysis", "tracheophyte", from Greek "phuein" = "to bring forth", "make grow", "phutos", "phuton" = "a plant", and "phusis" = "growth", "nature".

3. Suffixed form "*bhu-ta-".

3a. "eisteddfod", from Welsh "bod" = "to be";

3b. "bothy", from Old Irish "both" = "a hut".

4. Suffixed form "*bhu-tu-". "future", from Latin "futurus" = "that is to be", "future".

IV. Zero-grade form "*bhu-" (- "*bhue-").

1a. "bower" (1), from Old English "bur" = "dwelling space", "bower", "room";

1b. "neighbor", from Old English "gebur" = "dweller" ("ge-", collective prefix; see "kom");

1c. "Boer", "boor", from Middle Dutch "gheboer", "ghebuer" = "peasant".

1a-1c all from Germanic "*buram" = "dweller", especially "farmer".

2. "byre", from Old English "byre" = "stall", "hut", from Germanic "*burjam" = "dwelling".

3. "bylaw", from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse "byr" = "settlement", from Germanic "*buwi-".

4. Suffixed form "*bhu-lo-". "phyle", "phyletic", "phylum"; "phylogeny", from Greek "phulon" = "tribe", "class", "race", and "phule" = "tribe", "clan".

V. Zero-grade reduced suffixal form "*-bhw-", in Latin compounds.

1. Latin "dubius" = "doubtful", and "dubitare" = "to doubt", from "*du-bhw-io-" (see "dwo-").

2. Latin "probus" = "upright", from "*pro-bhw-o-" = "growing well" or "straightforward" (see "per" (1)).

3. Latin "superbus" = "superior", "proud", from "*super-bhw-o-" = "being above" (see "uper").

VI. Possibly Germanic *baumaz (and *bagmaz), tree (? < "growing thing").

a. "beam", from Old English "beam" = "tree", "beam";

b. "boom" (2), from Middle Dutch "boom" = "tree";

c. "bumpkin" (1), "bumpkin" (2), from Flemish "boom" = "tree".

[Pokorny "bheu-" 146.]


(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20080726191329/http://www.bartleby.com/61/roots/IE62.html

Appendix I: Indo-European Roots

ENTRY: "*bheue-"

DEFINITION: Also "bheu-". "To be", "exist", "grow".

Derivatives include "be", "husband", "imp", "physics", "future", "neighbor", and "beam".

I. Extended forms "*bhwiy-", "*bhwiyo-", "*bhwi-".

1. "be"; "forebear", from Old English "beon" = "to be", from Germanic "*biju" = "I am", "I will be".

2. "fiat", from Latin "fieri" = "to become".

3. Possibly suffixed form "*bhwi-lyo-", seen by some as the source of Latin "filius" = "son", but this is more likely from "*dhe-", "*dhei-".

II. Lengthened o-grade form "*bhow-".

a. "bondage", "bound" (4); "bustle" (1), "husband", from Old Norse "bua" = "to live", "prepare", and "buask", "to make oneself ready" ("-sk", reflexive suffix; see "se-", "swe-");

b. "Bauhaus", from Old High German "buan" = "to dwell";

c. "booth", from Middle English "bothe" = "market stall", from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Danish "both" = "dwelling", "stall".

a–c from Germanic "*bowan".

III. Zero-grade form "*bhu-".

1a. "build", from Old English "byldan" = "to build", from "bold" = "dwelling", "house", from Germanic "*buthla-";

1b. "boodle", from Middle Dutch "bodel" = "riches", "property", from alternate Germanic form "*buthla".

2. "physic", "physics", "physio-", "physique", "–phyte", "phyto-", "phyton"; "apophysis", "diaphysis", "diphyodont", "epiphysis", "euphuism", "hypophysis", "imp", "Monophysite", "neophyte", 2periphyton", "symphysis", "tracheophyte", from Greek "phuein" = "to bring forth", "make grow", "phutos", "phuton" = "a plant", and "phusis" = "growth", "nature".

3. Suffixed form "*bhu-ta-".

3a. "eisteddfod", from Welsh "bod" = "to be";

3b. "bothy", from Old Irish "both" = "a hut".

4. Suffixed form "*bhu-tu-". "future", from Latin "futurus" = "that is to be", "future".

IV. Zero-grade form "*bhu-" (- "*bhue-").

1a. "bower" (1), from Old English "bur" = "dwelling space", "bower", "room";

1b. "neighbor", from Old English "gebur" = "dweller" ("ge-", collective prefix; see "kom");

1c. "Boer", "boor", from Middle Dutch "gheboer", "ghebuer" = "peasant".

1a–1c all from Germanic "*buram" = "dweller", especially "farmer".

2. "byre", from Old English "byre" = "stall", "hut", from Germanic "*burjam" = "dwelling".

3. "bylaw", from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse "byr" = "settlement", from Germanic "*buwi-".

4. Suffixed form "*bhu-lo-". "phyle", "phyletic", "phylum"; "phylogeny", from Greek "phulon" = "tribe", "class", "race", and "phule" = "tribe", "clan".

V. Zero-grade reduced suffixal form "*-bhw-", in Latin compounds.

1. Latin "dubius" = "doubtful", and "dubitare" = "to doubt", from "*du-bhw-io-" (see "dwo-").

2. Latin "probus" = "upright", from "*pro-bhw-o-" = "growing well" or "straightforward" (see "per" (1)).

3. Latin "superbus" = "superior", "proud", from "*super-bhw-o-" = "being above" (see "uper").

VI. Possibly Germanic "*baumaz" (and "*bagmaz") = "tree" (? - "growing thing").

a. "beam", from Old English "beam" = "tree", "beam";

b. "boom" (2), from Middle Dutch "boom" = "tree";

c. "bumpkin" (1), "bumpkin" (2), from Flemish "boom" = "tree".

(Pokorny "bheu-" 146.)


(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20080726143746/http://www.bartleby.com/61/IEroots.html

ENTRY: "*bheue-"

DEFINITION: Also "bheu-". To be, exist, grow.
Derivatives include "be, husband, imp, physics, future, neighbor", and "beam".

I.

Extended forms "*bhwiy(o)-", "*bhwi-".

1.

be; forebear, from Old English "beon", to be, from Germanic "*biju", I am, will be.

2.

fiat, from Latin "fieri", to become.

3.

Possibly suffixed form "*bhwi-lyo-", seen by some as the source of Latin "filius", son, but this is more likely from dhe(i)-.

II.

Lengthened o-grade form "*bhow-".

a.

bondage, bound(4); bustle(1), husband, from Old Norse "bua", to live, prepare, and "buask", to make oneself ready ("-sk", reflexive suffix; see s(w)e-);

b.

Bauhaus, from Old High German "buan", to dwell;

c.

booth, from Middle English "bothe", market stall, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Danish "both", dwelling, stall.

a. - c.: from Germanic "*bowan".

III.

Zero-grade form "*bhu-".

1a.: build, from Old English "byldan", to build, from "bold", dwelling, house, from Germanic "*buthla-;"

b.

boodle, from Middle Dutch "bodel", riches, property, from alternate Germanic form "*bothla".

2.

physic, physics, physio-, physique, -phyte, phyto-, phyton; apophysis, diaphysis, diphyodont, epiphysis, euphuism, hypophysis, imp, Monophysite, neophyte, periphyton, symphysis, tracheophyte, from Greek "phuein", to bring forth, make grow, "phutos", "phuton", a plant, and "phusis", growth, nature.

3.

Suffixed form "*bhu-ta-".

a.

eisteddfod, from Welsh "bod", to be;

b.

bothy, from Old Irish "both", a hut.

4.

Suffixed form "*bhu-tu-". future, from Latin "futurus", "that is to be", future.


IV.

Zero-grade form "*bhu-" ("*bhue-").

1a.: bower(1), from Old English "bur", "dwelling space", bower, room;

b.

neighbor, from Old English "gebur", dweller ("ge-", collective prefix; see kom);

c.

Boer, boor, from Middle Dutch "gheboer", "ghebuer", peasant.

a. - c.: all from Germanic "*buram", dweller, especially farmer.

2.

byre, from Old English "byre", stall, hut, from Germanic "*burjam", dwelling.

3.

bylaw, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse "byr", settlement, from Germanic "*buwi-".

4.

Suffixed form "*bhu-lo-". phyle, phyletic, phylum; phylogeny, from Greek "phulon", tribe, class, race, and "phule", tribe, clan.


V.

Zero-grade reduced suffixal form "*-bhw-", in Latin compounds.

1.

Latin "dubius", doubtful, and "dubitare", to doubt, from "*du-bhw-io-" (see dwo-).

2.

Latin "probus", upright, from "*pro-bhw-o-", "growing well or straightforward" (see per(1)).

3.

Latin "superbus", superior, proud, from "*super-bhw-o-", "being above" (see uper).


VI.

Possibly Germanic "*baumaz" (and "*bagmaz"), tree (? "growing thing").

a.

beam, from Old English "beam", tree, beam;

b.

boom(2), from Middle Dutch "boom", tree;

c.

bumpkin(1), bumpkin(2), from Flemish "boom", tree. (Pokorny "bheu-" 146.)


(E?)(L?) http://www.ety.nl/etywrdfam.html

"*bheu" i.e. ("groeien", "zijn") - "phyein" grieks ("groeien") - - "physis" ("natuur") - - - "physica" - "fui" latijn ("ik ben gegroeid", "ik was") - - "futurus" latijn toekomstig deelwoord bij "zijn" (toekomstig) - - - "futuristisch" - "pro-bho-s" + "pro = "voor" ("wat recht groeit") - - "probus" latijn ("deugdelijk") - - - "probare" ("onderzoeken") - - - - "proef" - - - - "proeven" nederlands - - - - "proberen"

- "*beu" "bh" > "b" germaanse klankverschuiving
- - "be", "bau", "bu" ("zijn", "wonen")
- - "to be engels" ("zijn")
- - "*bennen" ("zijn")
- - - "ik ben", "jij bent"
- - "ich bin", "du bist"
- - "buon" oud nederlands ("zijn", "bouwen", "wonen"),
- - - "gebuur", "buur" ("die er woont")
- - - - "buurt"
- - - - - "buurman" + "man". Soort vriendennaam die tot bijnaam werd, later familienaam.
- - - - - - "Buurman" (familienaam)
- - - "boer" ("die er woont en bouwt"). "Boer" is niet van "bouwen" afgeleid, maar beide staan naast elkaar. De huidige beroepsbetekenis "boer" ontstaat in de middeleeuwen. Vergelijking met andere standen, adel en burgers, gaf de bijbetekenis "dom", "grof". In de sociale orde op het platteland betekende "boer" dat hij volle rechten had en een boerderij bezat, i.t.t "keuterboeren".
- - - - "keuterboer" + "keuter", zie bij keuter.
- - - "bouwen" ("wonen", betekenis verdrongen door (akker) beplanten, "bouwen")
- - - - "landbouwer" + "land"
- - - - "gebouw"
- - - - "boede" ("klein gebouwtje", "tent", "kraam")
- - - - - "boedel" + achtervoegsel "-el"
- - - - - - "boel"
- - - - - - - "warboel", "janboel" enz.
- - "Bür" oudhoogduits ("huis", "die er woont")
- - - "Nachbar" ("buur")
- - - "neighbour" engels ("buur")
- - - "bulden" oudengels. L en u wisseling.
- - - - "to build", "building".

"Bild" duits en "beeld" nederlands komen niet van deze stam. Herkomst onduidelijk.


