Etymologie, Etimología, Étymologie, Etimologia, Etymology
@_ Welt, Mundo, Monde, Mondo, World
Dialekt, Dialecto, Dialecte, Dialetto, Dialect

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IGDD (W3)

"IGDD" steht für "Internationale Gesellschaft für Dialektologie des Deutschen".

(E?)(L?) http://www.igdd.gwdg.de/
Universität Göttingen

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Kreol, Kreolsprachen (W3)

Das Wort "Kreol" geht auf das portugiesische "crioulo" zurück, welches seinerseits aus port. "criado" = "Domestike" verballhornt ist.

(E?)(L1) http://www.christianlehmann.eu/ling/elements/index.html

Soziologie einer Sprache als ganzer
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Eine Kreolsprache ist eine traditionelle Sprache, die aus einem Pidgin hervorgegangen ist. Sie entsteht, wenn Menschen ein Pidgin im Primärspracherwerb als Muttersprache lernen, was typischerweise dann der Fall ist, wenn ihre Bezugspersonen miteinander Pidgin sprechen. Sobald eine Sprache Muttersprache ihrer Sprecher ist, nimmt sie - natürlich bezogen auf die Kultur der Sprachgemeinschaft - volle Funktionalität an und entwickelt auch ein komplexes Sprachsystem. In der Linguistik meistbehandeltes Beispiel ist das Tok Pisin oder Neomelanesisch, das auf Neuguinea als Pidgin auf melanesischem Substrat und mit Englisch als Lexifikatorsprache entstanden und dort mittlerweile Verkehrssprache ist. Es gibt aber auch Kreols, die auf Französisch, Spanisch, Portugiesisch, Russisch oder Arabisch basieren.
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Lingua Franca

(E?)(L?) http://www.linguafranca.com/
Lingua Franca magazine found it necessary to suspend publication following its November 2001 issue. Efforts are underway to begin it again soon. Please stay tuned.

Lingua Franca (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.uwm.edu/~corre/franca/go.html
A "Romance pidgin", called "Lingua Franca", appeared in the Holy Land around the 13th Century. Piracy and naval warfare brought it in the 16th century to the Barbary Coast, where it came to be used in official records, on account of trade contacts. By the 19th century, European settlers and the opening of regular schools threatened this once widespread informal jargon.

As an instinctive adaptation of a basic Italian/Spanish lexicon to a simplified Arabic syntax, "Lingua Franca" does occasionally appear even today: specific matchings and examples are given from the current "Palestinian Pidgin", "Dodecanese Creole", and the "Petit Nègre" of Eritrea.

A Glossary of Lingua Franca (THIRD EDITION 2000)

These days, a "lingua franca" is any language which is borrowed to let people communicate who otherwise don't have a tongue in common.

The original Lingua Franca (the "Frankish Tongue") was a pidgin or trade language used by merchants, who traded in the Levant and then later along the Barbary Coast. It contains elements of Italian with French, Greek, Arabic, and Spanish. It is the oldest pidgin known, with written records from the latter part of the 14th century. Alan D. Corré has put his book "A Glossary of Lingua Franca" online, together with a history and introduction.

(E?)(L?) http://www.uwm.edu/~corre/franca/edition3/lingua5.html

An Introduction to Lingua Franca - Roberto Rossetti

Summary

A Romance pidgin, called Lingua Franca, appeared in the Holy Land around the 13th Century. Piracy and naval warfare brought it in the 16th century to the Barbary Coast, where it came to be used in official records, on account of trade contacts. By the 19th century, European settlers and the opening of regular schools threatened this once widespread informal jargon.

As an instinctive adaptation of a basic Italian/Spanish lexicon to a simplified Arabic syntax, Lingua Franca does occasionally appear even today: specific matchings and examples are given from the current Palestinian Pidgin, Dodecanese Creole, and the 'Petit Nègre' of Eritrea.

Contents


Hier ein Ausschnitt:

