Etymologie, Etimología, Étymologie, Etimologia, Etymology
@_ Welt, Mundo, Monde, Mondo, World
Zahlen, Número, Nombre, Numero, Number
Zahl 00023 in Alltag und Sprache
When one wishes to specify a large but random number of things, and the context is inappropriate for N, certain numbers are preferred by hacker tradition (that is, easily recognized as placeholders). These include the following:
For further enlightenment, study the "Principia Discordia", "The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy", "The Joy of Sex", and the Christian Bible (Revelation 13:18). See also Discordianism or consult your pineal gland. See also for values of.
- 17 - Long described at MIT as "the least random number"; see 23.
- 23 - "Sacred number of Eris", "Goddess of Discord" (along with 17 and 5).
- 42 - The Answer to the Ultimate Question of Life, the Universe, and Everything ("what is 6 times 9", correct in base 13). (Note that this answer is completely fortuitous. :-))
- 69 - From the sexual act. This one was favored in MIT's ITS culture.
- 105 - 69 hex = 105 decimal, and 69 decimal = 105 octal.
- 'Captain Scarlet and the Mysterons' - the Characters and Hardware
- 'Captain Scarlet and the Mysterons' - the Episode Guide
- 'Chichester Psalms' and 'Arias and Barcarolles' by Leonard Bernstein
- 'Cowboy Bebop' - the Animated TV Series
- 'Help!' - the Film and Album
- 'Magical Mystery Tour' - the Album
- 'One Foot in the Grave' - the TV Series
- 'The Flowers of Manchester' - the Song
- 'The Grove Family' - The TV Programme
- A Beginner's Guide to Mean, Median and Mode
- A Day in the Life of Samuel Pepys
- Alcatraz, San Francisco, California, USA
- Are you Statistically Prepared to Become Prime Minister of the United Kingdom?
- Atomic Mass and the Atomic Mass Unit (amu)
- Battle of Springfield, New Jersey, USA
- Belzoni - Tomb Raider and Archaeologist: Part 3
- Billy the Kid - Outlaw
- Bingo Calling For Beginners
- Calculating the Day of the Week
- Carlos Santana's 'Supernatural' Album
- Charles II: Escape to Exile
- Christchurch Castle, Dorset, UK
- Comunidad Valenciana - The Garden of Spain
- Constellations: Aquarius 'the Water Carrier'
- Constellations: Aries 'the Ram'
- Constellations: Cancer 'the Crab'
- Constellations: Capricornus 'the Sea Goat'
- Constellations: Coma Berenices 'Berenice's Hair'
- Constellations: Libra 'the Scales'
- Constellations: Scorpius 'the Scorpion'
- Constellations: Taurus 'the Bull'
- Cowes Castle, Isle of Wight, UK
- David Beckham - Rise of a Footballer
- David Steel, Liberal Party (UK) Leader
- Diophantine Equations
- Doctor Who - The Television Phenomenon
- Doctor Who Episode Guide: the 1960s
- Doctor Who Episode Guide: the 1970s
- Doctor Who Episode Guide: the 1980s
- Earthquakes in New Madrid, Missouri, USA
- Education in Hershey
- Essex Men Who Built the United States: Part Seven - The United States
- Essex Men Who Built the United States: Part Two - Massachusetts
- Famous Air Crash Victims - Part 1: Aviators
- Fluorescent Multi-Layer Disc (FMD)
- Gloster Gladiator - World War II Aircraft
- Gothenburg, Sweden
- Great Dates in History
- Great Footballers
- Great Formula One Drivers
- Great Olympians: Jesse Owens
- Gustav Mahler's Only Visit to England - 1892
- Gustav Mahler: Eighth Symphony: Part Two
- Hammer Television
- Hat-tricks in Test Cricket
- Help Page
- How Runways Are Designated
- How to Play the Recorder
- Isle of Wight Shipwrecks: 'Pacific Glory'
- Isle of Wight Shipwrecks: 'SS Virginia' and 'HMS Alliance'