(E?)(L?) https://www.dictionary.com/browse/is

...
Origin of "be"

before 900; Middle English "been", Old English "beon" ("beo-" (akin to Old Frisian, Old High German "bim", German "bin", Old Saxon "bium", "biom" "(I) am", Old English, Old High German, Old Saxon "buan", Old Norse "bua" "reside", Latin "fui" "(I) have been", Greek "phy-" "grow", "become", Old Irish "boí" "(he) was", Sanskrit "bhávati" "(he) becomes", "is", Lithuanian "búti" "to be", OCS "byti", Persian "bud" "was")) + "-n" infinitive suffix. See "am", "is", "are" (1), "was", "were".
...


(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*bheue-

"*bheue-", also "*bheu-", Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to be", "exist", "grow".

It forms all or part of:

"Bauhaus"; "be"; "beam"; "Boer"; "bondage"; "boodle"; "boom" (n.1) "long pole"; "boor"; "booth"; "bound" (adj.2) "ready to go"; "bower"; "bowery"; "build"; "bumpkin"; "busk"; "bustle" (v.) "be active"; "byre"; "bylaw"; "Eisteddfod"; "Euphues"; "fiat"; "forebear"; "future"; "husband"; "imp"; "Monophysite"; "neighbor"; "neophyte"; "phyletic"; "phylo-"; "phylum"; "phylogeny"; "physic"; "physico-"; "physics"; "physio-"; "physique"; "-phyte"; "phyto-"; "symphysis".

It is the hypothetical source of / evidence for its existence is provided by:

Sanskrit "bhavah" = "becoming", "bhavati" = "becomes", "happens", "bhumih" = "earth", "world"; Greek "phyein" = "to bring forth", "make grow", "phytos", "phyton" = "a plant", "physis" = "growth", "nature", "phylon" = "tribe", "class", "race", "phyle" = "tribe", "clan"; Old English "beon" = "be", "exist", "come to be", "become", "happen"; Old Church Slavonic "byti" = "be," Greek "phu-" = "become", Old Irish "bi'u" = "I am", Lithuanian "buti" = "to be", Russian "byt'" = "to be".

Words related to *bheue-


(E?)(L?) https://indogermanisch.org/pokorny-etymologisches-woerterbuch/index.htm

ide. "*bheu-", "*bheue-" ("*bhua-", "*bhue-") : "*bhou-" : "*bhu-"

English meaning: "to be"; "to grow"

German meaning: ursprünglich "wachsen", "gedeihen"

Grammatical comments

General comments

(wohl = "schwellen"), vgl. ai. "prábhuta-h" mit ai. "bhuri-h" usw. unter "*beu-", "*bu-", "bheu-", "bhu-" = "aufblasen", "schwellen", woraus "entstehen", "werden", "sein", weiters "gewohnheitsmäßig wo sein", "wohnen"; io/i-Präsens "bhu-iio", "bhu-iie-si", "bhu-i-si" usw. als Verbum "sein" suppliert oft das Paradigma von "es-" = "sein"; erweiterte Wz. "bheui-", "bhuei-"

Derivatives

zahlreiche Nominalbildungen mit den Bed. = "das Sein", "Wesen", "Wohnen", "Wohnsitz", wie "bhuto-", "bhuta", "bhuti-", "bhutlo-", "bhumen-", "bhulo-", "bhuro-" usw.

Material

Ai. "bhávati" = "ist", "ist da", "geschieht", "gedeiht", "wird" = av. "bavaiti" = "wird", "entsteht"; "geschieht"; "wird sein", apers. "bavatiy" = "wird"; Fut. ai. "bhavišyáti", av. "bušyeiti" Partiz. "bušyant-" = "der ins Dasein treten wird" (letztere = lit. "busiu", ksl. "byšešteje" "to µellon", vgl. gr. "feno"); Aor. ai. "ábhut" (= gr. "efe") und "bhúvat", Perf. "babhuva", Partiz. Perf. Akt. "babhuvan", f. "babhuvúši" (: gr. "???", lit. "bùvo", aksl. "byvati"), Inf. "bhávitum", Absol. "bhutva" (vgl. lit. "butu" Supinum "zu sein", apr. "buton" Inf.);

ai. "bhutá-h", av. "buta-" = "geworden", "seiend", ai. "bhutá-m" = "Wesen" (lit. "búta" = "gewesen", aisl. "buð" f. = "Wohnung", russ. "byt?" = "Wesen", "Lebensart"; mit "u" gr. "???", air. "-both" = "man war", "both" f. = "Hütte", lit. "bùtas" = "Haus"); "prá-bhuta-h" = "reichlich", "zahlreich", npers. Inf. "budan" = "sein";

ai. "bhu´ti-h, "bhutí-h" f. = "Sein", "Wohlsein", "guter Zustand", "Gedeihen" (av. "buti-" m. = "Name eines daeva"? = aksl. "za-", "po-", "pre-byt?", russ. "byt?", Inf. aksl. "byti", lit. "buti"; mit "u" gr. "???").

Pass. ai. "bhuyate"; kaus. "bhavayati" = "bringt ins Dasein"; "hegt und pflegt", "erfrischt", Partiz. "bhavita-h" auch = "angenehm erregt", "gut gestimmt" (= aksl. "iz-baviti" = "befreien", "erlösen"), mit ders. Dehnstufe "bhavá-h" = "Sein", "Werden", "Zuneigung" (russ. "za-báva" f. = "Unterhaltung") neben "bhavá-h" = "Entstehung", "Wohlfahrt", "Heil";

"bhavítram" = "Welt" (ablaut. mit gr. "???" = "Natur", "Geschlecht" und lit. "buklà" = "Wohnung" usw., und mit germ. "*buþla-" und "*boþla-", woneben mit Formans "-dhlo-" cech. "bydlo"); "bhavana-m" = "das Werden"; "Wohnstätte", "Haus" (alb. "bane", aber mir. "buan" = "standhaft" aus "*bhou-no-"), ablaut. "bhúvana-m" = "Wesen";

ai. "bhu-" f. = "Erde", "Welt", "bhumi", "bhumih-", av. ap. "bumi-", npers. "bum" = "Erde", ai. "bhuman-" n. = "Erde", "Welt", "Sein" (= gr. "???"), "bhumán-" m. = "Fülle", "Menge", "Reichtum"; "pra-bhú-h" = "mächtig", "hervorragend";

s-St. "bhavis-ru-h = "werdend", "gedeihend", "bhusati" = "macht gedeihen", "stärkt", "bhusayati" = "schmückt", "bhusana-m" = "Amulett", "Schmuck".

Die i-Basis "*bheui-", "*bhui-", wie es scheint, im ai. "bobhaviti" Intens. und "bhávi-tva-h" = "zukünftig"; über iran. bi-Formen s. unten.

Arm. "bois", Gen. "busoy" = "Schößling", "Kraut", "Pflanze", "busanim" = "sprieße auf", ferner vielleicht "boin", Gen. "bunoi" = "Nest" ("*bheu-no-"), schwundstufig "bun", Gen. "bnoi" = "Stamm".

Thrak. ON "???".

Gr. "???" (lesb. "???" wie osk. "fuia", s. unten) = "zeuge" (Aor. "???"), "???" = "werde", "wachse" (vgl. Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I, 686), wohl Neubildungen zum Aor. "???" = "wurde", daneben (Neubildung?) "???" = "Gewächs", "Pflanze", "Kind", "Geschwür", "???" = "Wuchs"; "Natur", "Charakter", "??" n. = "Gewächs", "Geschwür", "???" = "Natur", "???" n. = "Stamm", "Geschlecht", "Art", "???" = "Gemeinde und von ihr gestellte Heeresabteilung" (aksl. "byl?", l-Partiz. "byl?je"); dehnstufiges "*bholo-", "*bhoulo-" vielleicht in "???" = "Schlupfwinkel", "Lager wilder Tiere", "???" = "schlafe in einer Höhle", "???" = "ein Seefisch, der sich im Schlamm verbirgt"; aber aisl. "bol" n. = "Lager für Tiere und Menschen", ist kein von "bol" (wohl aus "*boþla") = "Wohnstätte" verschiedenes Wort; dazu schwundstufig schwed. mdartl. "bylja", "bölja" = "kleines Nest" aus "*bulja".
...
alb. "buj", "bûj" ("*bunjo") = "wohne", "übernachte", "burr", "burrë" ("*buro-") = "Mann", "Ehemann", "banë" = "Wohnung", "Aufenthalt", "halb verfallenes Haus" ("*bhouona": ai. "bhavanam"), "banoj" = "wohne"; "bun", "bunë" = "Sennhütte" ("*bhuna"); vielleicht auch "botë" = "Erde", "Boden", "Welt", "Leute" ("*bhua-ta" oder "*bhue-ta").

Lat. "fui" (alat. "fui") = "bin gewesen" aus "*fu-ai", Umgestaltung des alten Aor. "*fum" (= gr. "???", ai. "á-bhut" = "er war"), "fu-turus" = "künftig", "forem" = "wäre", "fore" = "sein werden", alat. Konj. "fuam", "fuat" = "sei" ("*bhuuam"; vgl. lit. "bùvo" = "war" aus "*bhu-uat"), daneben "-bam" ("*bhuam2 : osk. "fu-fans" = "erant", air. "-ba" = "ich war") in "lege-bam" usw., vgl. lat.-fal. "-bo" (aus "*bhuo") in "ama-bo", alat. "veni-bo", fal. "pipafþ" usw. mit dem ir. b-Futurum ("do-rimiub" = "ich werde aufzählen" aus "*to-rim-i-buo"), Intensiv "futavit" = "fuit";

osk. "fu-fans" = "erant", "fu-fens" = "fuerunt", "fusíd" = lat. "foret", "fust" (= umbr. "fust") = "erit" und = "fuerit", "fuid" Konj.-Perf. = "fuerit"; aber über "futír" = "Tochter" s. Vetter Gl. 29, 235, 242 ff. gegen WH. I 557, 867;

umbr. "fust" = "erit", "furent" = "erunt" ("*fuset", "*fusent"), "fefure" = "fuerint", "futu" = "esto" ("fuuetod" oder "fu-tod").

Ein "io/i"-Präs. zur Wz. "*bhu-" : "*bhu-iio" liegt vor in lat. "fio", "fieri" = "werden", "entstehen", "erzeugt werden", das "i" statt "i" von "fis", "fit" ("*bhu-i-si", "*bhu-i-ti") bezogen; osk. "fiiet" ("*bhuiient") = "fiunt", umbr. "fito" = "facta", "bona"?, "fuia" = "fiat", "fuiest" = "fiet" ("*bhu-io" neben "*bhuiio" wie in lesb. "???", s. oben);

lat. Nominalbildungen nur in "dubius" = "zweifelnd", "unsicher" ("*du-bhu-iio-s" = "doppelgestaltig", vgl. umbr. "di-fue" = "bifidum" - "*dui-bhuiom"), "probus" = "gut gedeihend", "redlich" ("*pro-bhuos" : ai. "pra-bhu-h" = "hervorragend"), osk. "am-prufid" = "improbe", "prúfatted" = "probavit", umbr. "prufe" = "probe"; lat. "super-bus" = "hochmütig".

Über lat. "moribundus" s. Niedermann Mél. Meillet 104, Benveniste MSL. 34, 189.