Etymological Clues

As what is left of the historical "Lingua Franca" is little more than a lexicon, we are faced with the same problem of Etruscan, though a list of words can indeed get across more than their stark meaning. Some words, coming from French presumably denote their newer entry in the vocabulary ("achetir", "aigre", "armuriero", "artimon", "avalar", "bagatela", "baguette", "brossa", "briquet", "bureau"). Others underline its merchant origin ("banqueroute", "créancier", or "cambiale" = "bill of exchange".) "Coquiare" and "cortello" ("spoon" and "knife") imply southern Italian origins because they are dialect words. The origin of the other ones ("gandufa" = "plague", "luta" = "napkin", or "nuba" = "garrison") is more difficult to explain. Translation is not always straightforward: "conciare" is "to fashion", but "cunciar" is "to do"; "massar" is "to kill", but "masseria" is a "farm"; "meter" is "to put", but "metir" is "to hoist a flag"; "oschio" is "eye", but "ochia" is "goose". "Ove" means both "where" and "eggs", "piano" as in modern Italian, both "slowly" and "storey". Shaky orthography and implied meanings added to the confusion: "2castali" ("chestnut"), "dimiterio" ("bedroom"), "ferencia" ("2difference"), "ginazio" ("knee"), "labrizou" ("jail"), "lepero" ("hare"), "nazo" ("nose"), "mele" (not apples, but "honey"), "mentone" (not chin but "sheep"), "paia" (not pair but "straw"), "peci" (not pitch but "fishes"), "sbendut" ("bandit"). The orthography of "much" oscillated between "multo" and "mumucho", that of 'wife' from "moukere" to "mugera" to "mugeros". "Quattordici" ("fourteen") became "quartodici". Other common words got a slightly different meaning: "chiodo" from "nail" to "screw", "cornudo" from "cuckold" to "dog", "fantasia" from "fancy" to "offence", "fugar" (from "affogare") from "drown" to "strangle", "intestato" from "addressed" to "obdurate", "involtar" from "turn" to "envelop", "logo" from "place" to "military post", "mescolar" from "mix" to "forge", "noia" from "boredom" to "anxiety", "rame" from "copper" to "leather", "riclamar" from "claim" to "implore", "rimportar" from "reintroduce" to "take back", "scaliere" from "step" to "threshold", "schifa" from "boat" to "vestibule", "spachiar" from "dispatch" to "settle", "suono" from "sound" to "sleep", "tassa" from "tax" to "cup", "tempo" from "time" to "season", "toucar" from "touch" to "kill", "vernir" from "paint" to "turn"; "salame" meant just "salting", and "roba" usually "clothing". At times the French or Spanish origin of the words explained the difference: "carta" ("letter"), "cativo" ("prisoner", "locheza" ("foolish news"), "lodar" ("to hire"), "lunetta" ("telescope"), "malsinar" ("to slander": from the Hebrew "malshin", "slanderer"), "mareia" ("mirror"), "papas" ("crawfish"), or "sangre" ("family"). As the words follow the Arabic grammar, in a Judeo-Arabic context at least, the plural of "falta" ("mistake") is "alfaltàt", and the plural of "tabla" ("plank") is "attawàl".

Words of Arabic origin are comparatively few: "adelfa" ("oleander"), "bezèf" ("much"), "cadi" ("judge"), "yshrab" ("to drink"), "cheytan" ("devil"), "Nicsarane" ("Christian"), "taba" ("seal"), "usìf" ("black slave"); some are from local dialects, like "bernùs" ("cloak"), "maboul" ("crazy"), or "rubie" ("spring"); occasional ones come from Turkish: "bakshìsh" ("tip"), "yatagàn" ("scimitar") or "yoldàch" ("janissary").

Most Pidgin languages have a reduced vocabulary of 700 to 1500 words, and Lingua Franca has over 2000, gathered in the 1830 Dictionary, in the works of Hugo Schuchardt and Marcel Cohen, and occasional quotes from other books, such as Shay Lamora, a Judeo-Arabic trouvaille by Professor Alan Corré, which was written in Oran by Solomon Zarqa and Judah Darmon, and published by the House of Belforte at Leghorn in 1864. Some of the Lingua Franca grammar peculiarities are obvious to an Italian ear: for example, the difference between "in a month" and "dobbo una meze" ("after one month") is blatant in an Italian context, whereas it is much less offensive in English.

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Pidgin, Pidginsprachen (W3)

Das Wort engl. "Pidgin" soll als chinesische Variante von engl. "business" entstanden sein.

Als Pidgin wird eine Sprache bezeichnet, die keine Muttersprache ist, sondern als sogenannte "lingua franca" aus dem Kontakt (ursprünglich geschäftlichem Kontakt) von Menschen mit verschiedenen Sprachen entsteht. Diese Umgangssprache besitzt naturgemäß eine vereinfachte Grammatik und einen Wortschatz, der aus mehreren Sorachen stammt.

Es gibt Kommunikationssituationen, in denen die Kommunikationspartner keine gemeinsame Sprache haben. Sie müssen dann stärker als in ihrer Muttersprache auf nicht-sprachliche Mittel (Gestik, Mimik usw.) zurückgreifen. Die Wörter werden dann manchmal einer Sprache entnommen, die in der sozialen Situation dominant ist, d.h. die es gut wäre zu beherrschen. Da die Kommunikationspartner jedoch deren Grammatik ex hypothesi nicht beherrschen, haben sie bzgl. ihres Satzbaus nur die Alternative, entweder der Grammatik ihrer Muttersprache zu folgen oder sich auf solche sprachlichen Mittel zu verlassen, welche vom einzelnen Sprachsystem unabhängig sind.

(E?)(L1) http://www.christianlehmann.eu/ling/elements/index.html

Soziologie einer Sprache als ganzer
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Ein "Pidgin" ist eine Sprache, die als Verständigungsmittel zwischen Menschen entsteht, die sich mit den ihnen zu Gebote stehenden Sprachen nicht verständigen können. Solche Situationen sind vor allem in der Kolonialzeit (z.T. absichtlich) geschaffen worden, entstehen aber auch im internationalen Handel. Eine Pidginsprache ist per definitionem niemandes Muttersprache. Sie ist in ihrer Funktionalität gegenüber traditionellen Sprachen stark eingeschränkt. Ihr Sprachsystem speist sich aus den von den Benutzern mitgebrachten bzw. in ihrer Situation dominanten Sprachen. Tendentiell (und mit einiger Vereinfachung) liefern die Muttersprachen (das Substrat, s.u.) die Syntax, die Kolonialsprachen das Lexikon. (Eine Sprache, die in diesem Sinne das Lexikon für eine andere liefert, heißt Lexifikatorsprache.) Da das ganze Sprachsystem nur rudimentär ist, gibt es normalerweise keine Morphologie. Es gab auch auf Deutsch basierende Pidgins, darunter das in Namibia gesprochene Küchendeutsch.
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