- Jack Nicklaus - Golfer
- Jan Ullrich - Cyclist
- John Coltrane - Tenor Saxophonist
- John Rutter - Composer
- Kylie Minogue OBE - Singer/Songwriter and Actress
- Mary Whitehouse - Moral Crusader
- Modern Cryptography - Methods and Uses
- Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi: Part Two
- Musa Maranov - Record-breaking Russian Cosmonaut
- Old Announcements: 2001
- Old Announcements: 2002
- Old Announcements: 2004
- Old Announcements: 2005
- Old Announcements: 2006
- Oliver Cromwell: Lord Protector of the Commonwealth
- Oliver Hazard Perry - Naval Hero
- Overland Challenge - Itinerary
- Paula Yates (1960 - 2000) - Author and TV Presenter
- Philippa of Lancaster (1360-1415) - A tale from the History of Portugal
- Pitohui Birds
- Port Jefferson, New York, USA
- Prime Numbers
- Psalm 23
- Public Key Cryptography in Today's Communication
- Rumpole's Golden Thread
- Russian Peasant Multiplication
- Skat - The Card Game
- Statistical Thermodynamics
- Sunderland AFC
- Tchaikovsky's Piano Concerto No 1
- Temporal Mechanics in TV and the Movies
- The 1689 Siege Of Derry
- The 1914 Ludlow Colorado Massacre
- The 1945 Battle for Iwo Jima
- The 2004 Malaysian Grand Prix
- The Art of Mascotry
- The Beginner's Guide to Human Geography
- The Birthday Paradox
- The Brittas Empire - the TV Series
- The Climate of South-central Pennsylvania, USA
- The Deltic Locomotive
- The Fat Cat Public House, Sheffield, England
- The Ferret Badger
- The Fosse Way - A Journey through Roman Britain
- The Game of Senet
- The Genius of Vincent van Gogh
- The Heidi Game
- The Hillsborough Tragedy
- The Ironic Death of Arthur Flegenheimer
- The James Bond Films - 2006 onwards
- The Memphis Belle
- The Mole (Chemistry)
- The Montreal Massacre
- The North Holland Youth Orchestra
- The Other Side of Roald Dahl
- The People of Northern Ireland
- The Periodic Table of the Elements
- The Pharaohs of the Fourth Dynasty - The 'Golden Age'
- The Post Office Underground Railway, London
- The Routemaster Bus - Big, Red and Shiny
- The Winter at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, USA
- The Wreck of the Whaleship Essex
- The Wright Brothers - Aviators
- The Years of Billy Joel's 'We Didn't Start The Fire' - 1956
- Tiberius - Roman Emperor (42 BC - 37 AD)
- Time and Date
- Typhoid Mary
- Ulysses S Grant - Union General and American President
- Using Approved GuideML in Approved Entries
- Walking the Isle of Wight Coastal Path: Part 1 - Introduction
- Wandering Noon
- War and Protest - the US in Vietnam (1969 - 1970)
- War and Protest - the US in Vietnam (1972-1975)
- Why the Earth Has Seasons
- William Bligh - Vice Admiral of the Blue
23 Mathematical Problems of David Hilbert
The Mathematical Problems of David Hilbert
About Hilbert's address and his 23 mathematical problems
Hilbert's address of 1900 to the International Congress of Mathematicians in Paris is perhaps the most influential speech ever given to mathematicians, given by a mathematician, or given about mathematics. In it, Hilbert outlined 23 major mathematical problems to be studied in the coming century. Some are broad, such as the axiomatization of physics (problem 6) and might never be considered completed. Others, such as problem 3, were much more specific and solved quickly. Some were resolved contrary to Hilbert's expectations, as the continuum hypothesis (problem 1).
- Introduction. (Philosophy of problems, relationship between mathematics and science, role of proofs, axioms and formalism.)