Air. "baë" = "Nutzen" ("*bhue-iom"), "buan" = "standhaft", "gut" ("*bhouno-", dazu cymr. "bun" = "Königin", "Frau"); mir. "baile" = "Heim", "Ort" ("*bhue-liio-");

air. "buith" = "sein" (ursprgl. Dat. des a-St. "both" - "*bhuta" = cymr. "bod", corn. "bos", bret. "bout" = air. "both" f. = "Hütte", cymr. "bod" f. = "Wohnung": lit. "bùtas" = "Haus"; hierzu auch mir. "for-baid" = "Grabtuch", "Bahre"), Fut. "-bia" = "wird sein" (= lat. "fiat"), Prät. 1. Sg. ba ("*bhuam"), 3. Sg. "boi" ("*bhoue"), Pass. Prät. "-both" = "man war" ("*bhu-to-"); das Paradigma des Verbum Subst. und der Kopula besteht aus Formen von "es-" und "bheu-", z. B. hat die 1. Sg. Präs. Konj. air. "beu" ("*bh-eso") den Anlaut von "bheu-" bezogen;

air. "-biu" = "ich pflege zu sein", mcymr. "bydaf", corn. "bethaf", mbret. "bezaff" ds. ("*bhuiio" = lat. "fio", daneben "*bhui-" in air. "bith", mcymr. "bit" = "esto" = lat. "fit");

gall. PN "Vindo-bios" ("*-bhuiios"), vgl. cymr. "gwyn-fyd" = "Glück" ("weiße Welt", "byd"), air. "su-b(a)e" = "Freude" ("*su-bhuiio-"), "du-bae", "du-be" ("du" = gr. "???-") = "Trauer";

got. "bauan" = "wohnen", "bewohnen", "ald bauan" = "ein Leben führen", "gabauan" = "Wohnung aufschlagen" ("*bhouo", Vokalismus wie in ai. "bhavayati", "bhava-h", slav. "baviti"), aisl. "bua" ("bjo", "buinn") = "wohnen", "instand bringen", "ausrüsten", ags. "buan" und "buwan", "buwian" ("bude", "gebuen") = "wohnen", "bebauen" (daneben ags. "bogian", afries. "bogia" = "wohnen", lautlicher Typus von got. "stoja" aus "*stowijo" und "o" als ursprünglichen Vokal stützend), ahd. "buan" ("buta", "gibuan") = "wohnen", "bebauen", nhd. "bauen"; aisl. "byggja" = "an einem Orte wohnen", "bebauen", "bevölkern", später = "erbauen", "bauen" (aus "*buwwjan"?, "*bewwjan"?); aisl. "bu" n. = "Wohnort", "Wirtschaft", "Haushalt", ags. "bu" n. = "Wohnung" (Pl. "by" n. vom i-St. "*buwi-" = aisl. "byr" m. = "Wohnstätte", "Hof"; ähnlich lit. "buvis" = "bleibender Aufenthalt"), ahd. "bu", mhd. "bu", Gen. "buwes" m., selten n. = "Bestellung des Feldes", "Wohnung", "Gebäude", nhd. "Bau";

aisl. "buð" f. = "Wohnung", "Zelt", "Hütte"; aschwed. "boþ", mnd. "bode", mhd. "buode" und "bude" = "Hütte", "Gezelt", nhd. "Bude" ("*bho-ta", "*bhou-ta"); mnd. "bodel" = "Vermögen", "bol" = "Landgut", ags. "bold" und "botl" n. = "Wohnung", "Haus", "*byldan", engl. "to build" = "bauen", afries. "bold" und "bodel" = "Haus", "Hausgerät", "Eigentum" ("*boþla-" aus idg. "*bhotlo-", "*bhoutlo-" und "*buþla-", vgl. lit. "buklà" und westsl. "bydlo"), ebenso aisl. "bol" n. = "Wohnstätte" (s. oben auch zu "bol" = "Lager");

aisl. "bur" n. = "Vorratshaus", "Frauengemach", ags. "bur" m. = "Hütte", "Zimmer", ahd. "bur" m. = "Haus", "Käfig", nhd. "(Vogel-)Bauer", wovon ahd. "nahgibur", ags. "neahgebur", nhd. "Nachbar", engl. "neighbour" und ahd. "gibur", "giburo", mhd. "gebur", "gebure", dann "bur", nhd. "Bauer" = "rusticus";

ags. "beo" = "ich bin" ("*bhuiio" = lat. "fio", air. "-biu"), daneben "beom", ahd. "bim" usw. nach "*im" von "*es-" = "sein", wie ahd. "bis", "bist", ags. "bis" nach "is".

Vielleicht got. "bagms", ahd. "boum", ags. "beam" = "Baum" aus "*bhouemo-", "*bhoumo-" = "???" und aisl. "bygg" n. = "Gerste", as. Gen. PL "bewo" = "Saat", "Ertrag", ags. "beow" n. = "Gerste" ("*bewwa-") als = "Angebautes".

Lit. "buti" (lett. "bût", apr. "bout") = "sein", "butu" Supin. = "zu sein" (apr. "buton" Inf.), Partiz. "butas" = "gewesen", Fut. "busiu" (lett. "bûšu"), Prät. "bùvo" = "er war" (vgl. auch "buvó-ju", "buvo-ti" = "zu sein pflegen" und aksl. Iter. "byvati"); Opt. apr. "bousai" = "er sei", Prät. "bei", "be" = "er war" (von einer mit "-ei-" erweiterten Basis);

lit. "bu~vis" m. = "Sein, Leben", "buvineti" = "hie und da ein Weilchen bleiben", apr. "buwinait" = "wohnet!";

lett. "bûšana" = "Sein, Wesen, Zustand", apr. "bousennis" = "Stand"; lit. "bùtas", apr. (Akk.) "buttan" = "Haus";

lit. "buklas" ("*butla-") = "cubile", "latebrae ferarum", "pabu~klas" = "Instrument", "Gerät"; "Erscheinung", "Gespenst", "buklà", "bukle~" = "praesentia", "Wohnung", ostlit. "búkle" ds. (s. oben; dazu "buklùs" = "weise", "schlau");

aksl. "byti" = "werden", "sein", "lo-" Partiz. "byl?" = "gewesen" (davon "byl?je" = "Kraut"; "Heilkraut", vgl. zur Bed. "???"), Aor. "be" = "war" ("*bhue-t"); Imperf. "beaše", Fut. Partiz. ksl. "byšešteje", "byšašteje" = "???", Kondiz. 3. Pl. "bo" ("*bhua-nt"), Partiz. "za-b?ven?" = "vergessen", neben sonstigem Partiz. "*byt" z. B. in russ. "zabýtyj" = "vergessen", vgl. dazu auch Subst. russ. "byt?" = "Wesen", "Lebensart" u. dgl., apoln. "byto" = "Nahrung", aksl. "iz-byt?k?" = "Überfluß", "Rest" u. dgl., "byt?je" = "das Dasein";

aksl. "zabyt?" = "Vergessen", "pobyt?" = "Sieg", "prebyt?" = "Aufenthalt", russ. "byt?" = "Wesen", "Geschöpf"; "Tatbestand";

Präs. aksl. "bodo" = "werde", "???", als Fut.: "werde sein" (ob zu lat. Adj. auf "-bundus"?); Kaus. aksl. "izbaviti" = "befreien", "erlösen" u. dgl. (: ai. "bhava-yati", vgl. zum Vokalismus auch got. "bauan" und aksl. "zabava" = "Verweilen", 2Beschäftigung", "Zeitvertreib"); cech. "bydlo" = "Aufenthaltsort", "Wohnung", poln. "bydlo" = "Vieh" (aus "Stand", "Wohlstand", "Habe").

Vielleicht hierher (Pedersen Toch. 2281) toch. B "pyautk-", A "pyotk-", AB "pyutk-" = "zustande kommen", med. = "zustande bringen".

Von der Basis "bheui-", "bhui-":

npers. Imp. "bi-d" = "seid!"; apers. Opt. "bi-yah" setzt Wackernagel KZ. 46, 270 = ai. "bhu-ya-h", "-t";

gr. "???" n. = "Keim", "Sproß" = "???" = "erzeuge", "säe", "pflanze";

lit. alt. "bit", "biti" = "er war", auch Kondit. 1. Pl. "(sùktum-) bime"; lett. "biju", "bija" = "ich, er war" (lett. "bija-" erweitert aus athemat. "*bhui-"); ablaut. apr. "bei", s. oben;

aksl. Kondit. 2. 3. Sg. "bi" = "wärst", "wäre" ("*bhui-s", "*bhui-t"), wozu sekundär 1. Sg. "bi-m?" mit Primärendung.

References

WP. II 140 f., WH. I 375 f., 504 f., 557 f., 865, 867, EM. 812 f., 1004 f., Trautmann 40 f., Feist 83 f.

Specht will (KZ. 59, 58 f.) unter Heranziehung von gr. "???" = "Licht", "Heil" = ai. "bhava-" = "Segen", "Heil", "???" usw. unsere Wz. als "*bhaue-", nicht als "*bheue-" ansetzen. S. auch oben S. 91.


(E1)(L1) http://www.koeblergerhard.de/idg/4A/idg.html

Köbler, Gerhard, Indogermanisches Wörterbuch, (5. Auflage) 2014

ide. "*bheu-", "*bheue-", "*bhua-", "*bhue-", "*bhou-", "*bhu-", "*bheuh-", idg., V.: neuhdt. "schwellen", "wachsen" (V.) (1), "gedeihen", "sein" (V.), "werden", "wohnen"; engl. "grow", "prosper", "be";

Rekonstruktionsbasis: Pokorny 146 (232/65), ind., iran., arm., phryg./dak., griech., ill., alb., ital., kelt., germ., balt., slaw., toch.?;

Hinweis: s. "*bheui-", "*bhuto-", "*bhuta", "*bhuti-", "*bhumen-", "*bhulo-", "*bhuro-", "*bhoutlo-", "*es-";


(E?)(L?) http://www.koeblergerhard.de/der/DERB.pdf

"Bau", M., künstlich geschaffene Behausung oder eine sonstige einer Unterbringung dienende Anlage, mhd. "bu", M., N., "Bau", "Wohnung", "Gebäude", ahd. "bu" (765), M., "Bau", "Wohnung", "Platz", "Wohnsitz", as. "bu", N., "Bau", "Wohnung", "Haus", germ. "*buwa", "*buwaz", M., "Bau", "Wohnung", s. idg. "*bheu-", "*bheua-", "*bheue-", "werden", "wachsen", "sein" (V.), "gedeihen", "schwellen", "wohnen"


(E?)(L?) http://www.koeblergerhard.de/der/DERB.pdf

"Baum", M., "Baum", mhd. "boum", M., "Baum", "Stange", "Stock", ahd. "boum" (765), M., "Baum", "Holz", "Balken", "Pfahl", as. "bo" m, M., "Baum", "Stange", germ. "*bauma", "*baumaz", "*bagma", "*bagmaz", "*bazma", "*bazmaz", M., "Baum", Etymologie ungeklärt, zu idg. "*bheu-", V., "wachsen"?, zu "biegen"?


(E?)(L?) http://www.koeblergerhard.de/der/DERB.pdf

"Bier", N., "Bier", "Getränk aus Hopfen und Malz und Wasser", mhd. "Bier", N., "Bier", ahd. "bior" (1. Vt. 9. Jh.), N., "Bier", as. "bior", N., "Bier", westgerm. "*beuza", "*beuzam", N., "Bier", zu lat. "biber", Sb., "Getränk"?, zu idg. "*bheru-", V., "brauen"?, zu germ. "*bewwa-", Sb., "Getreide"?, zu idg. "*beu-", "*bheu-", "*bho-", V., "blasen", "schwellen"?, sachlich wird das Brauen seit dem 6./7. Jh. in Klöstern betrieben


(E?)(L?) http://www.koeblergerhard.de/Latein/LateinischesWB.pdf

lat. "far", lat., N.: nhd. "Getreide", "Dinkel", "Spelt";

Quellenangaben: XII tab. (um 450 v. Chr.);

Etymologie: idg. "*bhares-", Sb., "Gerste", "Spelt", Pokorny 111; s. idg. "*bheu-", "*bheue-", "*bhua-", "*bhue-", "*bhou-", "*bhu-", "*bheuh-", V., "schwellen", "wachsen" (V.) (1), "gedeihen", "sein" (V.), "werden", "wohnen", Pokorny 146;

Literaturhinweise:


(E?)(L?) http://www.koeblergerhard.de/Latein/LateinischesWB.pdf

lat. "fastigare", lat., V.: nhd. "schräg zulaufen lassen", "spitz zulaufen lassen", "zuspitzen";

Quellenangaben: Mela (43/44 n. Chr.);

Etymologie: s. idg. "*bhares-", Sb., "Gerste", "Spelt", Pokorny 111; vgl. idg. "*bheu-", "*bheue-", "*bhua-", "*bhue-", "*bhou-", "*bhu-", "*bheuh-", V., "schwellen", "wachsen" (V.) (1), "gedeihen", "sein" (V.), "werden", "wohnen", Pokorny 146;

Literaturhinweise:


(E?)(L?) http://www.koeblergerhard.de/Latein/LateinischesWB.pdf

lat. "fastigium, lat., N.: nhd. "Neigung", "Erhebung", "Senkung", "schräge Richtung", "Spitze", "Gipfel";

Verweise: s. "semi-";

Hinweis: s. "fastigare";

Quellenangaben:

Etymologie: s. idg. "*bhares-", Sb., "Gerste", "Spelt", Pokorny 111; vgl. idg. "*bheu-", "*bheue-", "*bhua-", "*bhue-", "*bhou-", "*bhu-", "*bheuh-", V., "schwellen", "wachsen" (V.) (1), "gedeihen", "sein" (V.), "werden", "wohnen", Pokorny 146;

Literaturhinweise:


(E?)(L?) http://www.koeblergerhard.de/Latein/LateinischesWB.pdf

lat. "favus", lat., M.: nhd. "Wachsscheibe", "Wabe", "Honigwabe", "Honigscheibe", "Honigkuchen";

Quellenangaben:

Etymologie: Etymologie unsicher, vielleicht zu idg. "*bheu-", "*bheue-", "*bhua-", "*bhue-", "*bhou-", "*bhu-", "*bheuh-", V., "schwellen", "wachsen" (V.) (1), "gedeihen", "sein" (V.), "werden", "wohnen", Pokorny 146;

Literaturhinweise:


(E?)(L?) http://www.koeblergerhard.de/Latein/LateinischesWB.pdf

lat. "fieri", lat., V.: nhd. "werden", "entstehen", "wachsen" (V.) (1), "erzeugt werden", "gemacht werden", "geschehen";

Verweise: s. "cin-", "de-", "*ex-", "in-", "inter-", "per-", "super-";

Quellenangaben:

Etymologie: "*bheu-", "*bheue-", "*bhua-", "*bhue-", "*bhou-", "*bhu-", "*bheuh-", V., "schwellen", "wachsen" (V.) (1), "gedeihen", "sein" (V.), "werden", "wohnen", Pokorny 146;

Literaturhinweise:


(E?)(L?) http://www.koeblergerhard.de/Latein/LateinischesWB.pdf

lat. "*fuere", lat., V.: nhd. "sein" (V.);

Etymologie: idg. "*bheu-", "*bheue-", "*bhua-", "*bhue-", "*bhou-", "*bhu-", "*bheuh-", V., "schwellen", "wachsen" (V.) (1), "gedeihen", "sein" (V.), "werden", "wohnen", Pokorny 146;


(E?)(L?) http://www.koeblergerhard.de/Latein/LateinischesWB.pdf

lat. "metaphysica", mlat., F.: nhd. "Metaphysik";

Interferenz: Lw. gr. "metafusika" ("metaphysiká");

Etymologie: s. gr. "metafusika" ("metaphysiká"), F., "Metaphysik"; vgl. gr. "meta" ("metá"), Präp., "mit", "inmitten", "zwischen", "unter"; gr. "physis", F., "Natur", "Erzeugung", "Geburt"; gr. "phyein", V., "erzeugen", "wachsen (V.) (1) lassen"; vgl. idg. "*meta", Präp., "mit", "zwischen", Pokorny 702; idg. "*me-" (2), Adv., "mitten", Pokorny 702; idg. "*bheu-", "*bheue-", "*bhua-", "*bhue-", "*bhou-", "*bhu-", "*bheuh-", V., "schwellen", "wachsen" (V.) (1), "gedeihen", "sein" (V.), "werden", "wohnen", Pokorny 146;

Weiterleben: nhd. "Metaphysik", F., "Metaphysik";

Literaturhinweise:


(E?)(L?) http://www.koeblergerhard.de/Latein/LateinischesWB.pdf

lat. "physica", lat., F.: nhd. "Physik", "Naturlehre";

Quellenangaben:

Interferenz: Lw. gr. "physik téchne";

Etymologie: s. gr. "physik téchne", F., "Physik"; vgl. gr. "physis", F., "Natur", "Erzeugung", "Geburt"; gr. "phyein", V., "erzeugen", "wachsen (V.) (1) lassen"; idg. "*bheu-", "*bheue-", "*bhua-", "*bhue-", "*bhou-", "*bhu-", "*bheuh-", V., "schwellen", "wachsen" (V.) (1), "gedeihen", "sein" (V.), "werden", "wohnen", Pokorny 146;

Weiterleben: mhd. "fisike", F., "Physik"; nhd. "Physik", F., "Physik";

Literaturhinweise:


(E?)(L?) http://www.koeblergerhard.de/Latein/LateinischesWB.pdf

lat. "physiologia", lat., F.: nhd. "Naturkunde", "Naturphilosophie", "Physiologie";

Quellenangaben:

Interferenz: Lw. gr. "physiología";

Etymologie: s. gr. "physiología", F., "Naturlehre"; vgl. gr. "physis", F., "Natur", "Erzeugung", "Geburt"; gr. "phyein", V., "erzeugen", "wachsen (V.) (1) lassen"; gr. "lógos", M., "Sprechen", "Wort", "Rede", "Maß", "Berechnung", "Vernunft"; gr. "légein", V., "zählen", "berechnen"; vgl. idg. "*bheu-", "*bheue-", "*bhua-", "*bhue-", "*bhou-", "*bhu-", "*bheuh-", V., "schwellen", "wachsen" (V.) (1), "gedeihen", "sein" (V.), "werden", "wohnen", Pokorny 146; idg. "*lee-", V., "sammeln", "zusammenlesen", Pokorny 658;

Weiterleben: nhd. "Physiologie", F., "Physiologie", "Lehre von den organischen Vorgängen";

Literaturhinweise:


(E?)(L?) http://www.koeblergerhard.de/mhd-mnd-(mitteldeutsch)-HP/mhd+mnd-14834S-5907227Woe-sort_zgw_20140506.htm

mndt. "bode" (3), "bude", mnd., F.: nhd. "Bude", "kleines von Handwerkern und sogenannten kleinen Leuten bewohntes Haus", "Zelt", "Verkaufsbude und Arbeitsbude", "leichter Bau zu vorübergehender Benutzung", "unterstes Stockwerk", "Erdgeschoss", "Warenraum zu ebener Erde", "Baracke";

Verweise: s. "ambachtbode", "aschebode", "botterbode", "dorbode", "dwerbode", "dweresbode", "garbode", "godesbode", "goltbode", "goltsmedebode", "grumbode", "herincbode", "hokenbode", "hokerbode", "holtbode", "hurbode", "kerkenbode", "klosterbode", "knokenbode", "krambode", "kramærebode", "kremærebode", "kutærebode", "ortbode", "pelsærebode", "pipærebode", "portbode", "prambode", "provenbode", "remenbode", "repærebode", "repelbode", "repslegærebode", "rorbode", "salpeterbode", "scherbode", "schildærebode", "schiltwechtærebode", "schobode", "schrangebode", "schrifbode", "schrodærebode", "sebode", "selbode", "segelbode", "sellebode", "sisebode", "soltbode", "soltebode", "stenbode", "tegelbode", "viltærebode", "vischærebode", "vleschbode", "vodermengærebode", "vogelbode", "vorbode", "wantbode", "wegebode", "wonebode";

Hinweis: vgl. mhd. "buode";

Etymologie: s. mhd. "buode", vgl. germ. "*buwan", st. V., "bauen", "wohnen"; vgl. idg. "*bheu", "*bheue", "*bhua", "*bhue", "*bhou", "*bhu", "*bheuh2", V., "schwellen", "wachsen" (V.) (1), "gedeihen", "sein" (V.), "werden", "wohnen", Pokorny 146; s. Kluge s. v. "Bude";

Redewendungen: bude unde lucht: nhd. „Bude und Luft“, unterstes und oberstes Stockwerk;

Literaturhinweise:

Sonstiges: langes ö, langes ü


(E?)(L?) http://www.koeblergerhard.de/mhd-mnd-(mitteldeutsch)-HP/mhd+mnd-14834S-5907227Woe-sort_zgw_20140506.htm

mndt. "bur" (1), mnd., M.: nhd. "Bauer" (M.) (1), "Bürger", "Mitbürger", "Wohner", "Bewohner", "Einwohner", "Nachbar", "Nächster", "Salzbeerbter", "Sälzer";

Übersetzungsgleichung: lat. "civis";

Hinweis: s. "gebur", vgl. mhd. "bur" (1);

Verweise: s. "butenbur", "ervebur", "gebur", "jürgenesbur", "kerkbur", "kerkspelbur", "medebur", "pachtbur", "palbur", "papenbur", "schattebur", "telbur", "utbur", "vribur", "wanbur";

Quellenangaben:

Etymologie: as. "*bu-r"? (2), st. M. (a), "Nachbar", "Bewohner"; germ. "*bura-", "*buram", st. N. (a), M., "Bauer" (M.) (2), "Haus", "Gemach"; vgl.idg. "*bheu", "*bheue", "*bhua", "*bhue", "*bhou", "*bhu", "*bheuh2", V., "schwellen", "wachsen" (V.) (1), "gedeihen", "sein" (V.), "werden", "wohnen", Pokorny 146;

Redewendungen: "bur unde börgære werden": nhd. „Bauer (M.) (1) und Bürger werden“, Wohnsitz und Bürgerschaft in einer Stadt erwerben;

Redewendungen: to eneme bur unde börgære: nhd. „zu einem Bauern und Bürger“ (aufgenommen werden);

Literaturhinweise:

Sonstiges: Pl. "bure", "buren"


(E?)(L?) http://www.koeblergerhard.de/mhd-mnd-(mitteldeutsch)-HP/mhd+mnd-14834S-5907227Woe-sort_zgw_20140506.htm

mndt. "bur" (2), mnd., N.: nhd. "Bauer" (M.) (2), "Käfig", "Gehäuse", "Werkstätte des Großschmieds";

Verweise: s. "sacramentesbur", "slachbur", "vatebur", "vinkenbur", "vogelbur";

Hinweis: vgl. mhd. "bur" (2);

Etymologie: as. "*bu-r"? (1), st. N. (a), "Bauer" (M.) (2), "Haus", germ. "*bura-", "*buram", st. N. (a), M., "Bauer" (M.) (2), "Haus", "Gemach"; vgl. idg. "*bheu", "*bheue", "*bhua", "*bhue", "*bhou", "*bhu", "*bheuh2", V., "schwellen", "wachsen" (V.) (1), "gedeihen", "sein" (V.), "werden", "wohnen", Pokorny 146;