- Problem 1. Cantor's problem of the cardinal number of the continuum. (The continuum hypothesis.) K. Gödel. The consistency of the axiom of choice and of the generalized continuum hypothesis. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, 1940.
- Problem 2. The compatibility of the arithmetical axioms.
- Problem 3. The equality of two volumes of two tetrahedra of equal bases and equal altitudes. V. G. Boltianskii. Hilbert's Third Problem Winston, Halsted Press, Washington, New York, 1978. - C. H. Sah. Hilbert's Third Problem: Scissors Congruence. Pitman, London 1979.
- Problem 4. Problem of the straight line as the shortest distance between two points. (Alternative geometries.)
- Problem 5. Lie's concept of a continuous group of transformations without the assumption of the differentiability of the functions defining the group. (Are continuous groups automatically differential groups?) Montgomery and Zippin. Topological Transformation Groups. Wiley, New York, 1955. - Kaplansky. Lie Algebras and Locally Compact Groups. Chicago Univ. Press, Chicago, 1971.
- Problem 6. Mathematical treatment of the axioms of physics. Leo Corry's article "Hilbert and the Axiomatization of Physics (1894-1905)" in the research journal Archive for History of Exact Sciences, 51 (1997).
- Problem 7. Irrationality and transcendence of certain numbers. N.I.Feldman. Hilbert's seventh problem (in Russian), Moscow state Univ, 1982, 312pp. MR 85b:11001
- Problem 8. Problems of prime numbers. (The distribution of primes and the Riemann hypothesis.)
- Problem 9. Proof of the most general law of reciprocity in any number field.
- Problem 10. Determination of the solvability of a diophantine equation. S. Chowla. The Riemann Hypothesis and Hilbert's Tenth Problem. Gordon and Breach, New York, 1965. - Yu. V. Matiyasevich. Hilbert's Tenth Problem. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts,1993, available on the web. - Maxim Vsemirnov's Hilbert's Tenth Problem page at the Steklov Institute of Mathematics at St.Petersburg.
- Problem 11. Quadratic forms with any algebraic numerical coefficients.
- Problem 12. Extension of Kroneker's theorem on abelian fields to any algebraic realm of rationality. R.-P. Holzapfel. The Ball and Some Hilbert Problems. Springer-Verlag, New York, 1995.
- Problem 13. Impossibility of the solution of the general equation of the 7-th degree by means of functions of only two arguments. (Generalizes the impossibility of solving 5-th degree equations by radicals.)
- Problem 14. Proof of the finiteness of certain complete systems of functions. Masayoshi Nagata. Lectures on the fourteenth problem of Hilbert. Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay, 1965.
- Problem 15. Rigorous foundation of Schubert's enumerative calculus.
- Problem 16. Problem of the topology of algebraic curves and surfaces. Yu. Ilyashenko, and S. Yakovenko, editors. Concerning the Hilbert 16th problem. American Mathematical Society, Providence, R.I., 1995.
- B.L.J. Braaksma, G.K. Immink, and M. van der Put, editors. The Stokes Phenomenon and Hilbert's 16th Problem. World Scientific, London, 1996.
- Problem 17. Expression of definite forms by squares.
- Problem 18. Building up of space from congruent polyhedra. (n-dimensional crystallography groups, fundamental domains, sphere packing problem.) - Comments on the theory of analytic functions.
- Problem 19. Are the solutions of regular problems in the calculus of variations always necessarily analytic?
- Problem 20. The general problem of boundary values. (Variational problems.)
- Problem 21. Proof of the existence of linear differential equations having a prescribed monodromic group.
- Problem 22. Uniformization of analytic relations by means of automorphic functions.
- Problem 23. Further development of the methods of the calculus of variations.
- Final comments.
Lecture delivered before the International Congress of Mathematicians at Paris in 1900
By Professor David Hilbert