Literaturhinweise:

Sonstiges: Pl. "bure", "buren"


(E?)(L?) http://www.koeblergerhard.de/mhd-mnd-(mitteldeutsch)-HP/mhd+mnd-14834S-5907227Woe-sort_zgw_20140506.htm

mndt. "buwære"*, "buwer", "buwer", mnd., M.: nhd. "Bauer" (M.) (3), "Erbauer", "Bauer" (M.) (2);

Verweise: s. "kabusbuwære", "kabussenbuwære", "koggenbuwære", molenbuwære", "nabuwære", "orgelbuwære", "prambuwære", "schepebuwære", "schipbuwære";

Hinweis: vgl. mhd. "buwære";

Etymologie: s. "buwen"; s. as. "*bu-r"? (2), st. M. (a), "Nachbar", "Bewohner"; germ. "*bura-", "*buram", st. N. (a), M., "Bauer" (M.) (2), "Haus", "Gemach"; vgl. idg. "*bheu", "*bheue", "*bhua", "*bhue", "*bhou", "*bhu", "*bheuh2", V., "schwellen", "wachsen" (V.) (1), "gedeihen", "sein" (V.), "werden", "wohnen", Pokorny 146;; s. "buwen" (1), "ære";

Literaturhinweise:

Sonstiges: langes ö


(E?)(L?) http://www.koeblergerhard.de/mhd-mnd-(mitteldeutsch)-HP/mhd+mnd-14834S-5907227Woe-sort_zgw_20140506.htm

mndt. "buwe" (1), "buwe", "buw", "bu", mnd., N.: nhd. "Bau", "Bauwerk", "Gebäude", "Baulichkeit", "Bauen" (N.);

Verweise: s. "gebuwe", "hinderbuwe", "inbuwe", "molenbuwe", "notbuwe", "nutbuwe", "vorbuwe", "wedderbuwe";

Hinweis: vgl. mhd. "buwe" (1);

Quellenangaben:

Etymologie: vgl. as. "bu"* 4, as, st. N. (wa), "Bau", "Wohnung", "Haus"; germ. "*buwa-", "*buwaz", st. M. (a), "Bau", "Wohnung"; s. idg. "*bheu", "*bheue", "*bhua", "*bhue", "*bhou", "*bhu", "*bheuh2", V., "schwellen", "wachsen" (V.) (1), "gedeihen", "sein" (V.), "werden", "wohnen", Pokorny 146;

Literaturhinweise:

Sonstiges: langes ö


(E?)(L?) http://www.koeblergerhard.de/mhd-mnd-(mitteldeutsch)-HP/mhd+mnd-14834S-5907227Woe-sort_zgw_20140506.htm

mndt. "buwen" (1), "buwen", mnd., sw. V.: nhd. "bauen", "errichten", "wieder herstellen", "Wehren aufwerfen", "Schanzen aufwerfen", "aufbauen", "Acker bestellen", "bebauen", "abbauen", "gebrauchen", "bewohnen", "sich dauernd wo befinden", "einen Anteil schöpfen";

Übersetzungsgleichung: lat. "frequentare";

Verweise: s. "afbuwen", "anebuwen", "erbuwen", "gebuwen", "inbuwen", "molenbuwen", "overbuwen", "tobuwen", "underbuwen", "utbuwen", "vörbuwen", "vulbuwen", "wedderbuwen";

Hinweis: vgl. mhd. "buwen" (1);

Quellenangaben:

Etymologie: as. "bu-a-n" 3, red. V. (3), sw. V. (1a), "wohnen", "bleiben"; germ. "*buwa-", "*buwaz", st. M. (a), "Bau", "Wohnung"; s. idg. "*bheu", "*bheue", "*bhua", "*bhue", "*bhou", "*bhu", "*bheuh2", V., "schwellen", "wachsen" (V.) (1), "gedeihen", "sein" (V.), "werden", "wohnen", Pokorny 146;

Redewendungen: "mer buwen": nhd. „Meer bauen“, "das Meer befahren" (V.);

Redewendungen: "straten buwen": nhd. „Straßen bauen“, "wandern", "Wege befahren" (V.), "Orte besuchen";

Redewendungen: "helle buwen": nhd. „Hölle bauen“, "sich in der Hölle aufhalten";

Redewendungen: "buwen up": nhd. „bauen auf“, "vertrauen auf";

Literaturhinweise:

Sonstiges: langes ö


(E?)(L?) https://lrc.la.utexas.edu/lex/master

ide. "*bheu-", "*bheuu-", "*bhua-", "*bhue-" : "*bhou-" : "*bhu-" = engl. "to be", "exist"; "grow", "prosper"


Erstellt: 2020-01

boast (W3)

Engl. "boast" = dt. "Prahlerei", "Großtuerei", wird auf die Wurzel ide. "*bheu-" = dt. "wachsen", "gedeihen", "entstehen", "werden", "sein", "wohnen", "aufblasen", "schwellen" zurück geführt, die auch für die Existenz von engl. "to be", dt. "(ich) bin", dt. "(du) bist", dt. "bauen" und dt. "Busen" verantwortlich gemacht wird.

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/boast

"boast" (n.)

mid-13c., "arrogance", "presumption", "pride", "vanity"; c. 1300, "a brag, boastful speech", from Anglo-French "bost" = "ostentation", probably from a Scandinavian source (compare Norwegian "baus" = "proud", "bold", "daring"), from Proto-Germanic "*bausia" = "to blow up", "puff up", "swell" (source also of Middle High German "bus" = "swelling", dialectal German "baustern" = "to swell"; Middle Dutch "bose", Dutch "boos" = "evil", "wicked", "angry", Old High German "bosi" = "worthless", "slanderous", German "böse" = "evil", "bad", "angry"), from PIE "*bhou-", variant of root "*beu-", "*bheu-", a root supposed to have formed words associated with swelling (see "bull" (n.2)).

The notion apparently is of being "puffed up" with pride; compare Old English "belgan" = "to become angry", "offend", "provoke", "belg" = "anger", "arrogance", from the same root as "bellows" and "belly" (n.). Meaning "a cause of boasting", "occasion of pride" is from 1590s.

Related: "Boasted"; "boasting". An Old English word for "boasting" was "micelsprecende" = "big talk."

Related Entries


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=boast
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "boast" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1520 auf.

Erstellt: 2020-01

booth (W3)

Engl. "booth" = dt. "Marktbude", "Bude", "Messestand", "Stand, "Fernsprechzell", "Wahlkabine", "Übertragungskabine", "Abhörkabine", "Nische", "Sitzgruppe im Restaurant", wird auf die Wurzel ide. "*bheu-" = dt. "wachsen", "gedeihen", "entstehen", "werden", "sein", "wohnen", "aufblasen", "schwellen" zurück geführt, die auch für die Existenz von engl. "to be", dt. "(ich) bin", dt. "(du) bist", dt. "bauen" und dt. "Busen" verantwortlich gemacht wird.

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/booth

"booth" (n.)

c. 1200, mid-12c. in place-names, "temporary structure of boards", etc., especially "a stall for the sale of goods or food or entertainment, at a fair", etc., from Old Danish "boþ" = "temporary dwelling", from East Norse "*boa" = "to dwell", from Proto-Germanic "*bowan-", from PIE root "*bheue-" = "to be", "exist", "grow". See also "bower", and compare German "Bude" "booth", "stall", Middle Dutch "boode", Lithuanian "butas" = "house", Old Irish "both" = "hut", Bohemian "bouda", Polish "buda", some of which probably were borrowed from East Norse, some independently formed from the PIE root.

Related Entries


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=booth
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "booth" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1580 auf.

Erstellt: 2020-01

bound (W3)

Engl. "bound" mit der Bedeutung dt. "hochspringen", "hüpfen", "aufprallen", "abprallen", wird auf die Wurzel ide. "*bheu-" = dt. "wachsen", "gedeihen", "entstehen", "werden", "sein", "wohnen", "aufblasen", "schwellen" zurück geführt, die auch für die Existenz von engl. "to be", dt. "(ich) bin", dt. "(du) bist", dt. "bauen" und dt. "Busen" verantwortlich gemacht wird.

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/bound

"bound" (v.1)

late 14c., "to form the boundary of", also "to set the boundaries of", "confine within limits"; late 15c., "to be a boundary of", "abut", "adjoin", from "bound" (n.1). Related: "Bounded"; "bounding".

"bound" (v.2)

"to leap", "spring upward", "jump", 1590s, from Middle French "bondir" = "to rebound", "resound", "echo", from Old French "bondir" = "to leap", "jump", "rebound"; originally "make a noise", "sound (a horn)", "beat (a drum)", 13c., ultimately "to echo back", from Vulgar Latin "*bombitire" = "to buzz", "hum" (see "bomb" (n.)), perhaps on model of Old French "tentir", from Vulgar Latin "*tinnitire".

"bound" (adj.1)

"fastened", mid-14c. in figurative sense of "compelled", earlier in fuller form "bounden2 (c. 1300), past-participle adjective from "bind" (v.). Meaning "under obligation" is from late 15c.; the literal sense "made fast by tying (with fetters, chains, etc.)" is by 1550s. In philology, designating a grammatical element which occurs only in combination with others (opposed to free), from 1926. Smyth has "man-bound" (1867), of a ship, "detained in port for want of a proper complement of men."

bound (adj.2)

c. 1200, "boun" = "ready to go"; hence "going or intending to go" (c. 1400), from Old Norse "buinn" past participle of "bua" = "to prepare", also "to dwell", "to live", from Proto-Germanic "*bowan" (source also of Old High German "buan" = "to dwell", Old Danish "both" = "dwelling", "stall"), from PIE root "*bheue-" = "to be", "exist", "grow". Final "-d" is presumably through association with "bound" (adj.1).

"bound" (n.1)

c. 1300, "boundary marker", from Anglo-Latin "bunda", from Old French "bonde" = "limit", "boundary", "boundary stone" (12c., Modern French "borne"), variant of "bodne", from Medieval Latin "bodina", which is perhaps from Gaulish.

From mid-14c. as "an external limit, that which limits or circumscribes"; figuratively, of feelings, etc., from late 14c. From late 14c. as "limits of an estate or territory". Now chiefly in "out of bounds", which originally referred to limits imposed on students at schools; the other senses generally have gone with "boundary".

"bound" (n.2)

"a leap onward or upward", "a springing", 1550s, from "bound" (v.2).

Words related to bound


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=bound
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "bound" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1520 auf.

Erstellt: 2020-01

bucket (W3)

Engl. "bucket" = dt. "Eimer", "Kübel", wird auf die Wurzel ide. "*bheu-" = dt. "wachsen", "gedeihen", "entstehen", "werden", "sein", "wohnen", "aufblasen", "schwellen" zurück geführt, die auch für die Existenz von engl. "to be", dt. "(ich) bin", dt. "(du) bist", dt. "bauen" und dt. "Busen" verantwortlich gemacht wird.

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/bucket

"bucket" (n.)

"pail or open vessel for drawing and carrying water and other liquids", mid-13c., from Anglo-French "buquet" = "bucket", "pail", from Old French "buquet" = "bucket", which is from Frankish or some other Germanic source, or a diminutive of cognate Old English "buc" = "pitcher", "bulging vessel", originally "belly" ("buckets" were formerly of leather as well as wood), both from West Germanic "*buh-" (source also of Dutch "buik", Old High German "buh", German "Bauch" = "belly"), possibly from a variant of PIE root "*beu-", "*bheu-" = "to grow", "swell" (see "bull" (n.2)).

"To kick the bucket" = "die" (1785) perhaps is from an unrelated "bucket" = "beam on which something may be hung or carried" (1570s), from French "buquet" = "balance", a beam from which slaughtered animals were hung (by the heels or hooves). This was perhaps reinforced by the notion of suicide by hanging after standing on an upturned bucket; but Farmer calls attention to "bucket" "a Norfolk term for a pulley". "Bucket list" = "list of experiences or achievements one hopes to have or accomplish during one's remaining life", is by 2007, probably based on "kicking the bucket" as "dying," but the phrase was used earlier in algorithm sorting.

Related Entries


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=bucket
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "bucket" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1630 auf.

Erstellt: 2020-01

C

D

E

entity (W3)

Engl. "entity" wird über lat. "esse" = dt. "sein" auf die Wurzel ide. "*es-" = dt. "sein" zurück geführt.

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/entity

"entity" (n.), 1590s, "being", from Late Latin "entitatem" (nominative "entitas"), from "ens" (genitive "entis") "a thing", proposed by Caesar as present participle of "esse" = "be" (see "is"), to render Greek philosophical term "to on" = "that which is" (from neuter of present participle of "einai" = "to be", from PIE root "*es-" = "to be"). Originally abstract; concrete sense in English is from 1620s.

Related Entries


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=entity
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "entity" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1520 auf.

Erstellt: 2020-02

*es- (W3)

Die Bezeichnung "Suppletion", (dt. "Ersatzform"), auch "Suppletivismus", geht zurück auf eine Bildung spätlat. "suppletio" = dt. "Ergänzung", zu lat. "supplere" = dt. "nachfüllen", "wieder auffüllen", "vervollständigen", "ergänzen", "ersetzen". Verwandt damit sind frz. "suppléant" = dt. "Ersatzmann", und der veraltete österreichische dt. "Supplent" = dt. "Hilfslehrer", "Vertreter".

Engl. "am" (engl. "I am" = dt. "ich bin") wird auf eine Wurzel ide. "*es-" = dt. "sein", zurück geführt (weitere Formen: ide. "*esmi-" und germ. "*izmi-").

In English, the complicated irregular verb "be" / "is" / "were" has forms from several different roots: "be" originally comes from Indo-European "*bhu-"; "am", "is" and "are" from "*es-", and "was" and "were" from "*wes-".

Auf die Wurzel ide. "*es-" werden folgende Worte und Konjugationsformen von "sein" zurück geführt:

It is the hypothetical source of / evidence for its existence is provided by:

Sanskrit "asmi", Hittite "eimi", Greek "esti-", Latin "est", Old Church Slavonic "jesmi", Lithuanian "esmi", Gothic "imi", Old English "eom", German "ist".

(E?)(L?) https://ahdictionary.com/word/indoeurop.html

"*es-" = "To be". Oldest form "*h1es-", zero-grade "*h1s-".

Derivatives include "yes", "soothe", "sin" (1), "essence", "absent", and "proud".

Athematic first person singular form "*es-mi". "am", from Old English "eam", "eom", "am", from Germanic "*izm(i)", "*izm", "*izmi".

Athematic third person singular form "*es-ti". "is", from Old English "is", "is", from Germanic "*ist(i)", "*ist", "*isti".

Optative stem "*si-". "yes", from Old English "gese", "yes", from "sie", "may it be (so)" ("gea", "yea"; see "i-"), from Germanic "*sijai-".

Suffixed zero-grade (participial) form "*hs-ont-", becoming "*sont-", "being", "existing", hence "real", "true".

"sooth", "soothe", from Old English "soth", "true", from Germanic "*santhaz";

suffixed (collective) zero-grade form "*snt-ya-", "that which is". "sin" (1), from Old English "synn", "sin", from Germanic "*sundjo", "*sunjo", "sin" (- "it is true", "the sin is real");

"suttee"; "bodhisattva", "Satyagraha", from Sanskrit "sat-", "sant-", "existing", "true", "virtuous".

Basic form *es-. entity, essence; abessive, absent, adessive, essive, improve, inessive, interest, ossia, present1, present2, proud, quintessence, represent, stover, from Latin esse, to be.

Basic form "*es-". "-ont", "onto-"; "-biont", "Homoiousian", "Parousia", "schizont", from Greek "einai" (present participle "ont-", "being"), "to be" (in "pareinai", "to be present").

Suffixed form "*es-ti-". "swastika", from Sanskrit "svasti", "well-being" ("su-", "good"; see "(e)su-", "esu-", "su-").

[Pokorny es- 340.]

See also extension "(e)su-", "*esu-", "*su-".


(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20080629082112/http://www.bartleby.com/61/roots/IE133.html

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000.

Appendix I

Indo-European Roots

ENTRY: "*es-"

DEFINITION: "To be". Oldest form "*ies-", zero-grade "*is-".

Derivatives include "yes", "soothe", "sin" (1), "essence", "absent", and "proud".

1. Athematic first person singular form "*es-mi" = "am" (1), from Old English "eam", "eom", "am", from Germanic "*izm", "*izmi".

2. Athematic third person singular form "*es-ti" = "is", from Old English "is" = "is", from Germanic "*ist", "*isti".

3. Optative stem "*s-" (1) = "yes", from Old English "gese", "yes", from "se" (1) = "may it be (so)" ("gea", "yea"; see "i-"), from Germanic "*sijai-".

4. Suffixed zero-grade (participial) form "*eis-ont-", becoming "*sont-" = "being", "existing", hence "real", "true".

4a. "sooth", "soothe", from Old English "soth" = "true", from Germanic "*santhaz";

4b. suffixed (collective) zero-grade form "*snt-ya-" = "that which is". "sin" (1), from Old English "synn" = "sin", from Germanic "*sundjo", "*sunjo" = "sin" (- "it is true", "the sin is real");

4c. "suttee"; "bodhisattva", "Satyagraha", from Sanskrit "sat-", "sant-" = "existing", "true", "virtuous".

5. Basic form "*es-". "entity", "essence"; "abessive", "absent", "adessive", "essive", "improve", "inessive", "interest", "ossia", "present" (1), "present" (2), "proud", "quintessence", "represent", "stover", from Latin "esse" = "to be".

6. Basic form "*es-". "–ont", "onto-"; "–biont", "Homoiousian", "Parousia", "schizont", from Greek "einai" (present participle "ont-" = "being"), "to be" ("in pareinai" = "to be present").

7. Suffixed form "*es-ti-". "swastika", from Sanskrit "svasti" = "well-being" ("su-" = "good"; see "(e)su-", "esu-", "su-").

(Pokorny "es-" 340.) See also extension "(e)su-", "esu-", "su-".


(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20080726143746/http://www.bartleby.com/61/IEroots.html


(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20080726143746/http://www.bartleby.com/61/roots/IE133.html



ENTRY: "*es-"

DEFINITION: "To be". Oldest form "*ees-", zero-grade "*es-".

Derivatives include "yes", "soothe", "sin" (1), "essence", "absent", and "proud".

1. Athematic first person singular form "*es-mi". "am" (1), from Old English "eam", "eom", "am", from Germanic "*izm(i)".

2. Athematic third person singular form "*es-ti". "is", from Old English "is", "is", from Germanic "*ist(i)".

3. Optative stem "*si-". "yes", from Old English "gese", "yes", from "sie", "may it be (so)" ("gea", "yea"; see "i-"), from Germanic "*sijai-".

4. Suffixed zero-grade (participial) form "*es-ont-", becoming "*sont-", "being", "existing", hence "real", "true".

a. "sooth", "soothe", from Old English "soth", "true", from Germanic "*santhaz";

b. suffixed (collective) zero-grade form "*snt-ya-", "that which is". "sin" (1), from Old English "synn", "sin", from Germanic "*sun(d)jo", "sin" ("it is true", "the sin is real");

c. "suttee"; "bodhisattva", "Satyagraha", from Sanskrit "sat-", "sant-", "existing", "true", "virtuous".

5. Basic form "*es-". "entity", "essence"; "abessive", "absent", "adessive", "essive", "improve", "inessive", "interest", "ossia", "present" (1), "present" (2), "proud", "quintessence", "represent", "stover", from Latin "esse", "to be".

6. Basic form "*es-". "-ont", "onto-"; "-biont", "Homoiousian", "Parousia", "schizont", from Greek "einai" (present participle "ont-", "being"), "to be" (in "pareinai", "to be present").

7. Suffixed form "*es-ti-". "swastika", from Sanskrit "svasti", "well-being" ("su-", "good"; see "(e)su-"). (Pokorny "es-" 340.) See also extension "(e)su-".


(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*es-

ide. "*es-", "*es-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to be".

It forms all or part of:

"absence"; "absent"; "am"; "Bodhisattva"; "entity"; "essence"; "essential"; "essive"; "eu-"; "eucalyptus"; "Eucharist"; "Euclidean"; "Eudora"; "Eugene"; "eugenics"; "eulogy"; "Eunice"; "euphemism"; "euphoria"; "euthanasia"; "homoiousian"; "improve"; "interest"; "is"; "onto-"; "Parousia"; "present" (adj.) = "existing at the time"; "present" (n.2) = "what is offered or given as a gift"; "proud"; "quintessence"; "represent"; "satyagraha"; "sin"; "sooth"; "soothe"; "suttee"; "swastika"; "yes".

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by:

Sanskrit "asmi", Hittite "eimi", Greek "esti-", Latin "est", Old Church Slavonic "jesmi", Lithuanian "esmi", Gothic "imi", Old English "eom", German "ist".

Words related to "*es-"

"*eu-" | "onto-" | "absence" | "absent" | "am" | "bodhisattva" | "cogito ergo sum" | "entity" | "essence" | "essential" | "essive" | "eucalyptus" | "eucharist" | "euclidean" | "eudora" | "eugene" | "eugenics" | "eulogy" | "eunice" | "euphemism" | "euphoria" | "euthanasia" | "homoiousian" | "improve" | "interest" | "is" | "parousia" | "present" | "proud" | "quintessence" | "represent" | "satyagraha" | "sin" | "sooth" | "soothe" | "suttee" | "swastika" | "yes |


(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/eu-

"eu-" - word-forming element, in modern use meaning "good", "well", from Greek "eus" = "good", "eu" = "well" (adv.), also "luckily", "happily" (opposed to kakos), as a noun, "the right", "the good cause", from PIE "*esu-", "*su-" = "good" (source also of Sanskrit "su-" = "good", Avestan "hu-" = "good"), originally a suffixed form of root "*es-" = "to be". In compounds the Greek word had more a sense of "greatness", "abundance", "prosperity", and was opposed to "dys-".

Words related to "*eu-"

"*es-" | "aneuploidy" | "eubacteria" | "euboea" | "eucalyptus" | "eucharist" | "euclidean" | "eudaemonic" | "eudora" | "eugenics" | "euhemerism" | "eukaryotic" | "eulogy" | "eumenides" | "eunice" | "eupeptic" | "euphemism" | "euphony" | "euphoria" | "euphrosyne" | "euripus" | "eurythmic" | "eustace" | "euterpe" | "euthanasia" | "euxine" | "evangelist" | "utopia" |


(E?)(L?) https://lrc.la.utexas.edu/lex/master

340-42 "es-", IE, "is", "to be"


Erstellt: 2020-01

essere
Konjugationstabelle und Zuordnung zu ide. Wurzel (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://conjit.cactus2000.de/showverb.php?verb=essere

Konjugationstabellen


ital. "essere" ide. "*es-" ide. "*bheu-" ide. "ues-" / "*wes-"
Bedeutung der ide. Wurzel dt. "sein" dt. "wachsen"
dt. "werden"
dt. "sein"
dt. "verweilen"
dt. "wohnen"
dt. "übernachten"
Infinito
essere x
Indicativo presente
io sono x
tu sei x
egli/ella è x
noi siamo x
voi siete x
essi/esse sono x
Indicativo imperfetto
io ero x
tu eri x
egli/ella era x
noi eravamo x
voi eravate x
essi/esse erano x


Erstellt: 2020-01

être
Konjugationstabelle und Zuordnung zu ide. Wurzel (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://conjf.cactus2000.de/showverb.php?verb=etre

Konjugationstabellen


frz. "être" ide. "*es-" ide. "*bheu-" ide. "*ues-" / "*wes-"
Bedeutung der ide. Wurzel dt. "sein" dt. "wachsen"
dt. "werden"
dt. "sein"
dt. "verweilen"
dt. "wohnen"
dt. "übernachten"
Infinitif
être x
Indicatif Présent
je suis x
tu es x
il/elle est x
nous sommes x
vous êtes x
ils/elles sont x
Indicatif Imparfait
j'étais x
tu étais x
il/elle était x
nous étions x
vous étiez x
ils/elles étaient x


(E?)(L?) http://projetbabel.org/index.php

2. Pour le verbe "être", seules sont de la famille les formes du participe et celles de l’indicatif imparfait. Quant aux autres formes, elles sont issues

- soit de la racine "*ES-" : "être", "es", "est", "êtes", "suis", "sommes", "sont", "sois", etc. (cf. esp. "ser"). Dérivés : "intérêt", "intéresser", "absence", "essence", "entité", "présence", "présenter", "représenter", etc.

- soit de la racine "*BhEU"- : "je fus", etc., "que je fusse", etc. (cf. angl. "be"). Dérivés : "futur", "phyto-", "néophyte", "physique", "physio-", "physionomie", "hypophyse", "probe", "preuve", "prouver", "superbe", "building" (angl.), le mot latin "fiat" dans "Fiat lux" ! (Que la lumière soit !), etc.


Erstellt: 2020-01

F

filial (W3)

Engl. "filial" = dt. "Kindes-", "Sohnes-", "Tochter-", wird auf die Wurzel ide. "*bheu-" = dt. "wachsen", "gedeihen", "entstehen", "werden", "sein", "wohnen", "aufblasen", "schwellen" zurück geführt, die auch für die Existenz von engl. "to be", dt. "(ich) bin", dt. "(du) bist", dt. "bauen" und dt. "Busen" verantwortlich gemacht wird.

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/filial

filial (adj.)

late 14c., from Late Latin filialis "of a son or daughter," from Latin filius "son," filia "daughter," possibly from a suffixed form of PIE root *bheue- "to be, exist, grow" (see be), but Watkins finds it "more likely" assimilated from *felios, originally "a suckling," a suffixed form of PIE root *dhe(i)- "to suck, suckle."

Related Entries


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=filial
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "filial" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1570 auf.

Erstellt: 2020-01

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H

I

i.e. (W3)

Engl. "i.e." steht für lat. "id est" = dt. "das heißt".

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/i.e.

"i.e.", abbreviation of Latin "id est", literally "that is"; used in English in the sense of "that is to say". Latin "id" = "it" is from PIE pronominal stem "*i-" (see "yon"). For "est", see "is".

Related Entries


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=i.e.
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "i.e." taucht in der Literatur nicht signifikant auf.

Erstellt: 2020-01

id est (W3)

Lat. "id est" steht für dt. "das heißt".

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/id%20est

"id est", Latin, literally "that is (to say)", from "id" = "that", neuter of "is", from PIE pronominal stem "*i-" (see "yon"). For "est", see "is". Usually abbreviated "i.e.".

"To write, or even to say, this in the full instead of in the abbreviated form is now so unusual as to convict one of affectation" [Fowler].

It introduces another way to say something already said, not an example of it (which is "e.g.").

Related Entries


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=id est
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "id est" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1580 auf.

Erstellt: 2020-01

is (W3)

Das Verb engl. "is" (third person singular present indicative of "be"), dt. "ist", wird auf die Wurzel ide. "*es-ti-", zu ide. "*es-" mit der Bedeutung dt. "sein", zurück geführt.

(E?)(L?) https://www.dictionary.com/browse/is

...
Origin of "is"

before 900; Middle English, Old English; cognate with Dutch "is", Old Norse "es", "er", German, Gothic "ist", Latin "est", Greek "estí", OCS "jesti", Sanskrit "asti".
...


(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/is

"is" (v.), third person singular present indicative of "be", Old English "is", from Germanic stem "*es-" (source also of Old High German, German, Gothic "ist", Old Norse "es", "er"), from PIE "*es-ti-" (source also of Sanskrit "asti", Greek "esti", Latin "est", Lithuanian "esti", Old Church Slavonic "jesti"), third person singular form of root "*es-" "to be". Old English lost the final -t-.

Until 1500s, pronounced to rhyme with "kiss". Dialectal use for all persons ("I is") is in Chaucer. Phrase "it is what it is", indicating resigned acceptance of an unpleasant but inevitable situation or circumstance about which nothing truly positive can be said, is attested by 2001.

Related Entries


(E?)(L?) http://www.friesian.com/cognates.htm

...
Another striking example of cognates across Indo-European languages are all the following words for "is" - modern French and Persian pronunciation is given in brackets. By a series of simple steps, we see the relationship between "is" in English and "ast" in Persian. A noteworthy variation in a comparison of these "is" words would be Spanish, where the third person singular takes two forms, "es" and "esta". These are from different verbs, "ser" and "estar", respectively, with the former expressing permanent or innate attributes and the latter temporary ones (or location, even if permanent). There is no precedent for this in Latin or parallel in other Romance languages like French or Italian; so one might wonder about its origin.

The answer may be that Spanish belongs to its own smaller, Iberian Sprachbund. Mediaeval Spanish grew up, in the north of Spain, in close proximity to Basque, an autochthonous language that is not of Indo-European origin. Basque, as it happens, also has two, or even three, verbs that mean "to be", "izan", "egon", and "ibili". I don't think that the meaning of these matches very well with "ser" and "estar". Their very existence, however, is intriguing and suggestive, even as other influences of Basque on Spanish are clear, such as the "-ez"/"es" patronymic ending. "Izan" can also mean "to have" when it is used as an auxiliary with intransitive verbs, corresponding to "ukan", "to have" [p.515], which is used as an auxiliary with transitive verbs. I see no hint in these definitions of a contrast between permanent and temporary attributes, although the meaning of "egon" as "to reside", "to dwell" might suggest the locative uses of "estar". The abundance alone of this vocabulary in Basque may be all the influence Spanish needed, meanings may have subsequently changed, or "ser" and "estar" may be one of those things in language that just develops without explanation.
...


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=is
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "is" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1520 auf.

Erstellt: 2020-02

I'se (W3)

Engl. "I'se" ist eine afro-amerikanische Version von engl. "I is" umgangssprachlich für engl. "I am" = dt. "ich bin".

In Schottlnad steht es auch für engl. "I shall".

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/i'se

"I'se", 1847 in representations of African-American vernacular, a contraction of "I is" (see "is"), irregular for "I am". In Scottish and northern English, a colloquial or dialectal contraction of "I shall" (1796).

Related Entries


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=I'se
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "I'se" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr ???? / nicht signifikant auf.

Erstellt: 2020-02

J

K

L

M

N

O

P

physic (W3)

Dt "Physik", engl. "physic" = dt. "Arzneimittel", "Heilkunde", wird auf die Wurzel ide. "*bheu-" = dt. "wachsen", "gedeihen", "entstehen", "werden", "sein", "wohnen", "aufblasen", "schwellen" zurück geführt, die auch für die Existenz von engl. "to be", dt. "(ich) bin", dt. "(du) bist", dt. "bauen" und dt. "Busen" verantwortlich gemacht wird.

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/physic

physic (n.)

c. 1300, "fysike", "art of healing", "medical science", also "natural science" (c. 1300), from Old French "fisike" = "natural science", "art of healing" (12c.) and directly from Latin "physica" (fem. singular of "physicus") "study of nature", from Greek "physike (episteme)" = "(knowledge) of nature", from fem. of "physikos" = "pertaining to nature", from "physis" = "nature", from "phyein" = "to bring forth", "produce", 2make to grow" (related to "phyton" = "growth", "plant", "phyle" = "tribe", "race", "phyma" = "a growth", "tumor") from PIE root "*bheue-" = "to be", "exist", "grow". Spelling with "ph-" attested from late 14c. (see "ph"). As a noun, "medicine that acts as a laxative", 1610s. The verb meaning "to dose with medicine" is attested from late 14c.

Related Entries


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=physic
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "physic" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1580 auf.

Erstellt: 2020-01

-phyte (W3)

Die Wortendung "-phyte" = dt. "Pflanze", "pflanzen", "wachsen" wird auf die Wurzel ide. "*bheue-" = dt. "sein", "existieren", "wachsen" zurück geführt, die auch für die Existenz von engl. "to be", dt. "(ich) bin", dt. "(du) bist", dt. "bauen" und dt. "Busen" verantwortlich gemacht wird.

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/-phyte

"-phyte", word-forming element meaning "plant", "plant characteristic"; "planting", "growth"; "abnormal growth", from Greek "phyton" "plant", literally "that which has grown", from "phyein" "to bring forth", "make grow", from PIE root "*bheue-" "to be", "exist", "grow".

Related Entries


Erstellt: 2020-01

Q

R

S

sein
Konjugationstabelle und Zuordnung zu ide. Wurzel (W3)

Das besondere an dem Verb dt. "sein", span. "ser", frz. "être", ital. "essere", engl. "to be", ist, dass seine verschiedenen Konjugationsformen auf drei verschiedene indogermanische Wurzeln zurück gehen.

Die Wurzeln sind ide. "*es-", das mit dem Umfeld von dt. "sein" zusammenhängt, ide. "*bheu-", das mit dem Umfeld von dt. "bauen" zusammenhängt, ide. "*ues-", das mit dem Umfeld von dt. "Wesen" zusammenhängt.

Die folgende Information stammt aus:

Duden - Das Herkunftswörterbuch, 4. Aufl. Mannheim 2007


Die Formen des Hilfszeitworts werden in allen germ. Sprachen aus drei verschiedenen Stämmen gebildet:

1. Das Präteritum nhd. "war", "waren" (mhd. "was", "waren", ahd. "was", "warun", entsprechend got. "was", engl. "was" usw.) und das zweite Partizip "gewesen" (mhd. Neubildung) gehören zu dem unter "Wesen" dargestellten gemeingerm. Verb ahd. "wesan", got. "wisan" »sein«;

2. Die Präsensformen nhd. "ist", "sind", "seid" (Indikativ), "sei", "seist", "seien", "seiet" (Konjunktiv) werden in allen germ. Sprachen von der idg. Wurzel "*es-" = "sein" gebildet, die auch den Präsensformen von lat. "esse" (s. die Fremdwörter um "Essenz") und griech. "einai" = "sein" zugrunde liegt. Beachte besonders die Übereinstimmung von mhd., ahd., got. "ist", engl. "is", aisl. "es" mit lat. "est", griech. "estí", aind. "ásti" = "er ist" und von mhd., ahd. "sint", got., aengl. "sind" mit lat. "sunt", aind. "sánti" = "sie sind". Deutsche Neubildungen zu diesem Stamm sind der Infinitiv mhd., ahd. "sin", nhd. "sein", das erste Partizip mhd. "sinde", nhd. "seiend" und der Imperativ mhd. "bis" (s. unter 3), "sit", nhd. "sei", "seid". Hier galten früher nur Formen von ahd. "wesan";

3. Ursprünglich wurden auch die 1. und 2. Person des Indikativs mit Formen der idg. Wurzel "*es-" gebildet (z. B. engl. "I am", got. "im", aisl. "em" = "ich bin", entsprechend griech. "eimí", aind. "ásmi").

In den westgerm. Sprachen hat hier jedoch die Wurzel "*bheu-" = "wachsen", "werden", "sein" eingewirkt, die z. B. in engl. "to be" = "sein", aber auch in lat. "fui" = "bin gewesen" zugrunde liegt (vgl. "bauen"). So kam es zu den Mischbildungen nhd. "bin" (mhd., ahd. "bin", älter "bim", entsprechend aengl. "beom") und nhd. "bist" (mhd., ahd. "bis", "bist", aengl. "bis").

Der substantivierte Infinitiv "Sein" wird erst in nhd. Zeit gebräuchlich und bezeichnet im Unterschied zu dem ursprünglich gleichbedeutenden Wort "Wesen" (s. d.) vor allem die Tatsache oder Art des Vorhandenseins von Lebewesen und Dingen. Siehe auch den Artikel "Dasein".

Das Substantiv (mhd. "wesen", ahd. "wesan" = "Sein"; "Aufenthalt"; "Hauswesen"; "Wesenheit", "Ding") ist die Substantivierung des im Nhd. veralteten gemeingerm. Verbs "wesen", mhd. "wesen" = "sein", "sich aufhalten", "dauern", "geschehen", ahd. "wesan" (vgl. aber den Artikel "sein"), got. "wisan", aengl. "wesan", aisl. "vesa".

Es gehört zur idg. Wurzel "*ues-" = "verweilen", "wohnen", "übernachten". Vgl. aus anderen idg. Sprachen z. B. aind. "vásati" = dt. "verweilt", "wohnt", "übernachtet", "vástu-h" = "Aufenthalt", "Übernachten". Eine Bildung zu dem gemeingerm. starken Verb ist das unter "währen" behandelte Verb. Siehe auch die Artikel "abwesend", "Abwesenheit", "Verweser", "Anwesen" und "hiesig".

Abl.: "wesentlich" = "besonders wichtig"; "grundlegend" (mhd. "wesen[t]lich", ahd. als Adverb "wesentliho" = "wesentlicherweise").


(E?)(L?) https://conjd.cactus2000.de/showverb.php?verb=sein

Konjugationstabellen


dt. "sein" ide. "*es-" ide. "*bheu-" ide. "ues-" / "*wes-"
Bedeutung der ide. Wurzel dt. "sein" dt. "wachsen"
dt. "werden"
dt. "sein"
dt. "verweilen"
dt. "wohnen"
dt. "übernachten"
Infinitiv
sein x
Indikativ Präsens Aktiv
ich bin x
du bist x
er, sie, es ist x
wir sind x
ihr seid x
sie / Sie sind x
Indikativ Präteritum Aktiv
ich war x
du warst x
er/sie/es war x
wir waren x
ihr wart x
sie/Sie waren x


(E?)(L?) http://www.koeblergerhard.de/der/DERS.pdf

"sein", V., "sein" (V.), mhd. "si" n, V., "sein" (V.), ahd. "si" n (1. H. 8. Jh.?), V., "sein" (V.), zu germ. "*es-", V., "sein" (V.), idg. "*es-", "*s-", V., "sein" (V.), aus der 3. Person Plural und dem Optativ entwickelter Infinitiv, der sonst durch "wesan" ausgedrückt wird, daneben idg. "*bheu-", "*bheue-", "*bhu-", V., "wachsen", "gedeihen", "werden", "sein" (V.), und idg. "*ues-", V., "verweilen", "wohnen", "übernachten", s. "bauen", "Wesen"


Erstellt: 2020-01

ser
Konjugationstabelle und Zuordnung zu ide. Wurzel (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://conjes.cactus2000.de/showverb.php?verb=ser

Konjugationstabellen


span. "ser" ide. "*es-" ide. "*bheu-" ide. "ues-" / "*wes-"
Bedeutung der ide. Wurzel dt. "sein" dt. "wachsen"
dt. "werden"
dt. "sein"
dt. "verweilen"
dt. "wohnen"
dt. "übernachten"
Infinitivo
ser x
Indicativo presente
yo soy x
tú eres x
él es x
nosotros somos x
vosotros sois x
ellos son x
Indicativo pretérito imperfecto
x
yo era x
tú eras x
él era x
nosotros éramos x
vosotros erais x
ellos eran x


Erstellt: 2020-01

T

U

*ues- (W3)

Auf die Wurzel ide. "*ues-" werden folgende Worte und Konjugationsformen von "sein" zurück geführt:

Duden - Das Herkunftswörterbuch, 4. Aufl. Mannheim 2007


Die Formen des Hilfszeitworts werden in allen germ. Sprachen aus drei verschiedenen Stämmen gebildet:

1. Das Präteritum nhd. "war", "waren" (mhd. "was", "waren", ahd. "was", "warun", entsprechend got. "was", engl. "was" usw.) und das zweite Partizip "gewesen" (mhd. Neubildung) gehören zu dem unter "Wesen" dargestellten gemeingerm. Verb ahd. "wesan", got. "wisan" »sein«;

2. Die Präsensformen nhd. "ist", "sind", "seid" (Indikativ), "sei", "seist", "seien", "seiet" (Konjunktiv) werden in allen germ. Sprachen von der idg. Wurzel "*es-" = "sein" gebildet, die auch den Präsensformen von lat. "esse" (s. die Fremdwörter um "Essenz") und griech. "einai" = "sein" zugrunde liegt. Beachte besonders die Übereinstimmung von mhd., ahd., got. "ist", engl. "is", aisl. "es" mit lat. "est", griech. "estí", aind. "ásti" = "er ist" und von mhd., ahd. "sint", got., aengl. "sind" mit lat. "sunt", aind. "sánti" = "sie sind". Deutsche Neubildungen zu diesem Stamm sind der Infinitiv mhd., ahd. "sin", nhd. "sein", das erste Partizip mhd. "sinde", nhd. "seiend" und der Imperativ mhd. "bis" (s. unter 3), "sit", nhd. "sei", "seid". Hier galten früher nur Formen von ahd. "wesan";

3. Ursprünglich wurden auch die 1. und 2. Person des Indikativs mit Formen der idg. Wurzel "*es-" gebildet (z. B. engl. "I am", got. "im", aisl. "em" = "ich bin", entsprechend griech. "eimí", aind. "ásmi").

In den westgerm. Sprachen hat hier jedoch die Wurzel "*bheu-" = "wachsen", "werden", "sein" eingewirkt, die z. B. in engl. "to be" = "sein", aber auch in lat. "fui" = "bin gewesen" zugrunde liegt (vgl. "bauen"). So kam es zu den Mischbildungen nhd. "bin" (mhd., ahd. "bin", älter "bim", entsprechend aengl. "beom") und nhd. "bist" (mhd., ahd. "bis", "bist", aengl. "bis").

Der substantivierte Infinitiv "Sein" wird erst in nhd. Zeit gebräuchlich und bezeichnet im Unterschied zu dem ursprünglich gleichbedeutenden Wort "Wesen" (s. d.) vor allem die Tatsache oder Art des Vorhandenseins von Lebewesen und Dingen. Siehe auch den Artikel "Dasein".

Das Substantiv (mhd. "wesen", ahd. "wesan" = "Sein"; "Aufenthalt"; "Hauswesen"; "Wesenheit", "Ding") ist die Substantivierung des im Nhd. veralteten gemeingerm. Verbs "wesen", mhd. "wesen" = "sein", "sich aufhalten", "dauern", "geschehen", ahd. "wesan" (vgl. aber den Artikel "sein"), got. "wisan", aengl. "wesan", aisl. "vesa".

Es gehört zur idg. Wurzel "*ues-" = "verweilen", "wohnen", "übernachten". Vgl. aus anderen idg. Sprachen z. B. aind. "vásati" = dt. "verweilt", "wohnt", "übernachtet", "vástu-h" = "Aufenthalt", "Übernachten". Eine Bildung zu dem gemeingerm. starken Verb ist das unter "währen" behandelte Verb. Siehe auch die Artikel "abwesend", "Abwesenheit", "Verweser", "Anwesen" und "hiesig".

Abl.: "wesentlich" "besonders wichtig"; "grundlegend" (mhd. "wesen[t]lich", ahd. als Adverb "wesentliho" = "wesentlicherweise").


(E1)(L1) http://www.koeblergerhard.de/idg/4A/idg.html

Köbler, Gerhard, Indogermanisches Wörterbuch, (5. Auflage) 2014

"*ues-" (1), idg., V.: neuhdt. "weilen", "verweilen", "wohnen"; engl. "tarry" (V.), "live" (V.), "stay (V.) overnight";

Rekonstruktionsbasis: Pokorny 1170 (2012/88), ind., iran., arm., griech., ill., ital., kelt., germ., toch., heth.;

Hinweis: s. "*uestis", "*au-" (2);




(E?)(L?) https://lrc.la.utexas.edu/lex/master

"*ues-" | "*ues-no-" | "*uesperos", "uekeros" | "*ues-r"




Erstellt: 2020-01

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was (W3)

Engl. "was" (engl. "I was" = dt. "ich war"), wird auf die Wurzel ide. "*ues-" / "*wes-" = dt. "sein" zurück geführt, die auch für die Existenz von dt. "Wesen" verantwortlich gemacht wird.

In English, the complicated irregular verb "be" / "is" / "were" has forms from several different roots:

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/was

"was" (v.), Old English "wesan", "wæs", "wæron" 1st and 3rd person singular of "wesan" "to remain", from Proto-Germanic "*wesanan" (source also of Old Saxon "wesan", Old Norse "vesa", Old Frisian "wesa", Middle Dutch "wesen", Dutch "wezen", Old High German "wesen" "being", "existence", Gothic "wisan" "to be"), from PIE root "*wes-" (3) "remain", "abide", "live", "dwell" (cognates Sanskrit "vasati" "he dwells", "stays"; compare "vestal"). "Wesan" was a distinct verb in Old English, but it came to supply the past tense of "am". This probably began to develop in Proto-Germanic, because it is also the case in Gothic and Old Norse. See "be".

Related Entries


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=was
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "was" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1520 auf.

Erstellt: 2020-02

were (W3)

Engl. "were" (engl. "we were" = dt. "wir waren"), wird auf die Wurzel ide. "*ues-", "*wes-" = dt. "sein" zurück geführt, die auch für die Existenz von dt. "Wesen", "war", "warst", "waren", "wart", verantwortlich gemacht wird.

In English, the complicated irregular verb "be" / "is" / "were" has forms from several different roots:

(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/were

"were" (v.), Old English "wæron" (past plural indicative of "wesan") and "wære" (second person singular past indicative); see "was". The forms illustrate "Verner's Law" (named for Danish linguist "Karl Verner", 1875), which predicts the "s" to "z" sound shift, and rhotacism, which changed "z" to "r". "Wast" (second person singular) was formed 1500s on analogy of "be"/"beest", displacing "were". An intermediate form, "wert", was used in literature 17c.-18c., before "were" reclaimed the job.

Related Entries


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=were
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "were" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1520 auf.

Erstellt: 2020-02

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